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The Future of North American Integration

The Future of North American Integration: Beyond NAFTA

Peter Hakim
Robert E. Litan
Copyright Date: 2002
Pages: 130
  • Book Info
    The Future of North American Integration
    Book Description:

    When it came into force in 1994, the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) joined the economic futures of Canada, Mexico, and the United States, with systematic rules governing trade and investment, dispute resolution, and economic relations. However, economic integration among the three countries extends considerably beyond trade and investment. The NAFTA agreement takes a very narrow view of integration, barely addressing such vital issues as immigration policy and labor markets, the energy sector, environmental protection, and law enforcement. The governments of Canada, Mexico, and the United States now must confront the question of whether NAFTA is enough. Do they want to keep their trilateral relationship focused on economic matters or are they interested in integrating more deeply -perhaps initiating a process to build a North American Community similar to the European Union? This volume contains thoughtful discussions about the future of North America by knowledgeable experts from each of the three countries. Robert Pastor has written one of the more comprehensive books on the subject, Toward a North American Community (Institute for International Economics, 2001). Andrés Rozental is an ambassador at large for Mexico and president of Consejo Mexicano de Asuntos Internationacionales, the country's leading foreign policy association in Mexico. Perrin Beatty is a former foreign minister of Canada and currently the president and CEO of the Canadian Manufacturers and Exporters. The governments of Canada, the United States, and Mexico face thorny challenges as they decide whether and how to accelerate smooth, and institutionalize the integration process. Pastor, Rozenthal, and Beatty encourage greater dialogue among the three governments and their citizens, as well as more systematic thinking among policymakers and citizens about the promise and challenges of further North American integration. This volume considers the promise and challenges of further North American integration, including: - migration, security cooperation, and cross-border commerce - the establishment of a permanent North American Court on Trade and Investment, to replace the current ad hoc tribunals -the possibility of widening NAFTA to incorporate countries in Central America and the Caribbean -collaboration in dealing with criminal drug trafficking, environmental protection, energy and water management, and transportation, communications and other infrastructure development.

    eISBN: 978-0-8157-9886-6
    Subjects: Political Science, Business

Table of Contents

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  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-xii)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. xiii-xiv)
  3. 1 Introduction
    (pp. 1-30)
    Peter Hakim and Robert E. Litan

    When it came into force on January 1, 1994, the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) joined the economic futures of Canada, Mexico, and the United States. Clearly both Canada and Mexico—given their geography and markets—had been integrating with the United States well before NAFTA took effect. Indeed, the United States and Canada had signed a bilateral free trade accord six years earlier. But, with NAFTA in place, the pace of integration accelerated, and systematic rules governing trade and investment along with dispute resolution mechanisms were established, and the governments assumed an active role in guiding, promoting, and...

  4. 2 Canada in North America: Isolation or Integration?
    (pp. 31-72)
    Perrin Beatty

    Even before Confederation, Canadians’ views of themselves were shaped and defined by their relationship with their southern neighbors.

    Canada was born of the fear that, without banding together, the remaining colonies of British North America would inexorably be absorbed by the stronger and more populous nation to the south. More than forty thousand American loyalists had migrated north after the War of Independence, determined to live under British institutions and laws, and their influence on Canadian opinion remained strong. The War of 1812–14 had underscored the profound differences between the peoples on the two sides of the border, and...

  5. 3 Integrating North America: A Mexican Perspective
    (pp. 73-86)
    Andrés Rozental

    When Mexican president-elect Vicente Fox traveled to the United States and Canada shortly after his unprecedented victory at the polls in July 2000, he brought with him a courageous proposal to the other two members of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA): After seven years under a free trade agreement, it was time to set the longer-term goal of creating a North American Community. Only by putting forward such an audacious vision, Fox argued, could governments and people in all three countries work toward a fixed objective. Even if it were to take several decades, moving steadily toward such...

  6. 4 NAFTA Is Not Enough: Steps toward a North American Community
    (pp. 87-118)
    Robert A. Pastor

    More than four hundred million people in 2002 live in the United States, Mexico, and Canada, but few, if any, think of themselves as residents of “North America.” The term has described the continent’s geography but not its people. The governments of these three countries have devoted so much energy to declaring their differences that they have given their people little reason to consider what they have in common. The nations share a continent, cultures, values, and a trade agreement that has accelerated the pace of social and economic integration. The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), which came into...

  7. Contributors
    (pp. 119-120)
  8. Index
    (pp. 121-130)