Urban and Regional Policy and its Effects

Urban and Regional Policy and its Effects

Copyright Date: 2009
Pages: 267
  • Cite this Item
  • Book Info
    Urban and Regional Policy and its Effects
    Book Description:

    Urban and Regional Policy and Its Effects, the second in a series, sets out to inform policymakers, practitioners, and scholars about the effectiveness of select policy approaches, reforms, and experiments in addressing key social and economic problems facing cities, suburbs, and metropolitan areas. The chapters analyze responses to six key policy challenges that most metropolitans areas and local communities face:

    • Creating quality neighborhoods for families

    • Governing effectively

    • Building human capital

    • Growing the middle class

    • Growing a competitive economy through industry-based strategies

    • Managing the spatial pattern of metropolitan growth and development

    Each chapter discusses a specific policy topic under one of these challenges. The authors present the essence of what is known, as well as the likely implications, and identify the knowledge gaps that need to be filled for the successful formulation and implementation of urban and regional policy.

    Contributors: Karen Chapple and Rick Jacobus (University of California, Berkeley and Burlington Associates), Jeffrey R. Henig and Elisabeth Thurston Fraser (Teachers College, Columbia University), W. Norton Grubb (University of California, Berkeley), Harry J. Holzer (Georgetown University and Urban Institute), Susan Christopherson and Michael H. Belzer (Cornell University and Wayne State University), and Rolf Pendall (Cornell University)

    eISBN: 978-0-8157-0376-1
    Subjects: Business, Political Science

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-iv)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. v-viii)
  3. Preface
    (pp. ix-xii)
  4. 1 Introduction
    (pp. 1-18)

    Urban and regional policy debates are often long on rhetoric but short on evidence about policy impacts. To redress this imbalance, the Brookings Institution, the George Washington University Institute of Public Policy and the Trachtenberg School of Public Policy and Public Administration, and the Urban Institute held the second in a series of annual conferences on Urban and Regional Policy and Its Effects at the Urban Institute in Washington, D.C., on June 5–6, 2008. Chapters were commissioned for the conference from distinguished social scientists and practitioners. The conference sought to engage authors and discussants in a cross-disciplinary dialogue focused...

  5. 2 Retail Trade as a Route to Neighborhood Revitalization
    (pp. 19-68)

    At the end of World War II, most American neighborhoods were serviced by neighborhood commercial districts populated with stores selling food, clothing, household goods, jewelry, and other items. The strongest of these districts successfully competed with downtowns as locations for major department stores. But rapid suburbanization and the development of automobile-oriented shopping centers led to the decline of most of these historic commercial districts.¹ In low-income and minority neighborhoods, the decline of neighborhood retail coincided with dramatic shifts in residential housing patterns as middle-income minorities and white families of all income levels moved out of urban neighborhoods, leaving behind increasingly...

  6. 3 Correlates of Mayoral Takeovers in City School Systems
    (pp. 69-123)

    Mayoral control of schools involves the relative shift of formal authority over public education systems from elected school boards to mayors. Typically, mayoral control consists of giving mayors power to appoint some or all of the school board members, but in its more extreme versions, it involves broadly incorporating previously separate school districts into general purpose municipal government. Mayoral control of schools in itself is nothing new. Indeed, before the Progressive Era reforms in the early twentieth century, public education in large cities most often was housed in an agency reporting to a mayor much as would be the case...

  7. 4 The Education Gospel and the Metropolis: The Multiple Roles of Community Colleges in Workforce and Economic Development
    (pp. 124-166)

    An orthodoxy about education has developed in this country—indeed, in many countries and in many international agencies seeking to increase prosperity and growth. The view I call theEducation Gospelplaces its faith in the power of education, especially in education that is focused on preparation for occupations, to solve all manner of individual and social problems, from individual desires for upward mobility to the equity issues of low-income and minority groups to the social problems of competitiveness and growth. Usually the proponents of the Education Gospel invoke the knowledge revolution (or new technologies or globalization) to stress that...

  8. 5 Living Wage Laws: How Much Do (Can) They Matter?
    (pp. 167-193)

    Living wage laws are ”local ordinances requiring private businesses that benefit from public money” to pay above-market wages and benefits to their workers.¹ These laws have been passed and implemented in many municipalities and counties nationwide. They are widely viewed as efforts to aid the working poor and address labor market inequality, particularly as other institutions that have traditionally done so (such as minimum wage laws and collective bargaining) have eroded over time.

    But how effective are these laws at helping the working poor? Do they have unintended, and perhaps negative, consequences—such as a drop in employment rates of...

  9. 6 The Next Move: Metropolitan Regions and the Transformation of the Freight Transport and Distribution System
    (pp. 194-222)

    After a period, beginning in the 1980s, in which freight shipping costs declined in the United States because of cheap fuel and deregulation of freight transport industries, costs began to rise in the first decade of the twenty-first century. Rising costs are linked to volatile fuel prices but also to increasing congestion on roadways. Communities affected by road congestion and the environmental and safety costs associated with truck transport are demanding that freight shipping prices reflect the full cost associated with shipping, including the social costs.

    An increase in the cost of moving commodities and semifinished goods has the potential...

  10. 7 How Might Inclusionary Zoning Affect Urban Form?
    (pp. 223-256)

    Housing affordability has been in crisis for at least a decade. Ever higher numbers of households find themselves unable to make mortgage payments or pay rent and cover utilities without forgoing other necessities. National policies have failed adequately to address these issues either directly—by increasing funds for tenant- or unit-based housing subsidies—or indirectly, through requirements for a living wage or an expanded Earned Income Tax Credit. In the face of federal neglect, local governments in many high-cost regions have become extraordinarily active and creative in affordable housing, shifting their regulations and even (especially in the case of New...

  11. Index
    (pp. 257-267)
  12. Back Matter
    (pp. 268-268)