Urban and Regional Policy and Its Effects

Urban and Regional Policy and Its Effects

MARGERY AUSTIN TURNER
HOWARD WIAL
HAROLD WOLMAN
Copyright Date: 2008
Pages: 257
https://www.jstor.org/stable/10.7864/j.ctt12801t
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  • Book Info
    Urban and Regional Policy and Its Effects
    Book Description:

    The goal of this book, the first in a series, is to bring policymakers, practitioners, and scholars up to speed on the state of knowledge on various aspects of urban and regional policy. What do we know about the effectiveness of select policy approaches, reforms, or experiments on key social and economic problems facing cities, suburbs, and metropolitan areas? What can we say about what works, what doesn't, and why? And what does this knowledge and experience imply for future policy questions? The authors take a fresh look at several different issues (e.g., economic development, education, land use) and conceptualize how each should be thought of. Once the contributors have presented the essence of what is known, as well as the likely implications, they identify the knowledge gaps that need to be filled for the successful formulation and implementation of urban and regional policy.

    eISBN: 978-0-8157-0158-3
    Subjects: Business, Political Science

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-iv)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. v-viii)
  3. Preface
    (pp. ix-xii)
  4. 1 Introduction
    (pp. 1-20)
    MARGERY AUSTIN TURNER, HOWARD WIAL and HAROLD WOLMAN

    The problems faced by metropolitan regions and their residents are well known and have been the subject of substantial research as well as popular discussion. However, in both urban and regional domains, much more attention is paid to the nature of the problems themselves and of policies to address them than to the effects that such policies might actually have. The consequence is that policy deliberations and decisions are frequently based on the elegance of policy design or (perhaps more frequently) the eloquence of policy advocates rather than on solid empirical evidence. At the extreme, this leads to the creation...

  5. 2 ”Eds and Meds” and Metropolitan Economic Development
    (pp. 21-59)
    TIMOTHY J. BARTIK and GEORGE ERICKCEK

    This chapter analyzes the effects on the economic development of a metropolitan area of investments by state and local governments in higher education and health care services—”eds and meds.” We conclude that eds and meds can affect a metropolitan area’s economic development; we quantify the size of such effects and discuss the mechanisms by which such effects occur. The effects of eds and meds on economic development occur through mechanisms that differ greatly from those of more traditional economic development policies, such as providing manufacturing plants with tax breaks.

    The analysis presented here is based on a view that...

  6. 3 Low-Income Homeownership as an Asset-Building Tool: What Can We Tell Policymakers?
    (pp. 60-108)
    GEORGE C. GALSTER and ANNA M. SANTIAGO

    Federal housing policy has for many generations encouraged owner occupancy over rental tenure.¹ Since the 1980s, however, federal policies have explicitly extended this encouragement to households of ever-lower incomes. During the Reagan administration, the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) piloted a program for selling public housing units to their occupants.² In 1991 Congress established goals for Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac for the purchasing of mortgages originated for low-income borrowers and for homes located in traditionally underserved (that is, low-income and minority-occupied) urban neighborhoods, in an attempt to ease potential liquidity constraints in these market segments. Substantial...

  7. 4 Tax and Expenditure Limitations and Their Effects on Local Finances and Urban Areas
    (pp. 109-154)
    DAVID BRUNORI, MICHAEL BELL, JOSEPH CORDES and BING YUAN

    It has now become part of public finance lore that the property tax is the ”worst tax.” During the latter half of the twentieth century, the Advisory Commission on Intergovernmental Relations (ACIR) conducted an annual public opinion poll to gauge the people’s views on the federal, state, and local tax systems. One of the most cited aspects of the poll was the request for people to identify the tax that they disliked the most. Over the course of the ACIR polling, the property tax was annually listed as the worst tax or the second worst tax following the federal income...

  8. 5 Preschool Education and Human Capital Development in Central Cities
    (pp. 155-180)
    CLIVE BELFIELD

    Research on early childhood education has found that high-quality preschool benefits children.¹ They are better prepared for school and their academic performance—both test scores and attainment—is enhanced. These educational advantages lead to a more secure economic future in adulthood. Persons with higher attainment are more likely to be employed and earn more when employed, and they are less likely to be in poor health, on welfare, or involved in the criminal justice system. Taken together, these private benefits become public benefits: local communities benefit when children attend preschool. Taxpayers gain because the need for government expenditures is reduced...

  9. 6 Can Economically Integrated Neighborhoods Improve Children’s Educational Outcomes?
    (pp. 181-205)
    INGRID GOULD ELLEN, AMY ELLEN SCHWARTZ and LEANNA STIEFEL

    Many state and local policymakers aspire to integrate U.S. elementary and secondary public schools to improve children’s educational outcomes. Historically these policymakers have focused mostly on racial integration, but following the Supreme Court’s 2007 decision in the pair of casesParents Involvedv.Seattle School District No. 1andMeredithv.Jefferson County Board of Education, which invalidated race-conscious assignment plans in Louisville and Seattle, socioeconomic integration is likely to present a more promising alternative.¹ Socioeconomic integration, it is hoped, will produce a more equitable distribution of resources, greater equality in academic performance and subsequent labor market outcomes, and an...

  10. 7 Spatial Development and Energy Consumption
    (pp. 206-246)
    ELENA SAFIROVA, SÉBASTIEN HOUDE and WINSTON HARRINGTON

    In recent years, American consumers spent over half a trillion dollars a year on energy. In 2000 the consumption of energy in the United States had tripled since 1949 and totaled about 98 quadrillion British thermal units (Btu). Although during this time period the amount of energy used per real dollar of U.S. GDP fell from 20,600 Btu to 10,600 Btu, population growth (from 149 million in 1949 to 281 million in 2000) and per capita GDP growth caused energy consumption per household to grow 63 percent, from 215 million Btu in 1949 to 350 million Btu in 2000.¹

    In...

  11. Index
    (pp. 247-257)