Urban and Regional Policy and Its Effects

Urban and Regional Policy and Its Effects

Copyright Date: 2010
Pages: 261
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  • Book Info
    Urban and Regional Policy and Its Effects
    Book Description:

    Urban and Regional Policy and Its Effects, the third in a series, sets out to inform policymakers, practitioners, and scholars about the effectiveness of select policy approaches, reforms, and experiments in addressing key social and economic problems facing cities, suburbs, and metropolitan areas. The chapters analyze responses to five key policy challenges that most metropolitan areas and local communities face:

    • Creating quality neighborhoods for families• Governing effectively• Building human capital• Growing the middle class• Enlarging a competitive economy through industry-based strategies• Managing the spatial pattern of metropolitan growth and development

    Each chapter discusses a specific topic under one of these challenges. The authors present the essence of what is known, as well as its likely applications, and identify the knowledge gaps that need to be filled for the successful formulation and implementation of urban and regional policy.

    eISBN: 978-0-8157-0439-3
    Subjects: Political Science, Business

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-iv)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. v-viii)
  3. Preface
    (pp. ix-x)
  4. 1 Introduction
    (pp. 1-21)

    Urban and regional policy debates often are long on rhetoric but short on evidence about policy impacts. To redress that imbalance, the Brookings Institution, the George Washington University Institute of Public Policy and the Trachtenberg School of Public Policy and Public Administration, and the Urban Institute held the third in the annual conference series “Urban and Regional Policy and Its Effects” at the George Washington University in Washington, D.C., May 21–22, 2009. Papers were commissioned for the conference from distinguished social scientists and practitioners. The conference sought to engage authors and discussants in a cross-disciplinary dialogue focused on the...

  5. 2 Policies to Cope with Foreclosures and Their Effects on Neighborhoods
    (pp. 22-63)

    Like the others in this book, this chapter examines policies designed to address an important national problem. The assignment is especially challenging in this case because the problem—the impacts of the foreclosure crisis on communities—is new and arguably unprecedented with respect to both its nature and its severity.

    What happened in the Great Depression offers little guidance. In 1930, only 48 percent of U.S. households owned their own homes. The United States subsequently built what has been regarded as the world’s most effective system of homeownership—the model to which the rest of the world has aspired. In...

  6. 3 School Choice: Options and Outcomes
    (pp. 64-107)

    A major concern for policymakers, parents, and academics is the poor performance of central city school systems. Urban eighth-graders consistently perform at much lower levels than their counterparts in suburban schools.¹ In reading, 55 percent of all urban students but only 34 percent of suburban students are below basic skills; in math, the figures are 50 percent of urban students but only 20 percent of suburban students. Similarly, while 77 percent of students who attend suburban high schools graduate, only 59 percent of urban high school students do.² The dropout problem is especially severe in the largest ten urban districts,...

  7. 4 Commuter Taxes in U.S. Metropolitan Areas
    (pp. 108-151)

    Cities and even counties in the United States levy “commuter taxes” on employment, income, wages, or payroll generated within their jurisdiction by nonresidents. The locality imposing such a tax is usually a central city or central county within a metropolitan area. The intended payers are the suburban city or county residents who work in the central metropolitan location but do not live there. An appropriate justification for a commuter tax is that nonresidents working in a jurisdiction consume locally provided public services during their commute and workday; thus it is fair to ask them to pay for them. Commuter taxes...

  8. 5 Getting into the Game: Is the Gamble on Sports as a Stimulus for Urban Economic Development a Good Bet?
    (pp. 152-204)

    Contemporary discussions of commercial sports often focus on financial issues. The extraordinary salaries commanded by the current generation of athletes, those of the free-agency era, have resulted from substantial increases in team and event revenues. The growth of those revenues emanates in large part from the new generation of playing facilities, built largely through taxpayer subsidies. Advocates of such subsidies have defended them on the grounds that they are a winning economic strategy not only for the teams and players but for host cities as well. Enhancing the financial privilege of owners, managers, and players may be tolerable to the...

  9. 6 Public Transit as a Metropolitan Growth and Development Strategy
    (pp. 205-252)

    For more than half a century, urban policy has focused on a remarkably consistent set of problems: the economic decline of central cities, rapid suburbanization, and growing disparities between the urban core and its periphery. Over the decades, the decentralization of population and jobs—urban sprawl—has been associated with a variety of external costs, such as congestion, air pollution, energy consumption, loss of open space, and more recently obesity and global climate change.¹ Urban sprawl is also associated with problems such as loss of social capital and spatial segmentation by race and class. Those who see urban sprawl as...

  10. Index
    (pp. 253-261)
  11. Back Matter
    (pp. 262)