Battling Terrorism in the Horn of Africa

Battling Terrorism in the Horn of Africa

Robert I. Rotberg Editor
Copyright Date: 2005
Pages: 210
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  • Book Info
    Battling Terrorism in the Horn of Africa
    Book Description:

    With so much attention paid to America's war on terror in Afghanistan and Iraq, the world has all but forgotten the spread of terrorism in other regions. From South Asia to South America, terrorist groups are on the rise. One of the most dangerous regions is the greater Horn of Africa along with Yemen, its volatile neighbor. This book offers authoritative insight into the struggle against terrorism in the Horn -what has been done and what work remains. Robert Rotberg and his colleagues analyze the situation in Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia, Sudan, and Yemen. The esteemed contributors are prominent scholars and practitioners, including several former U.S. ambassadors. Their contributions reveal how each country's government -with or without U.S. help -is (or is not) working to combat terrorism within its own borders and to prevent its spread. Rotberg provides an overview of the entire region, drawing lessons particularly for U.S. policy. Battling Terror in the Horn of Africa is a handbook on what needs to be done at the tension-filled crossroads of Arabia and Africa. It is important reading for all those with an interest in African or Middle Eastern affairs or the need to learn more about international terrorism. Contributors include Robert D. Burrowes (University of Washington), Timothy Carney (former U.S. ambassador to Sudan), Johnnie Carson (former ambassador to Kenya), Dan Connell (Grassroots International), Kenneth J. Menkhaus (Davidson College), Robert I. Rotberg (Harvard University), and Lange Schemerhorn (former ambassador to Djibouti).

    eISBN: 978-0-8157-9793-7
    Subjects: Political Science

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-iv)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. v-vi)
  3. Preface
    (pp. vii-ix)
    Robert I. Rotberg
  4. 1 The Horn of Africa and Yemen: Diminishing the Threat of Terrorism
    (pp. 1-22)
    Robert I. Rotberg

    The greater Horn of Africa thrusts itself toward Yemen and hence the heart of Arabia and the Persian/Arab Gulf. Within the complex region of northeastern Africa that extends from the peaks of Kilimanjaro to the depression of Djibouti and from the deserts of Chad to the Red Sea and on southward, past Cape Guardafui, to the barren coastline of Punt, there are 149 million people, more than half of whom are Muslims.¹

    For geostrategic reasons, especially in an era of terror, Yemen belongs naturally to this greater Horn of Africa region, adding another 20 million people, virtually all Muslims. Although...

  5. 2 Somalia and Somaliland: Terrorism, Political Islam, and State Collapse
    (pp. 23-47)
    Kenneth J. Menkhaus

    On paper, Somalia appears to be an Islamic radical’s “perfect storm.” It is a completely collapsed state, where terrorists can presumably operate in a safe haven beyond the reach of rule of law. It possesses a long, unpatrolled coastline and hundreds of unmonitored airstrips, facilitating untracked movement of foreign jihadists and illicit business transactions. It is an Islamic society on the periphery of the Persian Gulf. Many of its people work or study in the Gulf States, so Somalia is in the orbit of Wahhabist preaching. A radical Islamist organization, Al Itihad Al Islamiya (AIAI), provides a potential partner for...

  6. 3 Djibouti: A Special Role in the War on Terrorism
    (pp. 48-63)
    Lange Schermerhorn

    Historically better known as a transit point than a destination, the Republic of Djibouti has not been perceived as a hospitable location for permanent operations by terrorist groups or observers of the terrorist landscape. Prior to 9/11, most observers discounted the possibility that international terrorist activity might be based in Djibouti, although a novel published in the early 1980s told of a German terrorist trained in Yemen, arriving clandestinely in Djibouti and smuggled out on a cargo ship departing for Europe.¹ Djibouti is more desirable and plausible as a transit point because it has a relatively homogeneous local population, with...

  7. 4 Eritrea: On a Slow Fuse
    (pp. 64-92)
    Dan Connell

    Eritrea’s diverse society—half Christian, half Muslim, from nine distinct linguistic and cultural groups—has long rendered it vulnerable to centrifugal political forces, while its strategic location at the southern end of the Red Sea has made it the target of regional and global powers, from the Ottoman Empire half a millennium ago to the United States and the Soviet Union at the peak of the cold war. The former Italian colony’s first political parties were organized along confessional lines in the 1940s. The liberation movement divided along religious and regional lines in the 1960s and 1970s. Today, as Eritrea...

  8. 5 Ethiopia: Governance and Terrorism
    (pp. 93-118)
    David H. Shinn

    Ethiopia has experienced a substantial number of terrorist attacks, the vast majority initiated by indigenous groups or Al Itihad Al Islamiya (AIAI, located in neighboring Somalia). Yet, it generally has been free of international terrorism. Either international terrorists have not yet focused on Ethiopia or the internal situation renders the country a more difficult target than others in the region. The African Human Security Initiative at the Institute for Security Studies in Pretoria, South Africa, recently extensively reviewed the terrorist threat in eight African countries, including Ethiopia. It assigned a high threat assessment to Algeria, Kenya, and Uganda; an intermediate...

  9. 6 The Sudan: Political Islam and Terrorism
    (pp. 119-140)
    Timothy Carney

    As the only nation in the Horn of Africa on the U.S. list of six state sponsors of terrorism, the Sudan holds a key to any successful effort to combat terrorism in both Africa and the Middle East. To this end, Washington, despite serious concerns about humanitarian and human rights issues within the Sudan, has successfully engaged the Khartoum authorities since 2000 to gain vital information about Islamic groups that have had a presence in the Sudan. This collaboration has increased U.S. understanding of various Middle Eastern networks and, especially, individuals. While the Sudanese have answered most of United States’...

  10. 7 Yemen: Political Economy and the Effort against Terrorism
    (pp. 141-172)
    Robert D. Burrowes

    Yemen, in the middle of the first decade of the twenty-first century, is not yet a “bastion of terror.” On the contrary, and especially by mid-2005, it has become an increasingly stalwart ally of the United States in the effort against transnational revolutionary political Islam and terrorism.¹ Nevertheless, within the next several years Yemen could easily become a major arena in which transnational revolutionary political Islam openly contends for rule. It could also become a major incubator and exporter of this variant of Islam, much as Afghanistan was in the 1980s and again after 1994 with the rise of the...

  11. 8 Kenya: The Struggle against Terrorism
    (pp. 173-192)
    Johnnie Carson

    In combating the regional threat posed by international terrorism, no other country in East Africa or the greater Horn of Africa is more important to the United States than Kenya. Although the United States currently has combat troops stationed at Camp Lemonier in Djibouti and has developed increasingly close ties with the armed forces of Ethiopia and Uganda, Kenya remains a core partner and ally in tracking down Al Qaeda–affiliated terrorists in East Africa and preventing any future anti-Western terrorist attacks in Kenya and the region.

    However, Kenya’s stagnating economy, its continued high level of corruption, and the marginalization...

  12. Contributors
    (pp. 193-196)
  13. Index
    (pp. 197-210)