Protecting the Homeland 2006/2007

Protecting the Homeland 2006/2007

Michael d’Arcy
Michael O’Hanlon
Peter Orszag
Jeremy Shapiro
James Steinberg
Copyright Date: 2006
Pages: 212
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  • Book Info
    Protecting the Homeland 2006/2007
    Book Description:

    Immediately after September 11, the Brookings Institution began a comprehensive, multidisciplinary project focused on the key policy challenge of these dangerous times -assessing and improving homeland defense. That intense effort produced Protecting the American Homeland, and it continues in this important new book. In Protecting the Homeland 2006/2007, Brookings foreign policy experts analyze current homeland security concerns and the adequacy (or inadequacy) of current policies designed to address them. The authors present both the big picture and the smaller components of homeland security policy that make up the whole. They make specific recommendations on intelligence reform, science and technology policy and the protection of critical infrastructure within the United States. They also look ahead to consider what dangers we should anticipate and plan for, recommending policies that will work to that end. One of the strands running through Protecting the Homeland 2006/2007 is the need to "stitch the seams" in our homeland security blanket through greater integration and coordination. The authors emphasize that the U.S. federal government must work together with key partners who have been insufficiently integrated into American homeland security activities to date. These actors include foreign governments, state and local government, and the private sector, and the coordination must occur in several different areas (e.g. border protection, finance, technology, intelligence). The U.S. government should not -indeed, it cannot -do it alone. By its very nature, homeland security is a problem that defies the usual bureaucratic boundaries. Effective homeland security policy demands intense collaboration on new issues and between organizations that have not traditionally needed each other. This book is of interest and importance to journalists, analysts, policymakers, scholars, and citizens concerned with protecting their homeland against terrorism and related dangers.

    eISBN: 978-0-8157-6460-1
    Subjects: Political Science

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-iv)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. v-vi)
  3. Foreword
    (pp. vii-x)
    Strobe Talbott

    Brookings prides itself on combining the ability to think about the big picture over the long term while being alert to the broader implications of issues that, sometimes literally, explode in our face. Homeland security is a perfect example. We were fast off the mark after 9/11, largely because our scholars had been focused on terrorism and its causes for a long time. Within six months, we producedProtecting the American Homeland. The entire volume now in your hands is not just a sequel or an update to that earlier one; it is an entirely fresh look at the ongoing...

  4. Preface The Bush Administration’s 2007 Budget Request
    (pp. xi-xvi)
    Michael O’Hanlon
  5. 1 Introduction
    (pp. 1-16)
    Michael O’Hanlon and Jeremy Shapiro

    How good have America’s defenses against terrorism become in the years since September 11, 2001? The absence of any further attacks on American soil suggests that the country’s security has improved. That fact is likely due to a combination of offensive military and law enforcement operations that have left al Qaeda and associated jihadist groups at least temporarily unable to attempt major strikes in the United States, and perhaps to some extent good luck as well. The subject of homeland security is so new that it is difficult to assess progress at the analytical level. And in Washington, it has...

  6. 2 Intelligence Reform
    (pp. 17-46)
    James Steinberg

    Intelligence reform has deservedly been at the heart of America’s new strategy on homeland security. Prior to the emergence of the al Qaeda threat in the mid-1990s, domestic “intelligence” activities, which had largely been abandoned following the Pike and Church Committee investigations in the mid-1970s, were focused almost exclusively on operations countering foreign governments’ intelligence and espionage efforts in the United States (and to a limited degree against “domestic” extremist groups). Although some information related to national security was developed in the course of criminal investigations by law enforcement agencies, the information was rarely shared with the intelligence community because...

  7. 3 International Cooperation on Homeland Security
    (pp. 47-72)
    Jeremy Shapiro

    Homeland security, as the name implies, often is thought of as primarily a domestic task. Borders and oceans traditionally have been seen as walls that separate and secure the homeland from the unknowns that lurk beyond. Despite the nomenclature, however, the task of defending the borders and the integrity of the U.S. homeland is not purely or perhaps even primarily a domestic activity. As the introduction emphasized, policymakers cannot consider domestic and external counterterrorism measures as even conceptually distinct from one another. Homeland security requires, in the words of former Secretary of Homeland Security Tom Ridge, “more than just the...

  8. 4 Protecting Infrastructure and Providing Incentives for the Private Sector to Protect Itself
    (pp. 73-95)
    Peter Orszag and Michael O’Hanlon

    Since the attacks of September 11,2001, the private sector generally has not done nearly enough to improve its security against terrorist attack. For example, the Congressional Budget Office recently concluded that “there is relatively little evidence that firms have been making additional investments since September 11 to improve their security and avoid losses.”¹ About 85 percent of the nation’s critical infrastructure is owned by the private sector. Security typically had not been sufficient before the attacks, so the failure to materially improve security measures in many key industries represents one of the most glaring and dangerous shortcomings in the nation’s...

  9. 5 Border Protection
    (pp. 96-112)
    Michael O’Hanlon

    Border protection is a critical pillar of homeland security. It can keep dangerous people and materials out of the country before they even get into a position to attack. In other words, it is preventive in nature, exhibiting one of the most important characteristics of optimal homeland security policy identified in chapter 1.

    Border protection should not be principally viewed as a literal defense of the nation’s perimeter; it is not tantamount to the creation of a moat around the United States. Rather, it is a set of efforts that exploits the fact that people and goods are relatively easily...

  10. 6 The Roles of DoD and First Responders
    (pp. 113-128)
    Michael O’Hanlon

    The U.S. homeland security effort has several major government players—including not only the Department of Homeland Security, but the Department of Justice (with the FBI) and the intelligence community. But there also are other agencies within the U.S. government that can have important functions within the homeland security mission. Their roles would generally be to support the efforts of the major actors, but in certain instances they could make the predominant contributions.

    The most important additional federal player is the Department of Defense (DoD). Within the homeland security arena, its efforts would be directed by the assistant secretary of...

  11. 7 Technology Development and Transportation Security
    (pp. 129-154)
    Michael D’Arcy

    Technology makes a unique contribution to safeguarding the United States against terrorist threats. As Michael Chertoff, the secretary of homeland security, has noted, “Technology can provide tremendous added value in the quality of security across virtually every sector of the homeland.”¹ Some threats are themselves reliant on modern technology, such as weapons of mass destruction or shoulder-launched surface-to-air missiles. Others, such as bombs and firearms, are more basic yet still capable of large-scale damage. Technology can mitigate a range of such threats, either by detecting them before they can cause harm or by minimizing their effects. This potentially powerful contribution...

  12. 8 Countermeasures Against Specific Weapons
    (pp. 155-183)
    Michael D’Arcy

    The term “weapons of mass destruction” is commonly used to include nuclear, biological, chemical, and radiological weapons. However, grouping all of these weapons together is an oversimplification that masks important differences in the nature of the threat that they present. Nuclear bombs and some contagious biological agents are the only weapons truly capable of mass destruction, since both have the potential to cause millions of casualties. The threat from chemical and radiological weapons is not of the same magnitude, although they certainly are weapons of potential masseffect, owing to the human and economic disruption that would ensue from an...

  13. 9 Conclusion
    (pp. 184-192)
    MICHAEL D’Arcy

    There have been intensive and wide-ranging efforts to strengthen the homeland security of the United States since the 9/11 and anthrax attacks of 2001. These have been designed largely to prevent a recurrence of such attacks and therefore have centered on air travel, intelligence sharing, infrastructure protection, stockpiling countermeasures to biological pathogens, and tightening controls on who may enter the country. Though this approach is laudable, as far as it goes, it does not adequately credit the enemies of the United States with the flexibility and ingenuity they possess.

    The United States remains highly vulnerable to a range of threats,...

  14. Appendix
    (pp. 193-202)
  15. Index
    (pp. 203-212)
  16. Back Matter
    (pp. 213-215)