Confronting Suburban Poverty in America

Confronting Suburban Poverty in America

Elizabeth Kneebone
Alan Berube
Copyright Date: 2013
Pages: 169
https://www.jstor.org/stable/10.7864/j.ctt4cg88q
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  • Book Info
    Confronting Suburban Poverty in America
    Book Description:

    It has been nearly a half century since President Lyndon Johnson declared war on poverty. Back in the 1960s tackling poverty "in place" meant focusing resources in the inner city and in rural areas. The suburbs were seen as home to middle- and upper-class families-affluent commuters and homeowners looking for good schools and safe communities in which to raise their kids. But today's America is a very different place. Poverty is no longer just an urban or rural problem, but increasingly a suburban one as well. InConfronting Suburban Poverty in America, Elizabeth Kneebone and Alan Berube take on the new reality of metropolitan poverty and opportunity in America.

    After decades in which suburbs added poor residents at a faster pace than cities, the 2000s marked a tipping point. Suburbia is now home to the largest and fastest-growing poor population in the country and more than half of the metropolitan poor. However, the antipoverty infrastructure built over the past several decades does not fit this rapidly changing geography. As Kneebone and Berube cogently demonstrate, the solution no longer fits the problem.

    The spread of suburban poverty has many causes, including shifts in affordable housing and jobs, population dynamics, immigration, and a struggling economy. The phenomenon raises several daunting challenges, such as the need for more (and better) transportation options, services, and financial resources. But necessity also produces opportunity-in this case, the opportunity to rethink and modernize services, structures, and procedures so that they work in more scaled, cross-cutting, and resource-efficient ways to address widespread need. This book embraces that opportunity.

    Kneebone and Berube paint a new picture of poverty in America as well as the best ways to combat it.Confronting Suburban Poverty in Americaoffers a series of workable recommendations for public, private, and nonprofit leaders seeking to modernize poverty alleviation and community development strategies and connect residents with economic opportunity. The authors highlight efforts in metro areas where local leaders are learning how to do more with less and adjusting their approaches to address the metropolitan scale of poverty-for example, integrating services and service delivery, collaborating across sectors and jurisdictions, and using data-driven and flexible funding strategies.

    "We believe the goal of public policy must be to provide all families with access to communities, whether in cities or suburbs, that offer a high quality of life and solid platform for upward mobility over time. Understanding the new reality of poverty in metropolitan America is a critical step toward realizing that goal."-from Chapter One

    eISBN: 978-0-8157-2391-2
    Subjects: Political Science, Sociology

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-iv)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. v-vi)
  3. Foreword
    (pp. vii-x)
    Luis A. Ubiñas

    In January 1964 President Lyndon Johnson spoke to Congress and the American people to announce that the United States was declaring a war against poverty: “It will not be a short or easy struggle,” said Johnson. “No single weapon or strategy will suffice, but we shall not rest until that war is won. The richest Nation on earth can afford to win it. We cannot afford to lose it.”

    What came next were a set of ambitious initiatives, from Head Start and Job Corps to Vista and a host of other antipoverty programs. As a boy growing up in the...

  4. Acknowledgments
    (pp. xi-xvi)
  5. CHAPTER 1 Poverty and the Suburbs: An Introduction
    (pp. 1-12)

    Drive about forty-five miles east of San Francisco, tracing a route across the Bay Bridge, through the Caldecott Tunnel outside Oakland, past the wealthy suburbs of central Contra Costa County, and along the California Delta Highway that eventually leads to the state’s Central Valley. There you find a series of communities in transition—from industrial cities to bedroom suburbs, from agricultural lands to residential havens, and from outposts of the middle class to symbols of modern American poverty.

    In the 2000s, the number of people living in poverty in East Contra Costa County (“East County”) grew by more than 70...

  6. CHAPTER 2 Suburban Poverty, by the Numbers
    (pp. 13-36)

    Lakewood, Ohio, hugs the city of Cleveland’s northwest border. It is an architecturally diverse community. Some of its 50,000-plus residents live in Tudor homes in beautiful neighborhoods along Lake Erie. Others live in high-rise apartment buildings in the city’s nearby Gold Coast section. Still others live in smaller bungalows and multifamily duplexes that line Lakewood’s dense street grid. It is a quintessential “streetcar” suburb that blends the residential and the commercial. As a social, creative, and artistic hub, it continues to be a desirable location for many of the region’s residents.

    Yet increasingly, Lakewood is an economically diverse community. By...

  7. CHAPTER 3 Behind the Numbers: What’s Driving Suburban Poverty?
    (pp. 37-54)

    The communities of South King County, Washington, inhabit the shadows of one of the nation’s leading economic lights: Seattle. Yet some of the most intense demographic and economic changes happening in America today are occurring in those shadows.

    The small city of Tukwila, located along the city of Seattle’s southern border, exemplifies that phenomenon. For much of the postwar period, Tukwila was home to thousands of workers employed by the nearby Boeing plant or the Port of Seattle and its related warehouse industry. They and their families occupied modest single-family homes and small, garden-style apartment buildings characteristic of the era...

  8. CHAPTER 4 The Implications of Suburban Poverty
    (pp. 55-76)

    On Pittsburgh’s eastern border lies the suburban city of Penn Hills, the second-largest community in Allegheny County, Pennsylvania. Penn Hills came of age in the mid-twentieth century as a middle-class bedroom community for workers and managers at the nearby Westinghouse Electric Company, among other once-significant Pittsburgh-area firms. It is still home to Longue Vue, one of the oldest and most exclusive golf clubs in the region, once known as “The Millionaires’ Club.”

    The challenges facing the region since the 1980s, however, have transformed Penn Hills both demographically and economically. In 2010, its population stood at about 42,000, down from almost...

  9. CHAPTER 5 Fighting Today’s Poverty with Yesterday’s Policies
    (pp. 77-95)

    Chicago, America’s “second city,” has been getting a second look recently, with the election in 2011 of its first new mayor in more than two decades, the emergence of more of its corporations on the global stage, and the 2012 reelection of one of its own as president of the United States.

    For all of Chicago’s urban muscle, though, it remains a heavily suburban region. More than two-thirds (68 percent) of the Chicago metropolitan area’s residents live in the suburbs. And over two-thirds (67 percent) of the region’s jobs are located more than ten miles from the downtown Loop. Indeed,...

  10. CHAPTER 6 Innovating Locally to Confront Suburban Poverty
    (pp. 96-112)

    Montgomery County, Maryland—a suburban county adjacent to the nation’s capital—consistently ranks among the country’s wealthiest counties. In 2010, it ranked twelfth in the nation for median household income at more than $89,000, well above the $50,000 national median. Within the county, communities including Bethesda, Chevy Chase, Potomac, and Rockville are home to much of the Washington region’s high-paid professional class of lawyers, consultants, scientists, technology workers, and government executives.

    Yet in recent years, this million-person jurisdiction has grown increasingly diverse, both demographically and economically, changing the scope and scale of need among the county’s residents. The 2000s, in...

  11. CHAPTER 7 Modernizing the Metropolitan Opportunity Agenda
    (pp. 113-144)

    In November 2011, a group of representatives from local organizations met in Bay Point, California, one of the Cities of Carquinez at the eastern edge of the San Francisco Bay Area. All of the participants, who included professionals in workforce development, homelessness and hunger prevention, legal aid, human services, philanthropy, and community organizing, were involved in the effort to help area families and communities contend with rising poverty and need in the wake of a devastating recession.

    After they shared stories of the rapid changes that coursed through East Contra Costa County (“East County”) before and after the housing market...

  12. Notes
    (pp. 145-160)
  13. Index
    (pp. 161-170)
  14. Back Matter
    (pp. 171-172)