The Gameful World

The Gameful World: Approaches, Issues, Applications

Steffen P. Walz
Sebastian Deterding
Copyright Date: 2014
Published by: MIT Press
Pages: 688
https://www.jstor.org/stable/j.ctt1287hcd
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  • Book Info
    The Gameful World
    Book Description:

    What if our whole life were turned into a game? What sounds like the premise of a science fiction novel is today becoming reality as "gamification." As more and more organizations, practices, products, and services are infused with elements from games and play to make them more engaging, we are witnessing a veritable ludification of culture.Yet while some celebrate gamification as a possible answer to mankind's toughest challenges and others condemn it as a marketing ruse, the question remains: what are the ramifications of this "gameful world"? Can game design energize society and individuals, or will algorithmicincentive systems become our new robot overlords?In this book, more than fifty luminaries from academia and industry examine the key challenges of gamification and the ludification of culture -- including Ian Bogost, John M. Carroll, Bernie DeKoven, Bill Gaver, Jane McGonigal, Frank Lantz, Jesse Schell, Kevin Slavin, McKenzie Wark, and Eric Zimmerman. They outline major disciplinary approaches, including rhetorics, economics, psychology, and aesthetics; tackle issues like exploitation or privacy; and survey main application domains such as health, education, design, sustainability, or social media.

    eISBN: 978-0-262-32571-4
    Subjects: Technology

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-iv)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. v-x)
  3. AN INTRODUCTION TO THE GAMEFUL WORLD
    (pp. 1-14)
    Steffen P. Walz and Sebastian Deterding

    A gigantic conference table made of a single, thickly cut slice of wood (or so it seemed). Around it sat a client in a suit who represented a loyalty card program about to enter the market and the designers and developers of a web agency that had grown from four to more than one hundred employees in less than two years—all wearing T-shirts. Among them was one of the editors of this volume, then an aspiring interaction designer.

    It was 1999, in the midst of the dot-com bubble. NASDAQ had not yet peaked. Many of us were speculating (intellectually...

  4. I APPROACHES
    • [I Introduction]
      (pp. 15-18)

      How better to open a gameful world than with a proper manifesto? At the Games Learning Society conference in 2008, game designer and scholar Eric Zimmerman and game journalist Heather Chaplin invited the audience to muse whether the nineteenth-century industrial age and twentieth-century information age might be followed by a ludic age today. In this, they articulated an essential question of the gameful world: does it demarcate a historical shift? And if so, what are its contours? We therefore invited Zimmerman to pick up this trail of thought for the current book, and pick it up he did: his “Manifesto...

    • POSITION STATEMENT MANIFESTO FOR A LUDIC CENTURY
      (pp. 19-22)
      Eric Zimmerman
    • 1 THE AMBIGUITY OF GAMES: HISTORIES AND DISCOURSES OF A GAMEFUL WORLD
      (pp. 23-64)
      Sebastian Deterding

      If there is one catchword for the current moment in the history of media, it is convergence: digital media, computing, and networking are decoupling the entities formerly known as “the media” into their requisite components—content genres and storage media, distribution networks and end devices, producers and audiences—to recombine them into unexpected, fleeting new formations (Jenkins 2006; Storsul and Fagerjord 2008). Thus, games can now be played on almost any digital device, anytime, anywhere. Game distribution is migrating from off-the-shelf physical copies to online streaming and a myriad of app stores across a myriad of platforms, and games are...

    • 2 WHY GAMIFICATION IS BULLSHIT
      (pp. 65-80)
      Ian Bogost

      In his tiny treatiseOn Bullshit, the moral philosopher Harry Frankfurt (2005) gives us a useful theory of bullshit. We normally think of bullshit as a synonym—albeit a somewhat vulgar one—for lies or deceit. But Frankfurt argues that bullshit has nothing to do with truth. Rather, bullshit is used to conceal, to impress, or to coerce. Unlike liars, bullshitters have no use for the truth. All that matters to them is hiding their ignorance or bringing about their own benefit.

      In a short position statement presented at a small, invitation-only conference on gamification at the University of Pennsylvania’s...

    • 3 GAMIFICATION AS BEHAVIORAL PSYCHOLOGY
      (pp. 81-106)
      Conor Linehan, Ben Kirman and Bryan Roche

      Those who advocate the benefits of a gamified or gameful world often advance a vision of the future in which all life and all work becomes increasingly playful, game-like, and rewarding; a future in which the world’s problems can be fixed by mass collaborative game-like activities, which simultaneously stimulate and delight the participants, while also providing useful services to science, charities, and industry (McGonigal 2011; Schell 2010b). Given the current popularity of game playing as a pastime and the success of many early examples of gamification (e.g., von Ahn and Dabbish 2004; Khatib et al. 2011), it is difficult to...

    • POSITION STATEMENT CONTRALUDICS
      (pp. 107-112)
      Mark Pesce

      Australians, obsessed with “pokies,” or electronic gambling machines, spend $A20 billion each year using these devices—wagering almost $A1,000 per Australian per year.¹ Although a harmless thrill for the majority of the public, a small portion of the population finds the devices irresistible, sitting at them for countless hours, until thousands or even tens of thousands of dollars have been gambled away.

      Poker machines center their design around rewards delivered randomly but with just enough frequency to keep the brain’s own reward system highly activated. Every win produces a squirt of dopamine—the neurotransmitter mediator of pleasure—leaving the player...

    • 4 GAMIFICATION AND MOTIVATION
      (pp. 113-138)
      C. Scott Rigby

      To best understand the motivational dynamics of gamification, let’s begin with a discussion of the motivationforgamification: why has gamification exploded in its popularity over the past two to three years, and what specifically is gamification seeking to achieve?

      Certainly a key catalyst is the ongoing evolution of technology that has created new “rules of engagement” shifting power away from corporations and organizations and putting it into the hands of each individual consumer. It is happening across virtually every market. I remember when I was growing up and wanted to watchThe Cosby Show, I needed to remember to...

    • 5 GAMIFICATION AND ECONOMICS
      (pp. 139-162)
      Juho Hamari, Kai Huotari and Juha Tolvanen

      During the past couple of years, the use of game design for economic purposes in games (Hamari and Lehdonvirta 2010; Hamari and Järvinen 2011) as well as in non-game contexts (Reeves and Reed 2009; Deterding et al. 2011; McGonigal 2011; Zichermann and Cunningham 2011; Huotari and Hamari 2012) has rapidly gained a substantial amount of traction among scholars and practitioners. This development of affording gameful experiences or using design reminiscent of games has been dubbedgamification. Following the successes of social networking services (Facebook), games (Angry Birds), and location-based services (Foursquare), marketers in particular have started to apply gamification in...

    • POSITION STATEMENT LOSING IS FUN
      (pp. 163-166)
      McKenzie Wark

      If “Never work!” was the apex of critical strategy in the twentieth century, perhaps “Never play!” could be the same point of extreme negation for the twenty-first. It is of course almost impossible to never work, but it at least defines an ambition: to abolish wage labor and the commodity form.

      It was and remains a surprisingly popular ambition. The cycle of struggles in the overdeveloped world in the late twentieth century took it as their lodestar, whether unwittingly or not. The whole counterstrategy of making work seem like something else, like play even, stems from the boredom that both...

    • 6 PLEASURABLE TROUBLEMAKERS
      (pp. 167-196)
      Marc Hassenzahl and Matthias Laschke

      “That evening despite best intentions, Rebus took a cab from the guest house to the pub” (Rankin 2012, 254). Not only has the notorious, always thirsty Ex-Detective Inspector Rebus acted now and then against his best intentions. We all too often fail to skip this tempting glass of_______(enter your personal liquid vice here). We indulge in activities neither physiologically nor psychologically healthy: overworking, overeating, overspending, overdrinking are common problems in Western societies. But we do not only yield to the bad, we abstain from beneficial activities, too, such as a little run now and then, spending quality time with the...

    • POSITION STATEMENT GAMES AS DESIGN ARCHETYPES
      (pp. 197-200)
      John M. Carroll

      Games comprise a distinctive and, to some extent, a pure subtype of interactive systems. For the most part, people interact with games primarily for the qualities of the interaction itself. This suggests a research strategy of understanding game designs in order to draw general lessons for the design of interactive systems.

      In the late 1970s, I played a version of the game Adventure, implemented on an IBM 360 mainframe and accessed through an IBM 3270 display terminal. This experience happened to coincide with my own first encounters with early versions of the constantly emerging concept of usability, these encounters occurring...

    • 7 BEHIND GAMES: PLAYFUL MINDSETS AND TRANSFORMATIVE PRACTICES
      (pp. 201-222)
      Jaakko Stenros

      To understand how a “ludic society” or “gameful applications” might function, we need to understand what playfulness, play, and games are. In current attempts of harnessing games for external goals, games, play, and playfulness are often treated interchangeably. Also, the emphasis is usually on game products as systemic artifacts. Yet psychology, sociology, and performance studies tell us that these things are very different, and that the activity of playing is deeply important. As will be shown, ignoring these differences means risking failure, and the activity of play holds many more interesting features untapped by a narrow view on games as...

    • POSITION STATEMENT A GAMEFUL MIND
      (pp. 223-224)
      Buster Benson

      I was lucky to stumble upon the value of viewing the world through a gameful lens early in life. I can trace the shift in mindset back to when my family moved from Chino Hills to Irvine, California, and my parents decided to start paying me for my grades.

      In second grade, before the move, before the money, I was getting C’s and D’s. From third grade on and through college, I hovered around straight A-minuses.

      At the time, the wider shift in parenting philosophies was from negative to positive reinforcement. I remember seeing the books my parents were reading...

    • 8 PLAYING THE GOOD LIFE: GAMIFICATION AND ETHICS
      (pp. 225-244)
      Miguel Sicart

      I am proud of my willpower. Throughout the years I have been able to quit smoking, to lose the weight gained afterward, and even to learn to enjoy changing diapers early in the morning. However wrong I might be, I think of myself as a stubborn, iron-willed person.

      That’s why I surprised myself when in 2007, I decided not only to take up running, but also to do so with the aid of the Nike+ services. At that time, Nike+ offered a feature that interested me: it was a cheap tracking system that would make it easier to follow a...

    • POSITION STATEMENT GAMES AND THE WORLD
      (pp. 245-248)
      Frank Lantz

      What is the relationship between games and the world? For me, this is the important question. Before we consider thepotentialrelationship created by new applications of game systems to real-world situations, let’s ask ourselves about theexistingrelationship between plain old games and the workaday world they are a part of. What is the relationship between Tetris and the world? Between chess and the world? Between basketball and the world? Between Minecraft and Street Fighter and Portal and the world?

      I choose to answer this question in a way that I hope is simple, straightforward, and understandable, by saying...

    • 9 PLAYFUL AESTHETICS: TOWARD A LUDIC LANGUAGE
      (pp. 249-272)
      Mary Flanagan

      Popular thinkers of the present moment claim that we are in a liberatory ludic age, an era defined by its connections to play, games for all, and the integration of games into everyday life that not only serve to entertain, but indeedsave usand the world at large. Others, meanwhile, approach this claim with critical reservations about the meaning of such games and their rhetorical and practical relationships to freedom and work. Why is it that this era in particular has witnessed the adoption of game-like strategies among social, personal, and professional domains? What does such ludic material really...

  5. II ISSUES
    • [II Introduction]
      (pp. 273-276)

      From the first days on, gamification has been accompanied by intense critique (Juul 2011). While some merely wished to put a damper on the hyperbolic promises of evangelists or pointed out flaws in the predominant forms of implementation, others rejected the very idea as either ineffectual cargo cult replicas of “real” games, or frighteningly dangerous mind control, or morally corrupt abuse. Yet no matter how justified, blanket value judgments do not further our understanding of the issues at hand. And as Eric Zimmerman, Kevin Slavin, Nicolas Nova, and other authors in this volume convincingly argue, gamification is but one outgrowth...

    • 10 GAMIFICATION AND POST-FORDIST CAPITALISM
      (pp. 277-296)
      PJ Rey

      One bit of wisdom I gleamed from Patricia Hill Collins (a former professor of mine) is to approach inquiries into any new social phenomenon with a simple question: who benefits? And this, I am suggesting, is the way we must address the Silicon Valley buzzword du jour:gamification. Why does this idea now command so much attention? Who is promoting all this talk of gamification, anyway? What do these gamification advocates stand to gain? While gamification is a technique with a wide range of possible applications (many of them potentially positive), I want to focus, specifically, on the nature of...

    • POSITION STATEMENT MONKEY BRAINS AND FRACTION BINGO: IN DEFENSE OF FUN
      (pp. 297-300)
      Bernard DeKoven

      We play games because they’re fun. When they stop being fun, we stop playing them. And no matter how clever the rules or attractive the trophies, if they don’t lead us to fun, they show themselves for what they, in themselves, truly are: irrelevant, without purpose or value.

      On my walk this morning I passed a boy, about seven or eight years old, batting at some branches with a stick. Thinking he was trying to retrieve a ball or kite that had gotten caught in the tree, I asked him what he was doing. “Oh,” he said, “I’ m trying...

    • 11 GAMIFICATION AND CULTURE
      (pp. 301-322)
      Rilla Khaled

      In Danish and other Scandinavian cultures, there is an important concept known asJanteloven. Under Janteloven, you should never try to stick out from the crowd. If you do try to stick out, it is only because you think that you are better than others. But no one is any better than anyone else, which is why you should not try (Sandemose 1936, 77–78). Janteloven is essentially a set of rules for encouraging social equality, social stability, and uniformity. Some locals question whether Janteloven still serves as an apt description of Scandinavian society. But as many a foreigner who...

    • 12 THE PLAYPUMP
      (pp. 323-338)
      Ralph Borland

      In 1989, retired advertising executive Trevor Field took his father-in-law on a visit to an agricultural fair in Pretoria, South Africa. At the fair, he saw a prototype for an invention by water engineer Ronnie Stuiver: a children’s roundabout (or, merry-go-round) that drove a borehole water pump. Stuiver had come up with the idea through his work in rural areas of South Africa, where children would appear when he was sinking boreholes and installing water pumps and want to play at helping him with his work.

      Field was immediately captured by the idea and bought the patent for it from...

    • 13 FOUCAULTʹS FITBIT: GOVERNANCE AND GAMIFICATION
      (pp. 339-358)
      Jennifer R. Whitson

      In this chapter, I draw from Michel Foucault to frame self-tracking and gamification in terms of the governance of modern liberal nation-states where subjects willingly govern, regulate, and optimize themselves. I introduce the quantification of the self, showing how it is used in gamification movements and how it is leveraged to promote a care of the self, as well as further enrolling individuals in normalization projects. I argue that current gamification projects are not influenced by playful design (and much less a focus on fostering creativity and exploration), but take something entirely different from games: the feedback mechanisms such as...

    • 14 PRIVACY AND DATA COLLECTION IN THE GAMEFUL WORLD
      (pp. 359-370)
      Lori Andrews

      Gamification elements are used by individuals for self-improvement, by groups to spur policy change, and by third-party institutions such as employers to make judgments about individuals. In addition to its potential to encourage positive change, the use of gamification to modify behavior can pose psychological risks, financial risks, and social risks. Most of these risks could be averted if the well-established principle ofinformed consentwere applied to the protection of privacy and the personal control over data collected in the gameful world.

      Privacy protections have always lagged behind the development of technologies. More than 125 years ago, when the...

    • 15 GAMIFICATION AND MORALITY
      (pp. 371-392)
      Evan Selinger, Jathan Sadowski and Thomas Seager

      The arrival of gamification as a contemporary cultural movement and incessantly circulating meme that is synonymous with innovation and engagement should give us pause for thought.¹ Not too long ago, the term had limited appeal. It was “a self-description used by vendors and proponents” (Deterding 2011). Now, amid endless headlines and extraordinary prognostics, gamification is hailed as a “$100 million market that should grow to $2.8 billion by 2016” (Stern 2012). Eric Schmidt, executive chairman of Google, goes so far as to say that, “Everything in the future online is going to look like a multiplayer game” (Orca 2010). In...

    • POSITION STATEMENT PLAYFUL SYSTEMS
      (pp. 393-394)
      Kevin Slavin

      It was Frank Lantz that introduced me to Core War, a game you’re unlikely to have spent much time playing. Designed in 1984, it’s a two-player video game in which each player writes an algorithm and sets it in motion against an opponent’s algorithm.

      Over thirty years, the game has been constantly updated and recompiled for the few thousand people who are playing it at any given moment. But the stuttering graphic display of 1984 hasn’t changed much. It’s almost entirely abstract: just pixels on the screen and a few numbers moving up or down. Each player uses a simple...

    • 16 THE TECHNICAL CONDITIONS OF A GAMEFUL WORLD
      (pp. 395-404)
      Nicolas Nova

      This chapter will examine and question the technological conditions for the advent of the gameful world described in this book. The “use of game design elements in non-game contexts,” which is the commonly used definition ofgamification(Deterding et al. 2011), has indeed flourished in the past five years. In the industry, popular services like Foursquare (2009) feature external rewards such as points, badges, and user hierarchy. This situation has led scholars in game studies, human–computer interaction (HCI), and sociology, among others, to discuss both the cultural implications and the relative merits or drawbacks of such an approach. However,...

    • POSITION STATEMENT BOT-MEDIATED REALITY
      (pp. 405-408)
      Daniel Suarez

      Back in 2004, I finished the first of two tech thrillers that pondered how narrow-AI news-reading software bots might realistically be used to orchestrate human activity—for good or ill.Daemonand later its sequel,Freedom™, drew on existing technologies combined with game-world mechanics to relate the tale of a deceased online game designer whose computer daemon¹ monitors the Internet for the appearance of its creator’s obituary. When this man dies, the titular Daemon activates. Once launched, this Daemon exploits the inherent vulnerabilities of our complex, high-efficiency world to spread—becoming a parasitic digital organism living within critical corporate networks....

  6. III APPLICATIONS
    • [III Introduction]
      (pp. 409-414)

      Whereas parts I and II of this volume angled the gameful world from the vantage point of different theories and issues, part III charts important areas of application: product and interaction design, business, science, politics, cities, sustainability, health and well-being, and education. This does not mean that the following pages lack conceptual depth: to articulate the peculiarities of an application domain, the authors often substantially draw on theory. But the focus is explicitly practical. Hence, the chapters provide ample case studies and reference existing empirical data wherever possible.

      Part III is opened by game designer Jesse Schell, whose presentation “Design...

    • POSITION STATEMENT THE GAMEPOCALYPSE AND THE PLEASURE REVOLUTION
      (pp. 415-418)
      Jesse Schell
    • 17 DISSECTING PLAYFULNESS FOR PRACTICAL DESIGN
      (pp. 419-438)
      Jussi Holopainen and May Stain

      Our world is playful. The way human beings make sense of the world and interact with and within it is playful by the very nature of our physical and mental makeup. Without play there would be no art, no science, no sports, or any other kinds of entertainment. That world would be quite a boring place to live. Luckily, we are equipped to find play everywhere from pebbles on a beach to intimate relationships to internecine warfare.

      It is possible to find playfulness everywhere, but it is also possible to make changes to the world; in other words, to design...

    • 18 GAMIFICATION AND THE ENTERPRISE
      (pp. 439-458)
      Ethan Mollick and Kevin Werbach

      For the past century, scholars examining workplaces have repeatedly discovered that workers regularly play games at work. Circumstantial evidence of the role of workplace contests and games dates back even further—to the building of the Egyptian pyramids themselves (Edery and Mollick 2009). Supplementing this long history, firms have begun consciously to apply games, and game dynamics, to an extremely wide range of uses, from innovation to recruiting. This process began before the recentgamificationmovement¹ and has continued to accelerate. However, the range of functions to which games are applied and the variety of gameful approaches used by enterprises...

    • POSITION STATEMENT WHEN PEERS SELECT TASKS AND TEAMS
      (pp. 459-462)
      JP Rangaswami

      We’ve had the Agricultural Revolution. We’ve had the Industrial Revolution. For the past six decades or so, we’ve all been part of the Information Revolution.

      We’re now knowledge workers, even those of us who work in agriculture or manufacturing. We’re all knowledge workers, using information systems and processes to go about our work.

      Information, the knowledge worker’s raw material, is fundamentally different from seeds or crops or metals or minerals; in consequence, the work that knowledge workers do is fundamentally different from the work done before.

      These changes are visible across three dimensions: the firm, the worker, and work itself....

    • 19 GAMIFICATION AND SOCIAL MEDIA
      (pp. 463-480)
      Cliff Lampe

      There is a natural connection between social media and gamification on multiple levels, in that both genres of interaction combine social and technical architectures to shape and enable user practice. While gamification has great potential to add insights in how to shape behaviors through the design of innovative tools, social media has a long history of using technical tools to shape social practices that may inform our understanding of gamification. Understanding social media and the research that has been done on it can illuminate many of the processes of gamification.

      Social media environments combine the effects and processes of both...

    • POSITION STATEMENT COLLABORATION IN THE GAMEFUL WORLD
      (pp. 481-486)
      Peter Williams

      The past two centuries of economic development have been primarily a story ofscalable efficiency: as infrastructures and technology improved, companies grew larger to take advantage of economies of scale. To coordinate ever-larger groups of people, companies created rigid command-and-control hierarchies, silos, and processes. Unfortunately, these institutional architectures have a downside: just as they promote consistency, predictability, and efficiency, they limit an organization’s ability to change or try new things. While effective during times of stability, the scalable efficiency rationale faces extreme difficulties during times of rapid change.

      Over the past forty years, the emergence of new digital infrastructures and...

    • 20 MASSIVELY MULTIPLAYER RESEARCH: GAMIFICATION AND (CITIZEN) SCIENCE
      (pp. 487-500)
      Seth Cooper

      These days, massively multiplayer online games are a popular form of entertainment for many gamers. They range from the fantasy World of Warcraft, by far the most popular massively multiplayer online game, with millions of subscribers (IGN 2012), to the space simulation Eve Online with hundreds of thousands of subscribers (PCWorld 2012). Massively multiplayer online game players typically spend their time battling monsters or other players, completing quests, interacting with guild members, and coordinating complex raids. Many of these tasks require significant problem solving and collaboration among players.

      This is where science comes in. There are plenty of difficult problems...

    • 21 GAME STATE? GAMIFICATION AND GOVERNANCE
      (pp. 501-512)
      Greg Lastowka and Constance Steinkuehler

      The chapters and position papers in this book provide a variety of perspectives on the extension of games and game play into new frontiers of human life. The editors have asked us to consider thegamificationof one particular aspect of the world: the government. In short, we are asked to answer a question: can the role of governments begamified, and would the gamification of government be a welcome development?

      This is a difficult question. Part of the difficulty can be attributed to the notion ofgamificationitself—what does the term mean, and how might it apply to...

    • POSITION STATEMENT HOMO LUDENS (SUBSPECIES POLITIKOS)
      (pp. 513-526)
      William Gaver

      As I write this, it seems a bad moment to advocate playfulness.

      Disturbing news is all around. Environmental issues loom large, with significant climate change seeming ever more inevitable, large numbers of species becoming endangered or extinct, food shortages threatening, and forests being felled. Honeybee populations crash, antibiotics fail, Western economies falter at the same time that gross inequalities grow, and the only political response seems to be to marketize everything possible. Doctrinal certainty spurs irrational behavior in developed and developing nations alike, and conflict looms in all the old trouble spots with new ones appearing daily. Every age has...

    • 22 THE GAMEFUL CITY
      (pp. 527-560)
      Kars Alfrink

      This chapter is about gameful design and the city. It is about the physical form of the city but most importantly its function—the way it is used every day by its inhabitants.

      I believe a city that allows for play and perhaps even encourages a gaming frame of mind is a humane city—a city that is tolerant and flexible enough to let inhabitants pursue their dreams and desires, in public if they wish. A city that is open to change from below. A city where the unexpected is embraced instead of tamed and shut out. A city, in...

    • POSITION STATEMENT MOBILIZING GAMIFICATION
      (pp. 561-562)
      Paul Coulton

      In his 1964 bookUnderstanding Media, Marshall McLuhan observed that “we become what we behold. We shape our tools, and thereafter our tools shape us.” In a relatively short period, video games have become a major feature of our cultural landscape, even beyond the games themselves. We can nowadays see game aesthetics and iconography represented in the other main forms of media such as films, books, and television—such that we are all becoming more “games literate.” In many respects, the emergence ofgamificationis simply a reflection of this expanding aesthetic and literacy.

      My own perspective on gamification is...

    • 23 GAMIFYING GREEN: GAMIFICATION AND ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY
      (pp. 563-596)
      Jon E. Froehlich

      In its State of Green Business report, the GreenBiz Group listed gamification as one of the top sustainable business trends of 2012, noting that game mechanics are increasingly used by companies to provide “rewards for making good, green choices” (Makower 2012). In the past few years, we have seen a surge of interest in green gamification touching upon nearly all aspects of our everyday life from cars that rank and reward fuel-efficient driving performance (e.g., the Nissan Leaf) to sanitation services that monitor and reward home recycling behavior (e.g., Recyclebank). As Ashok Kamal, CEO of the green social media marketing...

    • 24 GAMIFICATION AND HEALTH
      (pp. 597-624)
      Sean A. Munson, Erika Poole, Daniel B. Perry and Tamara Peyton

      In the early twentieth century, infectious diseases were responsible for 30 percent of mortalities in the United States (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 1999). Thanks to advances in vaccinations, antibiotics, and understanding of the importance of hygiene, people now live longer and healthier lives, with many infectious diseases completely eradicated. Although people are healthier overall, the products of industrialization have caused an entirely different health crisis, correlated to increased dependence on automobiles, reduced physical activity, and a widespread availability of energy-dense foods. With diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and chronic illnesses increasingly common, the prevention and management of chronic conditions presents...

    • POSITION STATEMENT LEARNING TO PIVOT: A PLAY ON POSSIBILITY
      (pp. 625-628)
      Katie Salen Tekinbaş

      My dad was once a professional basketball player with a keen eye for extracting big ideas from the rules of a game. In addition to instructing me on the importance of daily practice and kindness toward one’s teammates (they are, after all, the ones you’ll need to count on when the odds don’t fall in your favor), he was the first person to teach me about the beauty of the rule governing my pivot foot—that in its requirement that one foot remain fixed in place while the other roamed freely, it freed a player to carve out a space...

    • 25 GAMIFICATION AND LEARNING
      (pp. 629-652)
      Dennis Ramirez and Kurt Squire

      Video games, as a form of intrinsically motivated learning, have been studied by psychologists for decades. As the field of games for learning matured, we’ve discovered more reasons to use games in the classroom that reach beyond motivation, transforming the ways players interact with content. Just-in-time feedback, well-ordered problems, and the ability to learn through failure, hallmarks of good game design, are also important for effective educational interventions (Gee 2003; Squire 2011). As a result, there is great interest in incorporating games in the classroom and other contexts. For similar reasons, the process of gamification—introducing game-like elements in order...

    • POSITION STATEMENT IʹM NOT PLAYFUL, IʹM GAMEFUL
      (pp. 653-658)
      Jane McGonigal

      I’ve spent tens of thousands of hours making, researching, and playing games. I love games, and my life is full of game play. However, I amnota playful person. In fact, I may be the least playful person you will ever meet. This is not hyperbole. I have actual data to back it up!

      Ten years ago, I took a psychology test called the Virtues in Action (or VIA) Inventory of Signature Strengths (viacharacter.org). I answered 240 questions about what I think I’m good at and what I value most in life. Afterward, I received a list of twenty-four...

  7. ABOUT THE AUTHORS
    (pp. 659-666)
  8. INDEX
    (pp. 667-676)