Grammatical Theory and Bilingual Codeswitching

Grammatical Theory and Bilingual Codeswitching

Edited by Jeff MacSwan
Copyright Date: 2014
Published by: MIT Press
Pages: 336
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  • Book Info
    Grammatical Theory and Bilingual Codeswitching
    Book Description:

    Codeswitching is the alternate use of two or more languages among bilingual interlocutors. It is distinct from borrowing, which involves the phonological and morphological integration of a word from one language into another. Codeswitching involves the mixing of phonologically distinctive elements into a single utterance:Mi hermano bought some ice cream.This volume examines the grammatical properties of languages mixed in this way, focusing on cases of language mixing within a sentence. It considers the grammar of codeswitching from a variety of perspectives, offering a collection of theoretically significant work by the leading researchers in the field.Each contribution investigates a particular grammatical phenomenon as it relates to bilingual codeswitching data, mostly from a Minimalist perspective. The contributors first offer detailed grammatical accounts of codeswitching, then consider phonological and morphological issues that arise from the question of whether codeswitching is permitted within words. Contributors additionally investigate the semantics and syntax of codeswitching and psycholinguistic issues in bilingual language processing. The data analyzed include codeswitching in Spanish-English, Korean-English, German-Spanish, Hindi-English, and Amerindian languages.ContributorsShoba Bandi-Rao, Rakesh M. Bhatt, Sonia Colina, Marcel den Dikken, Anna Maria Di Sciullo, Daniel L. Finer, Kay E. González-Vilbazo, Sílvia Milian Hita, Jeff MacSwan, Pieter Muysken, Monica Moro Quintanilla, Erin O'Rourke, Ana Teresa Pérez-Leroux, Edward P. Stabler Jr., Gretchen Sunderman, Almeida Jacqueline Toribio

    eISBN: 978-0-262-32035-1
    Subjects: Linguistics

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-iv)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. v-vi)
  3. Acknowledgments
    (pp. vii-viii)
  4. 1 Programs and Proposals in Codeswitching Research: Unconstraining Theories of Bilingual Language Mixing
    (pp. 1-34)
    Jeff MacSwan

    Codeswitching (CS) is the alternate use of two or more languages among bilingual interlocutors. The present book focuses on grammatical properties of languages mixed in this way, narrowing in on cases ofintrasententialCS—that is, language mixing below sentential boundaries, as illustrated in (1).

    (1)Mi hermanobought some ice cream.

    ‘My brother bought some ice cream.’

    CS is traditionally differentiated fromborrowing, which involves the phonological and morphological integration of a word from one language (say, Englishtype) into another (Spanishtypiar). CS involves the mixing of phonologically distinctive elements into a single utterance, as illustrated in...

  5. I Grammatical Analysis
    • 2 Movement Triggers and Reflexivization in Korean-English Codeswitching
      (pp. 37-62)
      Daniel L. Finer

      The explosion of research on issues of comparative grammar initiated by Chomsky 1981 continues, with the focus on aspects of the lexicon rather than on grammars themselves. That is, instead of hypothesizing that the lines along which languages differ are the effects of parameters defined globally across grammars (such as the mid-1980s branching direction or subjacency parameters), researchers in the Minimalist Program (cf. Chomsky 1995, 2001, 2008) have suggested instead that differences in, for example, word order among languages are the results of movement triggered by properties of the lexical items in the syntactic structure.¹ This chapter attempts to explicate...

    • 3 On the Asymmetric Nature of the Operations of Grammar: Evidence from Codeswitching
      (pp. 63-86)
      Anna Maria Di Sciullo

      This chapter supports the Asymmetry Hypothesis, according to which asymmetric relations are core relations of the language faculty. This hypothesis is central to Asymmetry Theory (Di Sciullo, 2005). It has consequences for the properties of morphological structures (Di Sciullo 1996, 1999, 2000, 2004, 2014),¹ as well as for the relations between features in morphological derivations (Di Sciullo 1997, 1998, 2009; Di Sciullo and Tenny 1997; Di Sciullo and Slabakova 2005; Di Sciullo and D’Alessandro 2008; Di Sciullo and Landman 2009).² Furthermore, it provides a rationale for the presence of complement/noncomplement asymmetries in a variety of languages (Di Sciullo, Paul, and...

    • 4 Operator Movement in English-Spanish and German-Spanish Codeswitching
      (pp. 87-118)
      Almeida Jacqueline Toribio and Kay E. González-Vilbazo

      This chapter investigates the syntactic-theoretical constructs and conditions on well-formedness that underlie the word-order patterns applicable to operator movement in English, German, and Spanish, with an eye toward explicating the coherence and co-occurrence restrictions relevant to operator movement and concomitant word order in English-Spanish and German-Spanish bilingual codeswitching. The monolingual and codeswitching patterns of constituent extraction and Infl/V2 inwh-interrogatives, negative fronting, and relative clauses are shown to owe to the interaction of invariant principles and the individual properties of the functional projections Infl and C of the languages under study. The analysis offered is developed and advanced within the...

    • 5 Categorial Mismatches in the Syntax and the Lexicon: Evidence from Language Contact Research
      (pp. 119-134)
      Pieter Muysken

      Most researchers assume that the lexical categories of a language are also its syntactic categories, and that there is a one-to-one correspondence between the two. In many ways, this is a reasonable assumption. Thus, if a language has adjectives in its lexicon, these can be inserted into adjective positions made available in the phrase structure rules of the language, and so on. For many linguists, it would be difficult to imagine a different setup: adjectives in the lexicon that could not be inserted, or adjective positions in the syntax that could not be filled lexically.

      This chapter explores the possibility...

    • 6 Argument Licensing in Optimal Switches
      (pp. 135-158)
      Rakesh M. Bhatt

      This chapter presents an Optimality-Theoretic account of the linguistically significant generalizations of bilingual codeswitching in argument positions in different language pairs. Several studies on intrasentential codeswitching have appealed to the idea that codeswitches are subjected to certain well-formedness conditions that, however, appear to be true only of certain language pairs and not others (cf. Clyne 1987; Bokamba 1989).¹ But recently, with the introduction of “soft” constraints, as in Optimality Theory (OT), it has become possible to express certain crosslinguistic generalizations on codeswitching that have been theoretically recalcitrant. In this chapter, I claim that the constraint interaction and satisfaction approach of...

  6. II Codeswitching, Morphology, and the PF Interface
    • 7 Light Switches: On v as a Pivot in Codeswitching, and the Nature of the Ban on Word-Internal Switches
      (pp. 161-184)
      Shoba Bandi-Rao and Marcel den Dikken

      Classical Telugu (a South-Central Dravidian language) makes its causatives with the aid of the freestanding lexical verbcees‘do/make’, which takes an infinitival complement (ending in -a(n), the infinitival suffix) whose subject is marked accusative by the matrix verb (ECM) and whose object is ACC-marked by the infinitive (cf. (1b)). Informal modern Telugu instead employs the suffix -inc, which we will gloss as ‘DO’ (cf. Murti 1973; Krishnamurti and Gwynn 1985, 202, for discussion of Telugu causatives). This suffix attaches to the transitive verb stem and gives rise to afaire-partype causative, with the causee marked withceeta‘INST,...

    • 8 Some Consequences of Language Design: Codeswitching and the PF Interface
      (pp. 185-210)
      Jeff MacSwan and Sonia Colina

      The Minimalist Program (MP) took the basic structure of the Principles and Parameters framework for granted and posed an intriguing question: How much of the structure could be the direct result of optimal, computationally efficient design? The strong hypothesis formed in response to the question is that Universal Grammar is perfectly designed, providing an optimal solution with minimal design specifications: Merge builds structures that are handed over to the conceptual-intentional (CI) interface and the articulatory-perceptual (AP) interface, corresponding to Logical Form (LF) and Phonetic Form (PF) respectively.

      Further, one might reasonably conjecture, as we do here, that substantially many of...

  7. III Codeswitching and the LF Interface
    • 9 The Semantic Interpretation and Syntactic Distribution of Determiner Phrases in Spanish-English Codeswitching
      (pp. 213-226)
      Monica Moro Quintanilla

      There are many bilingual communities whose speakers use both of their languages in a single sentence:

      (1)English-Spanish in New York (Ramírez 1992, 199)

      So youtodavíahaven’t decidedlo que vas a hacernext week.

      ‘So you haven’t decided yet what you are going to do next week.’

      (2)German-English in Australia (Clyne 1987, 754)

      Ich les’ gerade eins, das handelt von einem altensecondhand dealer and his son.

      ‘I’m just reading one. It’s about an old secondhand dealer and his son.’

      (3)French/Lingala in Central Africa (Bokamba 1988, 25)

      Est-ce queo-tun-áki yé soko a-ko-zóngale lendemain?


    • 10 Codeswitching and the Syntax-Semantics Interface: The Role of Aspectual Features in Constraining Intrasentential Codeswitching Involving the Verb
      (pp. 227-254)
      Sílvia Milian Hita

      Most of the syntactic constraints on codeswitching that have been proposed in recent years have dealt with word order (Poplack 1982), with syntactic points where switching is allowed (Di Sciullo, Muysken, and Singh 1986; Belazi, Rubin, and Toribio 1994, among others), or with the asymmetry in the role played by the participating languages in codeswitching and their syntactic categories (Myers-Scotton 1993, 1995; Jake and Myers-Scotton 1996, 1997; Joshi 1985). These approaches do not take into consideration differences in the semantic systems of the languages involved in codeswitching to account for possible constraints, thus ignoring the importance of thesyntax-semantics interface...

  8. IV Codeswitching and Language Processing
    • 11 A Minimalist Parsing Model for Codeswitching
      (pp. 257-282)
      Edward P. Stabler and Jeff MacSwan

      A fully lexicalized grammar can represent the knowledge of a bilingual or multilingual speaker simply by putting lexical items from the various languages together. This conception suggests that multilingualism should be a quite natural state, an idea that fits well with a conception according to which every adjustment in register or dialect for context is regarded as a kind of codeswitching (CS), as is the use of various constructions by language learners who are entertaining several hypotheses about the language (Roeper 2000; Yang 2000). Thus, multilingualism is universal. This conception of CS is very appealing, since it does not invoke...

    • 12 Language Dominance and Codeswitching Asymmetries
      (pp. 283-312)
      Ana Teresa Pérez-Leroux, Erin O’Rourke and Gretchen Sunderman

      Intrasentential codeswitching—that is, the use of more than one language in the production of a sentence—has been noted to follow regular grammatical and stylistic patterns (Timm 1975, Lipski 1978, Poplack 1980, Woolford 1983, MacSwan 2004, 2009, chapter 1 [this volume], and many others). Discussion surrounding codeswitching concerns its status as evidence for the integrity (as opposed to the fusion) of the two grammatical systems involved. The basic observation is that switching has observably restricted distributions. Linguists have described specific patterns of language alternation in terms of grammatical constraints, and they have accordingly proposed various theoretical models to account...

  9. List of Contributors
    (pp. 313-314)
  10. Index
    (pp. 315-326)