Garden Insects of North America

Garden Insects of North America: The Ultimate Guide to Backyard Bugs

Whitney Cranshaw
Copyright Date: 2004
Edition: STU - Student edition
Pages: 672
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    Garden Insects of North America
    Book Description:

    Garden Insects of North Americais the most comprehensive and user-friendly guide to the common insects and mites affecting yard and garden plants in North America. In a manner no previous book has come close to achieving, through full-color photos and concise, clear, scientifically accurate text, it describes the vast majority of species associated with shade trees and shrubs, turfgrass, flowers and ornamental plants, vegetables, and fruits--1,420 of them, including crickets, katydids, fruit flies, mealybugs, moths, maggots, borers, aphids, ants, bees, and many, many more. For particularly abundant bugs adept at damaging garden plants, management tips are also included. Covering all of the continental United States and Canada, this is the definitive one-volume resource for amateur gardeners, insect lovers, and professional entomologists alike.

    To ease identification, the book is organized by plant area affected (e.g., foliage, flowers, stems) and within that, by taxa. Close to a third of the species are primarily leaf chewers, with about the same number of sap suckers. Multiple photos of various life stages and typical plant symptoms are included for key species. The text, on the facing page, provides basic information on host plants, characteristic damage caused to plants, distribution, life history, habits, and, where necessary, how to keep "pests" in check--in short, the essentials to better understanding, appreciating, and tolerating these creatures.

    Whether managing, studying, or simply observing insects, identification is the first step--and this book is the key. With it in hand, the marvelous microcosm right outside the house finally comes fully into view.

    Describes more than 1,400 species--twice as many as in any other field guideFull-color photos for most species--more than five times the number in most comparable guidesUp-to-date pest management tipsOrganized by plant area affected and by taxa for easy identificationCovers the continental United States and CanadaProvides species level treatment of all insects and mites important to gardensIllustrates all life stages of key garden insects and commonly associated plant injuriesConcise, clear, scientifically accurate textComprehensive and user-friendly

    eISBN: 978-1-4008-6678-6
    Subjects: Botany & Plant Sciences

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-vi)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. vii-x)
  3. Preface
    (pp. xi-xii)
  4. Acknowledgments
    (pp. xiii-xiv)
  5. Photographic Credits
    (pp. xv-xvi)
  6. CHAPTER ONE Introduction to Garden Insects and Their Relatives
    (pp. 1-25)

    With few exceptions, the animals covered in this book are all members of the phylum Arthropoda—the arthropods. As such, all share certain physical features, including:

    division of the body into segments;

    an external skeleton (exoskeleton) and growth that requires periodic shedding of the exoskeleton (molting);

    jointed appendages;

    internal structures that include a heart running along the upper (dorsal) part of the body and a nerve cord running along the lower (ventral) part of the body; and

    bilateral symmetry in body organization, i.e., similar on both sides.

    Within the phylum Arthropoda are several subdivisions known as classes. Although this book...

  7. CHAPTER TWO Management Principles for Some Garden Pests
    (pp. 26-47)

    The overwhelming majority of arthropods encountered in the yard and garden are of innocuous habit or may even be beneficial. When sufficiently abundant, however, some species rise to the level where they become pests. Management may be considered when this occurs.

    When managing garden pests, identification is always the required first step—and this book is designed to assist in this. Finding additional information on the life history and habits of the pests is also critical to understand their potential to cause injury and to identify when in their life history they may be vulnerable to control.

    Once controls are...

  8. CHAPTER THREE Leaf Chewers
    (pp. 48-203)

    Slugs and snails are types of animals known as gastropods, fairly close relatives of clams, mussels, and other mollusks. As such they have several different features than the arthropods (insects, mites, spiders, etc.) and lack distinct segmentation or an external skeleton. The body is soft and moves by means of a broad, muscular “foot” that covers the underside. On slugs, a large lobe called the mantle is present on the front half of the back; this is covered by a hard shell in snails. Two pairs of tentacles are present in the front, a short pair for sensing odors and...

  9. CHAPTER FOUR Leafminers
    (pp. 204-221)

    Some of the most discriminating feeders among the insects are the leafminers. These insects tunnel between the upper and lower leaf surfaces, feeding on the soft inner tissue and avoiding the tough epidermis. Immature stages of many different groups of insects share the leafmining habit, including the larvae of various flies, small moths, beetles, and saw flies. They are often classified by the pattern of the mine they create. Serpentine leaf mines meander across the leaf, gradually increasing in width as the insect grows. More common are various blotch leaf mines, which are an irregular but generally round form. One...

  10. CHAPTER FIVE Flower, Fruit, and Seed Feeders
    (pp. 222-283)

    Hosts: A wide range of herbaceous plants including both broadleaves and grasses.

    Damage: Scarring injury to flowers is the most common concern to gardeners. In the landscape, injuries are usually minor, but occasionally they may seriously blemish and/or distort flowers. Feeding injuries to vegetables typically involve slight scarring. Cloudy “pansy,” or “halo,” spots may be produced on fruit around egg-laying puncture wounds. Western flower thrips is also a highly efficient vector of viruses in the tospovirus group, which can produce the plant diseases tomato spotted wilt, impatiens necrotic spot , and iris yellow fleck .

    Distribution: Formerly limited largely to...

  11. CHAPTER SIX Sap Suckers
    (pp. 284-407)

    White flies (Aleyrodidae family)¹ are primarily tropical or subtropical insects but occur widely in North America in association with houseplants and greenhouse crops. Adults are small (ca.1/10 inch) insects typically covered with powdery whitish wax. Immature stages of white flies are scalelike, feeding on sap from plants and rarely moving after the first stage. White flies possess a unique final development stage from which the adults emerge, sometimes termed a “pupa,” which does not feed (see Figure 4).

    Hosts: Greenhouse white fly has a wide host range and is known to develop on more than 250 ornamental and vegetable plants....

  12. CHAPTER SEVEN Gall Makers
    (pp. 408-433)

    Although many species of “woolly” aphids¹ develop on stems, roots, and leaves (p. 310), a few induce distinctive growth changes in plants substantial enough to be categorized as galls. Most of these “woolly” aphids have complex life cycles that involve a primary winter host on which they produce galls and an alternate summer host. Most develop on the roots of the alternate host.

    Petiolegall aphids (Pemphigusspp.) make a variety of galls on the stems, petioles, and leaves of cottonwood and poplar (Populus). Poplar petiolegall aphid (P. populitransversus) forms a spherical green gall with a transverse slit on the petiole...

  13. CHAPTER EIGHT Stem and Twig Damagers
    (pp. 434-459)

    Cicadas¹ are the largest insects of the order Homoptera in North America. Distant relatives of the more diminutive spittlebugs, leafhoppers, and aphids, they develop by sucking sap from the roots of trees and shrubs. Cicadas require several years to complete their life cycle, which in some species has synchronized emergence. At least 75 species occur in North America; some taxonomists recognize significantly more species.

    Hosts: A wide variety of deciduous trees and shrubs.

    Damage: Injury results when females lay eggs, inserting them into twigs. This produces splintering wounds, which predispose breakage and allow entry of pathogens. Feeding injuries are minor....

  14. CHAPTER NINE Trunk and Branch Borers
    (pp. 460-499)

    The horntails (Siricidae family)¹ are large, thick-bodied wasps that develop as wood borers in recently killed and dying trees. Females are stingless but possess stout spinelike ovipositors used to insert eggs under bark. All horntails have a mutualistic association with wood-rotting fungi which are introduced during egg-laying and help provide food for the grublike young.

    Hosts: Many hardwood trees including maple, beech, hickory, elm, oak, apple, pear, sycamore, and hackberry. Maple and beech are preferred.

    Damage: Larvae develop as wood borers, creating meandering tunnels that can increase susceptibility to wind breakage. However, damage is confined to dead or dying wood....

  15. CHAPTER TEN Root, Tuber, and Bulb Feeders
    (pp. 500-543)

    Some of the few crustaceans (subphylum Crustacea, class Malacostraca) adapted to life on land are those of the order Isopoda. Commonly encountered species in gardens include pillbug (Armadillium vulgare),¹ also known as roly-poly or potato bug, and the sowbugs (Porcellio scaber, P. laevis , Onciscus asellus).² Distant relatives of many familiar (and sometimes culinary) animals such as lobster, shrimp, and crab, the isopods share many physical features including seven pairs of legs, two pairs of antennae, and respiration through gills on the abdomen. The sowbugs possess a pair of tail-like appendages on the hind end. The absence of these, plus...

  16. CHAPTER ELEVEN Beneficial Garden Arthropods
    (pp. 544-576)

    Several arthropods common to gardens develop as predators of other arthropods. In most, the immature stages are free-living hunters which move about to seek prey. During the course of their development, they consume many prey, often several dozen. Adult stages of predators may have similar habits, or they may feed instead on nectar, pollen, honeydew and similar materials.

    Predators among the Hymenoptera, the ants and wasps, have a somewhat different habit. It is the adults—which collect insect prey to feed their developing young—that are the predatory stage. Their habits may be further modified by rearing of the young...

  17. Appendix of Host Plant Genera and Associated Insects and Mites
    (pp. 577-628)
    (pp. 629-636)
  19. Selected References
    (pp. 637-638)
  20. Index
    (pp. 639-656)