Rather than considering the relationship between the three branches of government in the abstract, Beatty focuses on legal practice as it functions in labour law, and shows how the Charter could be used both to reform labour law and to protect against attempts to reverse gains made in labour legislation in the past. Beatty's critical analysis rests on two principles: that the Charter provides equal liberty for all workers to participate in determining the conditions that govern their working life, and that fundamental rights should be limited only by laws employing the least repressibe alternative. These principles are applied to the constitutional validity of rules that prohibit discrimination: those requiring payment of minimum wages, excluding groups from collective bargaining laws, mandating retirment at a specific age, and requiring membership in trade unions. Beatty argues that the current model of collective bargaining cannot be constitutionally sustained and that voluntary and/or plural representation of employee interests is more compatible with the Charter.
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