Canada in Cities

Canada in Cities

Copyright Date: 2014
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    Canada in Cities
    Book Description:

    The federal government and its policies transform Canadian cities in myriad ways. Canada in Cities examines this relationship to better understand the interplay among changing demographics, how local governments and citizens frame their arguments for federal action, and the ways in which the national government uses its power and resources to shape urban Canada. Most studies of local governance in Canada focus on politics and policy within cities. The essays in this collection turn such analysis on its head, by examining federal programs, rather than municipal ones, and observing how they influence local policies and work with regional authorities and civil societies. Through a series of case studies - ranging from federal policy concerning Aboriginal people in cities, to the introduction of the federal gas tax transfer to municipalities, to the impact of Canada's emergency management policies on cities - the contributors provide insights about how federal politics influence the local political arena. Analyzing federal actions in diverse policy fields, the authors uncover meaningful patterns of federal action and outcome in Canadian cities. A timely contribution, Canada in Cities offers a comprehensive study of diverse areas of municipal public policy that have emerged in Canada in recent years.

    eISBN: 978-0-7735-9629-0
    Subjects: Political Science

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-iv)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. v-vi)
  3. Tables and Figures
    (pp. vii-viii)
  4. Foreword
    (pp. ix-2)
    Robert Young, Katherine Graham and Caroline Andrew

    This collection is a major contribution to the study of both municipal and federal government in Canada. More centrally, it advances our understanding of federal-municipal interaction and of how this relationship shapes policies that are important to all Canadians. The chapters presented here depict the changing role of the federal government and show the importance of leadership and political considerations in policy making.

    Two types of policy field are examined here. First are traditional areas under the domain of federal departments – infrastructure, immigrant settlement, emergency management, and urban Aboriginal policy. Second are newer, “horizontal” policy areas where federal interventions...

  5. I Introduction
    (pp. 3-9)

    This book discusses the ways in which the federal government and federal policy interrelate with local-level needs, practices, and policies. It is part of the collective project on Public Policy and Municipalities headed up by Professor Robert Young of the University of Western Ontario and funded by the Social Science and Humanities Research Council of Canada under their former program, the Major Collaborative Research Initiatives. For the past six years, a large team of scholars from Canadian universities and abroad has been undertaking a research program on public policy and municipalities. Our basic goal has been to develop better understanding...

  6. 2 The Federal “Communities Agenda”: Metagovernance for Place-based Policy in Canada?
    (pp. 10-38)

    Over the last decade or so, the Canadian federal government has sought to renew its social policy capacity.¹ Following twenty years of restraint, characterized by unilateral retreats on cost-shared programs with the provinces and limited use of its own spending power, Ottawa began in the late 1990s to reinvest part of its growing budgetary surpluses. The bulk of this money flowed through the traditional inter-governmental channels for programming in income security, health care, and post-secondary education. However, these expenditures on the pillars of the postwar welfare regime were supplemented by a host of quite novel interventions in which Ottawa worked...

  7. 3 Reforming the Multilevel Governance of Emergencies: Municipalities and the Discursive Politics of Canada’s Emergency Management Policy
    (pp. 39-74)

    Designing effective organizational structures and processes to prevent, prepare for, respond to, and recover from natural and manmade catastrophes with potentially severe consequences for citizens is properly seen as an important issue of public policy. Protecting the lives and property of citizens constitutes a fundamental role of the modern state and, in the aftermath of large-scale emergencies, this vital mission frequently returns to the centre stage of debates about state organization and public sector performance. As in many other Western democracies, the terrorist attacks in the United States on September 11, 2001, represented such an agenda-setting event for emergency management...

  8. 4 Homelessness on the Federal Agenda: Progressive Architecture but No Solution in Sight
    (pp. 75-101)

    According to the two individuals quoted above, the National Homelessness Initiative (nhi) posed a distinctive and significant program for the federal government. The first interviewee was involved in the set-up of the nhi, and the second was a senior federal public servant who moved to the nhi soon after it was established. Their assessment is quite intriguing, given the nhi’s small overall budget and limited time frame. For example, over the ten-year period between 1999 and 2009, the nhi/hps’s total funding envelope was approximately $1.562 billion;¹ in contrast, the Gas Tax Transfer has been allocated an amount of $13 billion...

  9. 5 The Federal Gas Tax Cession: From Advocacy Efforts to Thirteen Signed Agreements
    (pp. 102-130)

    The gas tax cession program constitutes the most significant federal fiscal intervention into urban affairs in more than a quarter of a century. Owing to financial constraints, concerns about provincial jurisdiction over municipal affairs, and the unsatisfactory experience with the Ministry of State for Urban Affairs in the 1970s, Liberal and Conservative federal governments for most of the 1980s and 1990s were reluctant to intervene in urban affairs (Andrew 2001). But a continuing deterioration of the physical and social infrastructure of cities motivated the creation of a very strong and vocal urban policy community that was able to slowly raise...

  10. 6 Institutional Arrangements and Planning Outcomes: Inter-agency Competition on the Toronto Waterfront
    (pp. 131-163)

    Many factors affect urban land use outcomes. The literature emphasizes the impact of successive planning models and processes, with particular attention presently going to ways of achieving effective public participation. It also underscores the role of economic and political power. In this chapter we concentrate on a factor that is often underplayed – the effect of the institutional set-up. By bringing an institutional perspective to the study of planning, the chapter attempts to correct the lack of attention this field has given to the role of agencies. Indeed, land use planning is among the disciplines that have least heeded the...

  11. 7 Tracking the Growth of the Federal Municipal Infrastructure Program under Different Political Regimes
    (pp. 164-192)

    Since the mid-1990s, the Federal Municipal Infrastructure Program has become a milestone in the history of relations between federal, provincial, and municipal governments – thus called “multilevel governance.” This program was born in the context of a debate on the deficit of municipal infrastructure¹ in Canada, and the goal was to stimulate investments in infrastructure in Canadian municipalities.

    Since the creation of the program in 1994, important political changes have taken place in Ottawa. The Liberal political regime, led successively by Jean Chrétien and Paul Martin (1994–2006), oversaw the creation and the development of the program. Later, in 2006,...

  12. 8 Cities and Child Care Policy in Canada: More than a Puppet on (Intergovernmental) Strings?
    (pp. 193-226)

    The need for public financial support for non-parental child care arrangements has grown with the rise in women’s labour force participation across oecd countries. In Canada, women’s labour force participation started to increase even in the postwar heyday of the male breadwinner family, but it began really to take off in the 1970s. By 2006, the labour force participation rates of Canadian women in their prime childbearing years (25–44) stood at 81.8 percent.¹ Although it is possible primarily to allow markets to respond to the growing need for child care, doing so produces a highly unequal system, because child...

  13. 9 Federal Policies on Immigrant Settlement
    (pp. 227-249)

    Federal policies on immigrant settlement affect us all: directly for people who receive services that are part of federal policies and indirectly for all Canadians, since the success of immigrant settlement is central to the success of Canada in the twenty-first century. For this reason, understanding who is influencing the direction of federal policy, who plays a central role, and who has little or no influence over the policies is an important social and political question. It is also a very large and complex question and one that cannot be covered adequately in one chapter. For example, one could look...

  14. 10 Federal Urban Aboriginal Policy: The Challenge of Viewing the Stars in the Urban Night Sky
    (pp. 250-269)

    In 1996, the Canadian Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples (rcap) observed that “[t]he issues confronting urban Aboriginal people – governance, access to culturally appropriate services, cultural identity, and intercultural relationships – have been woefully neglected by Canadian governments and Aboriginal authorities in the past” (rcap 1996b, 5). The Commission’s finding raises two important questions for those interested in public policy and municipalities:

    What were the causes of past deficiencies?

    What are the necessary social, economic, and political conditions necessary for good urban Aboriginal policy?

    This chapter considers these questions as they relate to the evolving federal government policies and programs...

  15. 11 Conclusion
    (pp. 270-278)

    We hope that while reading the chapters in this volume, you have had an opportunity to reflect on the federal role in municipalities in each of the policy fields and interventions. They cover a wide range of public policy, and each offers particular subject-specific knowledge and analytical insights. The reader will also have had an opportunity to reflect on the three themes that emerge from the case collection. As discussed in the introduction, we believe that these are the role of frames as markers of federal policy over time and as a way of understanding how federal policy has evolved;...

  16. Contributors
    (pp. 279-280)
  17. Index
    (pp. 281-294)