Women and Work

Women and Work

Richard P. Chaykowshi
Lisa M. Powell
Copyright Date: 1999
Pages: 200
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  • Book Info
    Women and Work
    Book Description:

    Women and Work offers analyses of women and the labour market with respect to a wide range of topics that include technological change, skill requirements, and training; income security programs and work decisions of lone parents; the dynamics of welfare participation; school-to-work transitions; equality legislation; and collective bargaining, remuneration, and workplace benefits.

    eISBN: 978-0-7735-7423-6
    Subjects: Business

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-ii)
  2. Acknowledgement
    (pp. iii-iv)
    Thomas J. Courchene
  3. Preface
    (pp. v-vi)
    Richard Chaykowski and Lisa Powell
  4. Table of Contents
    (pp. vii-viii)
  5. The Gender Earnings Gap Amongst Canadian Bachelor’s Level University Graduates: A Cross-Cohort, Longitudinal Analysis
    (pp. 1-50)
    Ross Finnie and Ted Wannell

    There now exists a substantial body of research on the gender earnings gap in Canada. Some of this work looks at broad groups of workers using general databases such as the Census, the Survey of Consumer Finances and the Labour Market Activity Survey, while other studies focus on narrower groups of workers using more specialized databases. Altogether, we now have quite a good understanding of the extent and structure of male-female differences in earnings and how these patterns have evolved over time.¹

    There remain, however, various specific aspects of the gender earnings gap worth exploring, while given the continually changing...

  6. Women and Men’s Entitlement to Workplace Benefits: The Influence of Work Arrangements
    (pp. 51-102)
    Brenda Lipsett and Mark Reesor

    Supplemental health and dental plans and employer-sponsored pension plans (ESPP) are non-wage benefits that many consider to be a basic element in employee compensation and worker and family security. These plans contribute to workers’ current and future well being by supplementing the basic coverage provided through federal and provincial retirement income and medical care programs.¹ For employers, benefit plans are an important incentive device in labour contracts, affecting employee turnover, work effort and the timing of retirement. Employers who acquire a reputation for taking care of their employees’ supplemental medical and retirement needs may find it easier to recruit and...

  7. Technological Change, Organizational Change and Skill Requirements: Impacts on Women in the Workforce
    (pp. 103-142)
    Gordon Betcherman, Darren Lauzon and Norm Leckie

    Over the past decade, new technologies and organizational practices have transformed many aspects of work. One important dimension concerns the implications of these changes for the composition of labour demand. According to conventional wisdom and indeed much of the empirical evidence, technological and organizational change are shifting demand in favour of skilled labour (OECD, 1996). While this may be the aggregate effect, it seems likely that these skill-bias trends are not homogeneous and that they vary for different segments of the labour force. If this is the case, this may help explain observed variations in employment outcomes.

    One important issue...

  8. The Effect of Computer Skills and Training on Salaries: A Study of Male and Female Industrial Relations and Human Resource Management Professionals
    (pp. 143-172)
    Caroline L. Weber and Işik Urla Zeytinoğlu

    Rapidly changing technologies, especially computer technology, drive concomitant changes in demand for labour market skills. The rapid changes may result in wage premiums for those at the higher end of the skills distribution. Meanwhile, for low-skilled workers labour market conditions seem to be deteriorating (OECD, 1997). Most of the research evidence examining the relationship between labour market skills and income polarization is based on U.S. data. In a recent Canadian study, Boothby and Gingras (1998) showed no evidence of deterioration of labour market conditions for low-skilled workers in Canada in general, although there was some evidence that there has been...

  9. The Self-Sufficiency Project: What Have We Learned So Far?
    (pp. 173-190)
    John Greenwood

    All attempts to reform welfare face a troubling dilemma — how to encourage work and independence while simultaneously alleviating poverty. Programs that transfer income to poor people in order to reduce poverty typically reduce the incentive for recipients to seek and accept employment, particularly if their potential earnings are low.¹ This problem is reflected in the real-life experiences of welfare-dependent families. Because many of those receiving income assistance have low levels of education or limited work experience, they often face starting wages that will pay them less than the amount they receive in welfare benefits. Therefore, they face a stark...

  10. The Dynamics of Welfare Participation in Quebec
    (pp. 191-224)
    Jean-Yves Duclos, Bernard Fortin, Guy Lacroix and Hélène Roberge

    The main goal of provincial welfare programs in Canada is to guarantee a basic minimum income for poor individuals and households. Up until recently, however, some worrying trends in the number of welfare dependent households and in the level of program spending have emerged. In every province there has been a dramatic increase in welfare caseloads and in program expenditures. In Quebec, for instance, between 1980 and 1993, disbursements rose from $1.860 billion to $3.146 billion (1991 dollars), an increase of nearly 60%. Over the same period, the number of households on assistance grew from 285,174 to 450,675, an increase...

  11. Social Assistance and the Employment Rate of Lone Mothers: An Analysis of Ontario’s Live Experiment
    (pp. 225-244)
    Constantine Kapsalis

    The percentage of lone mothers who are working (employment rate) is of particular policy interest for two important reasons: first, lone mothers are at high risk of relying on social assistance and changes in their employment rate can have a significant impact on welfare caseloads; second, a large percentage of poor children live in households with a female sole supporter. Consequently, the employment rate of lone mothers affects both welfare costs and child poverty.

    The objective of this study is to provide further insight into the effect of changes in social assistance benefit rates on the employment rate of lone...

  12. Unions, Collective Bargaining and Labour Market Outcomes for Canadian Working Women: Past Gains and Future Challenges
    (pp. 245-282)
    Andrew Jackson and Grant Schellenberg

    The major purposes of this paper are: first, to examine the impacts of collective bargaining on labour market outcomes for women workers in Canada, specifically with respect to pay, benefits coverage, the incidence of low pay and the extent of earnings inequality and second, to suggest ways in which positive impacts could be extended via the expansion of collective bargaining coverage.¹ This part of the paper briefly reviews the literature on the impacts of collective bargaining on earnings, low pay, and earnings inequality, and the next part provides some background description of the labour market position of Canadian working women....

  13. The Impact of Labour Market Transformations on the Effectiveness of Laws Promoting Workplace Gender Equality
    (pp. 283-304)
    Marie-Thérèse Chicha

    In the late 1980s, and especially in the first half of the 1990s, several authors (Standing, 1989; OECD, 1994) called attention to the increasing risk posed by structural changes in the labour market for the application of laws promoting workplace gender equality. The expressionimplicit deregulationhas been used as a way of pointing to the relative ineffectiveness of these laws stemming from growing difficulties in their application. The underlying idea is that the significant changes in the labour market resulting from globalization and technological change imply greater precariousness, especially for women. Several studies have documented the deterioration of working...

  14. Contributors
    (pp. 305-305)