Critical Years in Immigration

Critical Years in Immigration: Canada and Australia Compared

Copyright Date: 1991
Pages: 408
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  • Book Info
    Critical Years in Immigration
    Book Description:

    With the new introduction, Freda Hawkins brings Critical Years in Immigration up to date by discussing the directions taken by the Canadian and Australian governments since 1984. She also clarifies the implications of the recently announced Canadian immigration levels for 1991-95, discussing the government's reasoning and future plans.

    eISBN: 978-0-7735-6302-5
    Subjects: Sociology

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-iv)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. v-vi)
  3. Tables
    (pp. vii-viii)
  4. Figures and Maps
    (pp. ix-x)
  5. Acknowledgments
    (pp. xi-xii)
  6. Preface to the Second Edition
    (pp. xiii-xxxii)
  7. Introduction
    (pp. xxxiii-2)

    Canada and Australia have many things in common and not the least of these is their possession of vast territories, impressive resources, and small populations. These factors in themselves account for the fact that these two countries have been among the foremost receiving countries in international migration in recent times, and for their acceptance of large numbers of displaced persons and refugees for permanent settlement since World War II. With populations today of only 26 and 17 million, the low fertility common to industrialized countries, and the prospect of population decline in the next century, it seems certain that Canada...

  8. CHAPTER ONE Immigration in the Twentieth Century, 1900–1972
    (pp. 3-41)

    We will first explore the major features of Canadian and Australian immigration during the period from 1900 to 1972, before a more detailed examination of contemporary policies and programs. This 70-year period falls naturally into two parts, with the Second World War providing the dividing line between them.

    The century began for both countries with exceptionally large immigration movements which continued until the outbreak of World War I in 1914: to Canada from Britain, the United States and Europe and to Australia almost entirely from Britain. In Canada the early years of the century were notable for vigorous immigration management...

  9. CHAPTER TWO Canadian Immigration Policy and Management, 1972–1986
    (pp. 42-92)

    The alternately inactive and turbulent years of the Trudeau administration in the 1970s would not seem the best time to introduce major changes in immigration policy. Public support for the Prime Minister swung dramatically back and forth; the Canadian economy was plagued with unrelenting inflation and unemployment, moving into a severe recession towards the end of the decade; and the clear priorities, forward planning, and policy co-ordination expected from this government never really materialized. That these changes were made is probably due to three principal factors: first, they were long overdue; secondly, they had the support of all political parties...

  10. CHAPTER THREE Australian Immigration Policy and Management, 1972–1986
    (pp. 93-155)

    In Australia, the McMahon Liberal–National Country Party government was defeated on December 2, 1972, and a Labor government was elected after 23 years in opposition. The new government, under Gough Whitlam, had a majority of nine in the House of Representatives, but there was no Senate election in December 1972 and the party standings in the Senate at that point were: Australian Labor Party (alp) 26, Liberal–National Country Party (lncp) 26, Democratic Labor Party (dlp) 5, and Independents 3. The new government was totally dependent, therefore, on the dlp and the Independents to get its legislative program through...

  11. CHAPTER FOUR Refugees and Undocumented Migrants
    (pp. 156-213)

    The critical years in immigration since 1972 have also been years of a world refugee explosion, when the estimated number of refugees in different world regions has risen dramatically, and when the operations and budget of the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (unhcr) have expanded to become the largest of the major un agencies. Within the short space of 10 years, and at about the same time during that period, both Canada and Australia have developed much more clearly defined refugee policies, and have accepted a fairly large number of refugees as a standing component of...

  12. CHAPTER FIVE Multiculturalism
    (pp. 214-242)

    Multiculturalism as an area of public policy can be defined as the official recognition by governments, expressed in legislation and/or in speeches and programs, of the many different ethnic origins of their present populations, combined with the stated intention to protect and assist those who are not members of the founding majority or charter groups. It emphasizes cultural freedom, social justice, and equality of opportunity for all within the existing political system. This policy was adopted by both Canada and Australia in the early seventies for the same reasons and with the same objectives, but with rather different means of...

  13. CHAPTER SIX Canadian and Australian Immigration Today
    (pp. 243-280)

    It is hoped that this study will show how very similar the immigration experiences of Canada and Australia are, and how important immigration has been and still is in their population growth and national development. As we have seen, their responses to its major problems and difficulties have also been very similar, growing more alike since the early seventies. The general public, and even the informed public in both countries, are probably unaware of the remarkable degree of communication and exchange of information that goes on all the time between Canada and Australia at the political and bureaucratic level –...

  14. Appendixes
    (pp. 281-308)
  15. Notes
    (pp. 309-336)
  16. Bibliography Canada and Australia. Immigration: The Post- War Period
    (pp. 337-348)
  17. Index
    (pp. 349-368)