Amadis of Gaul, Books I and II

Amadis of Gaul, Books I and II

Edwin B. Place
Herbert C. Behm
With a New Foreword by John E. Keller
Copyright Date: 2003
Edition: 1
Pages: 688
https://www.jstor.org/stable/j.ctt130j5xz
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  • Book Info
    Amadis of Gaul, Books I and II
    Book Description:

    In the long history of European prose fiction, few works have been more influential and more popular than the romance of chivalryAmadis of Gaul. Although its original author is unknown, it was probably written during the early fourteenth century. The first great bestseller of the age of printing,Amadis of Gaulwas translated into dozens of languages and spawned sequels and imitators over the centuries. A handsome, valiant, and undefeatable knight, Amadis is perhaps best known today as Don Quixote's favorite knight-errant and model. This exquisite English translation restores a masterpiece to print.

    eISBN: 978-0-8131-4827-4
    Subjects: Language & Literature

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. 1-2)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. 3-4)
  3. FOREWORD TO THE NEW EDITION
    (pp. 5-7)
    John E. Keller

    In 1974 the University Press of Kentucky published the translation by Edwin B. Place and Herbert C. Behm of Books I and II ofAmadís de Gaula.Under the editorial board’s unanimous recommendation, it came out as number 11 in the Studies in Romance Languages series. Though the book went out of print in 1986, recent demand has led the Press to offer this unaltered paperback edition. Place’s brief foreword and scholarly preface remain intact, since he has been recognized as the authority on matters concerning Spain’s greatest and most emulated novel of chivalry.

    After the translation went out of...

  4. FOREWORD TO THE 1974 EDITION
    (pp. 8-8)
    E. B. P. and H. C. B.

    WE HAVE CHOSEN TO TRANSLATE Amadís de Gaula into modern English witlwut any attempt to give our translation an archaic flavor. Since our work is addressed to the general reader not necessarily familiar with the landmarks of prose fiction, we have tried in the following Preface to place the Amadis in its proper literary perspective and to indicate its social impact on upper-and middle-class Europeans during the Renaissance and thereafter. Also, for the benefit of the studious and as a bow to the canons of scholarship, the Preface has been extensively annotated and Notes to the individual chapters have been...

  5. PREFACE
    (pp. 9-16)
    E. B. P.
  6. MONTALVO’S PREFACE
    (pp. 17-20)
  7. Book I
    • INCIPIT
      (pp. 21-28)

      Here begins the first book of the courageous and virtuous knight Amadis, son of King Perion of Gaul and of Queen Elisena, which was corrected and emended by the honorable and virtuous gentleman Garci-Rodríguez de Montalvo, Alderman of the noble town of Medina del Campo. He corrected the ancient originals which were corrupt and poorly composed in the antique style through the fault of diverse poor scribes, taking out many superfluous words and putting in others of a more polished and elegant style pertaining to chivalry and the deeds thereof.

      Not many years after the passion of our Redeemer and...

    • CHAPTER I How princess elisena and her maidservant dariolete went to the chamber where king perion was.
      (pp. 29-37)

      When everyone was at rest Darioleta arose and took Elisena as bare as she was in her bed—clad only in her shift and covered with a cloak—and they both went out into the garden. The moon was shining brightly. The maidservant looked at her mistress, and opening the latter’s cloak she gazed at her body and said, laughing:

      “Madam, in a lucky hour was born the knight who this night will possess you.”

      And it was well said that of face and body this was the most beautiful maiden then known.

      Elisena smiled and said:

      “The same you...

    • CHAPTER II How king perion went his way with his squire, with heart more accompanied by sarrow than by joy.
      (pp. 38-47)

      King Perion having left Brittany as has already been related, his spirit was greatly tormented by grief as much on account of the great longing that he felt for his mistress whom he truly loved as because of the dream you have already heard which he had at that time. Having arrived in his own kingdom, he sent for all his nobles and commanded the bishops to bring to him the wisest clerics there were in his land in order to explain his dream.

      When his vassals learned of his arrival, those summoned, as well as many others, came to...

    • CHAPTER III How king languines took with him the child of the sea and gandalin, the son of don gandales.
      (pp. 48-54)

      At this juncture the king and Gandales entered, and the queen said,

      “Tell me, Don Gandales, is that handsome boy your son?” “Yes, madam,” said he.

      “Well why,” said she, “do they call him Child of the Sea?” “Because he was born at sea,” said Gandales, “when I was coming from Brittany.”

      “By Heaven, he resembles you very little,” said the queen.

      She said this because the boy was marvelously handsome and Don Gandales had more virtue than good looks. The king, who was gazing at the boy, who seemed to him very handsome, said,

      “Summon him, Gandales; I wish...

    • CHAPTER IV How king lisuarte sailed across the sea and made port in the kingdom of scotland, where he was received with great honor.
      (pp. 55-66)

      After the embassy was heard by King Lisuarte, the king set out on the sea, aided by his father-in-law with a great fleet. Sailing over the sea he was carried to the kingdom of Scotland, where he was received with great honor by King Languines. This Lisuarte brought with him Brisena, his wife, and a daughter he had by her when he dwelt in Denmark, Oriana by name, about ten years old, the most beautiful creature ever seen. So beautiful was she that she was called the peerless one, because in her time there was no one who was her...

    • CHAPTER V How urganda the unknown brought a lance to the child of the sea.
      (pp. 67-75)

      The Child of the Sea turned over his shield and helmet to Gandalin and went on his way; and he had not gone far when he saw a damsel coming on her palfrey, and she carried a lance with a sash. And he saw another damsel, who was coming along another road, join her, and they both came towards him talking; and as they drew near the damsel with the lance said,

      “Sir, take this lance, and I say to you that before the third day you will give with it such blows that you will free the house from...

    • CHAPTER VI How the child of the sea fought with the foot soldiers of the knight, who was called galpano, and afterwards with the brothers of the lord of the castle, and with the lord himself, and how he killed him without having mercy on him.
      (pp. 76-82)

      Then the Child of the Sea arriving near the castle saw coming toward him a damsel greatly lamenting, and a squire and page who were awaiting her. The damsel was very beautiful with lovely hair and she was tearing it out. The Child of the Sea said to her,

      “Friend damsel, what is the cause of such great distress?”

      “Alas, sir,” she said, “so great is my trouble that I cannot tell it.”

      “Tell me,” said he, “and if I can rightly be of help to you, I will be.”

      “Sir,” said she, “I come on a mission of my...

    • CHAPTER VII How on the third day after the child of the sea left the court of king languines there came those three knights who brought a knight on a litter, and his treacherous wife.
      (pp. 83-86)

      On the third day after the Child of the Sea departed from the house of King Languines, where he was dubbed a knight, there arrived there the three knights who were bringing the false matron, and the knight, her sorely wounded husband, on a litter. And the three knights put the matron into the hands of the king on behalf of a novice knight. And they related to the king what had happened concerning the knight. The king made the sign of the cross many times on hearing of such treachery by a woman, and was very grateful to the...

    • CHAPTER VIII How king lisuarte sent to the court of king languines for his daughter, and languines sent back with her his daughter mabilia, the two being accompanied by knights and matrons and damsels.
      (pp. 87-98)

      Ten days after Agrajes had departed there arrived there three ships in which came Galdar of Rascuyl with a hundred knights from King Lisuarte, and matrons and damsels to escort Oriana. King Languines received Galdar well, for he deemed him a good knight and very prudent. Galdar gave the message of the king his lord: that he was sending for his daugther, and furthermore this Galdar said to the king on behalf of King Lisuarte that he was requesting him to send with Oriana his daughter Mabilia, who at his command would be treated and honored like Oriana herself.

      The...

    • CHAPTER IX How the child of the sea fought king abies over the war that he had with king perion of gaul.
      (pp. 99-105)

      The battle between King Abies and the Child of the Sea having been arranged, as you have heard, those on the one side and those on the other, seeing that the greater part of the day was gone, agreed against the will of both of them that it be for the next day. In order. to repair their arms as well as to alleviate somewhat the wounds they had, and because the men on both sides were so battered and weary that they wanted the respite for their repose, each one repaired to his lodging. The Child of the Sea...

    • CHAPTER X How the child of the sea was recognized by king perion, his father, and by his mother, elisena.
      (pp. 106-112)

      At the beginning it was related how King Perion gave Queen Elisena, when she was his mistress, one of two rings that he wore on his hand, both exactly alike without any difference appearing; and how at the time when the Child of the Sea was cast upon the river in the ark, he wore that ring suspended from his neck; and how later it was given to him along with the sword by his foster-father Gandales. And King Perion had asked the queen several times for the ring, and she, not wanting to tell him where she had put...

    • CHAPTER XI How the giant conducted galaor to be armed by the hand of king lisuarte, and amadis knighted him very honorably.
      (pp. 113-124)

      Don Galaor being with the giant as we have told you, learning to ride and to wield a sword and all the other things that were proper for a knight, being already very skillful in them, and the year having been completed that the giant had set as the time limit, he said to him,

      “Father, I now ask you to make me a knight, since I have attended to everything that you have commanded.”

      The giant who saw it was high time, said to him,

      “Son, I am pleased to do so, and tell me whom do you wish...

    • CHAPTER XII How galaor fought with the great giant, lord of the rock of galtares, and overcame and killed him.
      (pp. 125-135)

      To the giant went the news, and it was not long before he came out on a horse, appearing on it so tremendous that there was no man in the world who would have dared to look at him. He wore plated armor of such length that it covered him from his neck down to his saddle, and a large helmet, which was moreover very bright; and he carried a huge, very heavy iron mace with which he was accustomed to deal blows. The squires and the damsels were very much frightened on seeing him, and Galaor was not then...

    • CHAPTER XIII How amadis left urganda the unknown and arrived at a fortress, and what happened to him there.
      (pp. 136-151)

      Amadis, having departed from Urganda the Unknown with great joy in his heart at having learned that the one whom he had knighted was his brother and because he believed he would quickly be where his lady was, for even though he might not see her, it would be a great consolation to him to see the place where she was, traveled so far toward that destination through a forest without finding a town that nightfall overtook him in the forest; and after a bit he saw at a distance a lighted home that appeared over the trees, and he...

    • CHAPTER XIV How king lisuarte had dardan and his lady love buried, and caused to be placed on their tomb an inscription that told of the manner of their death.
      (pp. 152-162)

      This battle, in which Dardan and his lady love had such a cruel death, having thus been won, the king ordered two burial crypts to be brought and had put on them lions of stone, and within the crypts they placed Dardan and his lady love in the field where the battle had taken place, together with an inscription that signalized what had happened. And afterwards in due time there was placed there the name of the one who defeated him, as will be subsequently related.

      And the king asked what had become of the strange knight. But they did...

    • CHAPTER XV How amadis made himself known to king lisuarte and to the grandees of his court and was well received by all.
      (pp. 163-172)

      Amadis took his ease that day with the damsels, and next morning armed himself, and mounting his horse, taking with him only the damsels, he went to the town. The king was in his palace, for he did not know from what direction the knight would come. Amadis went to the lodging of the lady, and when she saw him, she knelt before him and said,

      “Ah, sir, all I have you gave to me.”

      He raised her up, and said,

      “Lady, let us go to the king, and by his giving you your release, I shall be at liberty...

    • CHAPTER XVI Concerning what agrajes saw after he came from the war in gaul, and some of the things he did.
      (pp. 173-184)

      Agrajes, having returned from the war in Gaul at the time that Amadis had killed in battle King Abies of Ireland and had become acquainted with his father and mother, as has been related; having prepared to cross to Norway where his lady Olinda was, went hunting one day, and being on a rocky hill overlooking the sea coast, suddenly there came up a hail storm with a very high wind, so that it caused the sea to become very rough; on which he saw a ship, buffeted many times by the force of the waves, in danger of being...

    • CHAPTER XVII How amadis was very well liked in the court of king lisuarte, and the news he learned concerning his brother galaor.
      (pp. 185-195)

      It has been related to you how Amadis remained in the household of King Lisuarte as knight of the queen at the time that he killed that haughty and brave Dardan in battle, and there he was greatly beloved and honored by the king as well as by all others; and one day the queen sent for him In order to speak with him, and while he was in her presence, a damsel entered by the gate of the palace and kneeling before the queen, said,

      “Lady, is there a knight here who bears arms with a lion device?”

      She...

    • CHAPTER XVIII How amadis fought with angriote and with his brother and overcame them, who were guarding a pass into a valley at which they were maintaining by force of arms that no one had a more beautiful ladylove than angriote had.
      (pp. 196-209)

      As soon as the brother of Angriote saw him, he took up his arms and kept advancing toward him, and said,

      “Certainly, knight, you have done a very mad thing not to concede what has been demanded of you, for you will have to fight with me.”

      “This gives me more pleasure,” said Amadis, “than to agree to the greatest falsehood in the world.”

      “And I know,” said the knight, “that you will concede it in another place where greater shame will be yours.”

      “I do not think so,” said he, “God willing.”

      “Defend yourself then,” said the knight.

      Then...

    • CHAPTER XIX How amadis was enchanted by arcalaus because he sought to disenchant and take lady grindalaya out of prison, and how he escaped from the spell under winch arcalaus had put him.
      (pp. 210-218)

      Grindalaya, for this was the name of the imprisoned lady, so sorely grieved over Amadis that it was pitiful to hear her, saying to the wife of Arcalaus and to the other duennas who were with her,

      “Oh, my ladies! Don’t you see what knightly good looks and at what a tender age he was one of the greatest knights in the world? Cursed be those who know enchantments which so much evil and harm can do to good men! Oh, my God, who art willing to permit this!”

      The wife of Arcalaus who, to the same degree that her...

    • CHAPTER XX How arcalaus carried the news to the court of king lisuarte that amadis was dead, and concerning the great weeping done for him throughout the court, especially oriana’s.
      (pp. 219-225)

      After he left Amadis enchanted, Arcalaus on Amadis’s horse and wearing his armor, traveled so fast that in ten days he arrived at the court of King Lisuarte one morning as the sun was rising; and at this time King Lisuarte had ridden forth with a very large retinue and was going along between his palace and the forest, and saw Arcalaus as he came toward him. And when they recognized the horse and also the arms, they all thought it was Amadis, and the king went toward him very happily. But when they were closer, they saw it was...

    • CHAPTER XXI How galaor arrived at a monastery sorely wounded and stayed there two weeks, at the end of which he was healed, and what happened to him afterwards.
      (pp. 226-239)

      Don Galaor was for two weeks wounded in the monastery to which the damsel who had gotten him out of prison brought him; at the end of which being disposed to take up arms, he left there and traveled along a road where chance guided him, for his will was to go no more in one direction than in another; and at noon he found himself in a valley where there was a fountain, and he found at the side of it an armed knight, but he had no horse or any other animal, at which Galaor was surprised and...

    • CHAPTER XXII How amadis set out from the castle of the duenna, and what happened to him along the way.
      (pp. 240-244)

      Amadis took leave of the duenna and the girl and started on his way, and journeyed without finding any adventure until he reached the forest which is called Angaduza; the dwarf was going ahead, and along the road that they were following came a knight and a maiden, and when he was near him, the knight took his sword in hand and charged at the dwarf to chop off his head. The dwarf, frightened, dropped from the hackney, saying:

      “Help me, sir, for they are killing me!”

      Amadis, who saw it, hastened up very quickly, and said:

      “What is this,...

    • CHAPTER XXIII How king lisuarte, going out on a hunt as he was accustomed to do at other times, saw three armed knights coming along the road, and what happened to him with them.
      (pp. 245-253)

      As King Lisuarte was a great hunter, and would have been a game beater if he had been free from other things more befitting his high estate, he often went out to hunt in a forest that was near the town of Windsor, in which, it being very well protected, there were many deer and other wild animals; and he was always accustomed to wearing hunting clothes, for he took care of each situation in the proper way. And one day, being with his company of game beaters near a main highway, he saw coming toward him three armed knights,...

    • CHAPTER XXIV Concerning how amadis and galaor and balays decided to go to king lisuarte, and the adventures that thereby came to them.
      (pp. 254-261)

      Amadis and Galaor were in the house of Balays until they were healed of their wounds, and they agreed to go to the court of King Lisuarte before they became involved in other adventures; and Balays, who wanted very much to be of that court, especially having acquaintance with two such knights, begged them to take him with them, to which they willingly agreed; and after hearing mass, they all three armed themselves and started straight for Windsor, were the king was; and they traveled so far that at the end of five days they arrived at a crossroads, where...

    • CHAPTER XXV How galaor avenged the death of the knight whom they had found foully murdered at the tree by the crossroads.
      (pp. 262-267)

      They gave him a horse, and he went away with the maidens; and they journeyed until they reached a forest and saw in it a fortress that was on a very high cliff, and the maidens said to him:

      “Sir, there you have to avenge the knight.”

      “Let us go there,” said he, “and tell me the name of the one who killed him.”

      “Palingues,” said they.

      At this point they arrived at the castle and saw the gate closed. Galaor knocked, and an armed man coming above the gate, said:

      “What do you want?” “To enter there,” said Galaor....

    • CHAPTER XXVI What happened to amadis when he went in quest of the damsel whom the knight was carrying off by force and abusing.
      (pp. 268-276)

      Amadis, who was going after the knight who was abducting the maiden by force and kept striking her, traveled a long way in order to overtake him; and before he overtook him, he met another armed knight on horseback, who said to him:

      “What trouble of yours is so great as to make you come at such speed?”

      “What is it to you,” said Amadis, “if I go fast or slow? “If you are fleeing from someone, I will protect you.”

      “I do not need your protection now,” said Amadis.

      The knight took his horse by the reins and said:...

    • CHAPTER XXVII How amadis fought with the knight who had stolen the maiden while he was sleeping, and how he defeated him.
      (pp. 277-281)

      While they were talking about this, there came to them a knight fully armed except his head and hands. He was tall and muscular and sufficiently well-built to have great strength; and he said to Amadis:

      “Sir knight, they tell me you demand a maiden whom I brought here; and I did not use force on you, for she wanted to come with me rather than remain with you; and so I maintain that I don’t have any reason to give her up to you.”

      “Then show her to me,” said Amadis.

      “I do not have any reason to show...

    • CHAPTER XXVIII Concerning what happened to balays, who went in search of the knight who had caused don galaor to lose his horse.
      (pp. 282-286)

      Balays of Carsante went after the knight who turned loose Don Galaor’s horse, who already was a long distance away; and although he hurried greatly to overtake him, night overtook him first, which was very dark, and he traveled on until midnight. Then he heard some voices in front of him on a riverbank and went thither, and found five thieves who had a maiden whom they were seeking to rape; and one of them was dragging her by the hair to put her among some rocks, and all were armed with battle axes and coats of mail. Balays, who...

    • CHAPTER XXIX How king lisuarte held a convocation of nobles, and concerning what happened there.
      (pp. 287-291)

      With the news that the dwarf brought to King Lisuarte about Amadis and Don Galaor, the king was very happy, having the intention of holding the most honorable convocation of nobles and of the greatest number of knights that was ever held in Great Britain, pending the arrival of Amadis and Galaor.

      One day Olivas appeared before the king to complain about the Duke of Bristol, who had treacherously slain a cousin of his. The king, having taken counsel with those who knew the most about this, set one month as a deadline for the duke to come and answer,...

    • CHAPTER XXX How amadis and galaor and balays came to the palace of king lisuarte, and what happened to them afterwards.
      (pp. 292-297)

      Having left the maiden’s castle, Amadis and Galaor, and Balays with them, pursued their journey until they arrived at the court of King Lisuarte, where they were received with such honor and joy by the king and the queen, and by all those of the court, as never in any other place were other knights received where they arrived: Galaor, because they had never seen him, and knew of the great feats at arms that he had performed through hearsay; and Amadis, on account of the news of his death that had reached there, for as he was esteemed by...

    • CHAPTER XXXI How king lisuarte went to hold his convocation of nobles in the city of london.
      (pp. 298-306)

      As God made this Lisuarte king, who had been a prince without inheritance, by His mercy through the death of his brother King Falangriz, King of Great Britain, so did He impel (as may all things be permitted and guided by Him) so many knights, so many royal princesses, and many others from foreign lands of high degree and lineage, to come to serve him with great affection, no one considering himself satisfied in his duties unless he could call himself the king’s man; and because such things, according to our weakness, attract great arrogance and with it to a...

    • CHAPTER XXXII How king lisuarte, his parliament of nobles having assembled, sought to learn the counsel of the knights on what was proper for him to do.
      (pp. 307-311)

      King Lisuarte remained to speak with his nobles, and said to them:

      “Friends, since God has made me richer and more powerful in land and people than any of my neighbors, so it is right that while maintaining my service to Him, I should try to do better and more praiseworthy things than any of them; and I wish you to tell me all that your judgment perceives wherein I may sustain you and me in greater honor; and I say to you that I shall do it thus.”

      Barsinan, lord of Sansuenia, who was in the council, said:

      “Good...

    • CHAPTER XXXIII How while king lisuarte was greatly enjoying himself, a maiden clad in mourning bowed before him to ask of him a favor such that it was granted her by him.
      (pp. 312-322)

      While King Lisuarte was enjoying himself so much with such companionship as you hear, Fortune now being about to begin her work whereby that great festival might be thrown into confusion, a very beautiful maiden clad in mourning entered the gate of the palace, and kneeling before the king, said:

      “Sir, everybody is pleasured except me alone, who have worry and sadness, and I cannot lose it except through you.”

      “Friend,” said the king, “What is this worry that you have?”

      “Sir,” said she, “It is on account of my father and my uncle who are in a lady’s prison...

    • CHAPTER XXXIV In which is shown the ruination of king lisuarte; and concerning all that happened to him because of his promises, which were improper.
      (pp. 323-331)

      King Lisuarte and Queen Brisena, his wife, being with many knights and ladies and maidens in their tents on the fourth day after Amadis and Galaor had departed from there, the knight who had left him the mantle and the crown, as you have heard, entered the door and knelt before the king and said to him:

      “Sire, how is it that you do not have the beautiful crown that I left you; and you, Madam Queen, the luxurious mantle?”

      The king remained silent, for he did not seek to make any reply, and the knight said:

      “I am quite...

    • CHAPTER XXXV How amadis and galaor learned about the treason perpetrated, and decided to accomplish, if they could, the liberation of the king and of oriana.
      (pp. 332-340)

      While Amadis and Galaor were coming along the road to London from where they had incurred no less than the danger of death by being in the prison of the chatelaine of the castle of Gantasi, at two leagues from the city, they saw Ardian the dwarf coming as fast as his steed could carry him. Amadis, who recognized him, said:

      “That is my dwarf. I doubt not that he comes in distress about someone, for he is seeking us.”

      The dwarf came up to them and told them all the news, how they had carried away Oriana.

      “Alas, Holy...

    • CHAPTER XXXVI How don galaor set free king lisuarte from the captivity in which he was being treacherously transported.
      (pp. 341-347)

      Don Galaor, having left Amadis, his brother, as you have already heard, started along the road over which they were taking the king. And he made haste to go as fast as he could, as one who had a very great anxiety to overtake them, and who was not paying attention to anything he might see except their trail; and thus he journeyed until the hour of vespers, when he entered a valley and found in it the hoof prints where the horses had stopped; then he followed that trail as fast as his horse could carry him, for it...

    • CHAPTER XXXVII How the news came to the queen that king lisuarte. was a captive; and how barsinan carried out his treason, seeking to be king, and finally was ruined and the king restored to his kingdom.
      (pp. 348-352)

      The wood-cutters who had seen what had happened to the king, reached the town and told everything. When this was known, the agitation was tremendous; and all the knights armed themselves and they set out in all directions at the full speed of their horses, so that the countryside seemed to be full of them. Arban, the king of North Wales remained speaking with the queen, and his squires arrived there with his arms and horses; and coming in to where he was, a page said to him:

      “Sir, arm yourself; what are you doing? Now not a knight of...

    • CHAPTER XXXVIII Concerning how amadis came to the aid of the city of london and killed that traitor of a barsinan and restored the whole city to calm.
      (pp. 353-360)

      Amadis, lodging in the woods with his lady Oriana, as we told you, asked her what Arcalaus said; she replied:

      “That I should not lament, that he would make me queen of London within two weeks and that he would give me Barsinan for my husband, whom he would make king of my father’s land, and that he would be his chief steward in exchange for his having given him me and my father’s head.”

      “Oh, Holy Mary!” said Arnadis. “What great treason Barsinan’s, to pretend to be such a friend of the king! And I am afraid he will...

    • CHAPTER XXXIX About how king lisuarte held his convocation of nobles that lasted twelve days, during which great celebrations were held by many of high degree who came there, ladies as well as knights, many of whom stayed on there a few days.
      (pp. 361-368)

      The king held his court there for twelve days, at which many things were done to the great aggrandizement of his honor and veracity; afterwards the convocation was adjourned, and although many people went back to their lands, so many nobles remained with the king that it was marvellous to see them; furthermore the queen had many ladies and maidens of high rank remain with her, and the king took as members of his retinue Guilan the Pensive and Ladasin his cousin, who were very good knights; but Guilan was the better, as in all the kingdom of London there...

    • CHAPTER XL How the battle took place that amadis had promised the beautiful young girl briolanja in grovenesa’s castle to wage against abiseos and his two sons in revenge for the death of the king her father.
      (pp. 369-377)

      The story has related to you how Amadis was in the castle of Grovenesa where he promised Briolanja, the beautiful young girl, to afford her vengeance for the death of the king, her father, and to be there with her within a year, bringing with him two other knights in order to fight with Abiseos and his two sons; and how at his departure, the beautiful young girl gave him a sword to bear for love of her, seeing that he needed it, because he had broken his own defending himself from the knights who deceitfully sought to kill him...

    • CHAPTER XLI How don galaor went with the maiden in search of the knight who had overthrown them, until he fought with him, and how in the greatest violence of the battle he recognized him as his brother florestan.
      (pp. 378-388)

      Don Galaor traveled four days under the guidance of the maiden, who was to show him the knight of the forest; during which time such great fury entered his heart that he did not fight with a single knight to whom he did not exhibit complete animosity, so that most of those he fought with were killed by his hand, thus compensating for the success of one whom they did not know; and at the end of these days he arrived at the home of a knight who dwelt in the highest point of a valley in a beautiful fortress....

    • CHAPTER XLII Which relates of don florestan how he was a son of king perion, and how he was engendered in a very beautiful damsel, daughter of the count of zelandia.
      (pp. 389-406)

      Concerning this brave and courageous knight Don Florestan, I want you to know how and in what land he was begot and by whom. Know you that when King Perion was a youth, with his courageous and valiant heart looking for adventures in many foreign lands, he dwelt two years in Germany, where he performed so many great deeds at arms, that were recounted as marvels among all the Germans. Then returning now to his land with much glory and fame, he happened to lodge one night in the house of the Count of Zelandia, who was very happy with...

    • CHAPTER XLIII About how don galaor and florestan, being on their way to the kingdom of sobradisa, met three maidens at the fountain of the elms.
      (pp. 407-418)

      Don Galaor and Florestan were in the castle of Corisanda, as you have heard, until they were healed of their wounds; then they agreed to leave in order to look for Amadis, whom they understood that they would find in the kingdom of Sobradisa, wishing that the battle that was to be there had not taken place until they should arrive and take part in the danger and the glory, if God granted it to them. When Florestan bade farewell to his sweetheart, her anguish and grief were so excessive, and with so many tears, that they pitied her very...

  8. Book II
    • THE SECOND BOOK OF AMADIS OF GAUL BEGINS
      (pp. 419-424)

      Because the abundance of great events of Book IV of theAmadiswas initiated from the Firm Island, just as it is shown in said Book, it is fitting that in this second Book an account be given concerning what this island was like, and who had those enchantments that were in it and the great riches thereof; since this being the beginning of said Book II, it is related in the proper place.

      There was a king in Greece married to a sister of the emperor of Constantinople, by whom he had two very handsome sons, especially the elder,...

    • CHAPTER XLIV How amadis with his brothers and agrajes, his cousin, left for where king lisuarte was; and how they chanced to go to the enchanted firm island to test its hazards, and what happened to them there.
      (pp. 425-436)

      Amadis and his brothers and his cousin Agrajes were with Queen Briolanja in the kingdom of Sobradisa, where they were highly honored by her and were very well served by all those of the kingdom. As Amadis kept thinking about his lady Oriana and her outstanding beauty, his heart was tormented by great anguish and by great grief. So many tears did he shed sleeping and awake, that however much he wished to conceal them, they were manifest to all; but not knowing the cause of them, they interpreted them in various ways; because just as the situation was serious,...

    • CHAPTER XLV How durin left with oriana’s letter for amadis, and how amadis, having seen the letter, abandoned all that he undertaken and in despair went secretly to a forest.
      (pp. 437-443)

      Then Durin, carrying out Oriana’s order, left at once on a very swift palfrey so that at the end of ten days he arrived in Sobradisa, where the beautiful queen Briolanja was. When he arrived in her presence, she seemed to him the most beautiful woman, next to Oriana, that he had seen; and having learned from her that two days before he arrived Amadis and his brothers and his cousin Agrajes had left there, he, following their trail, journeyed so fast that he reached the Firm Island at the time that Amadis was entering the arch of the loyal...

    • CHAPTER XLVI How gandalin and durin trailed amadis, bringing to him the arms that he had left behind; and how they found him and how he fought with a knight and overcame him.
      (pp. 444-451)

      Gandalin, who had remained in the hermitage with the others as you have heard, when he saw Amadis leave thus, said while shedding many tears:

      “I shall continue to follow him, although he has forbidden me to do so, and I shall bring him his arms.”

      And Durin said to him:

      “I wish to keep you company this night, and I should be quite pleased if we were to find him with a better resolution.”

      And then mounting their horses, they bade farewell to Ysanjo and started out on the road that Amadis had taken; and Ysanjo went to the...

    • CHAPTER XLVII Which relates who the knight conquered by amadis was, and the things that had happened to him before he was overcome by amadis.
      (pp. 452-456)

      That wounded knight of whom we already have told you, was named Patin, and he was a brother of Don Sidon, who at the time was emperor of Rome, and was the finest knight at arms in those parts, so that by all those of the empire he was greatly feared. And the emperor was very old and had no heir, so that everybody thought that this Patin would succeed him in ruling. He loved a queen of Sardinia named Sardamira, who was a very elegant and beautiful maiden, who, because she was a niece of the empress had been...

    • CHAPTER XLVIII How don galaor, florestan, and agrajes went in search of amadis, and how amadis, having abandoned his arms and changed his name, retired to a solitary life with a good old man in a hermitage.
      (pp. 457-469)

      How Amadis departed in great sorrow from the Firm Island has already been told to you — for it was so secret that Don Galaor and Don Florestan, his brothers, and his cousin Agrajes were not aware of it — and how he took assurance from Ysanjo that the latter would not tell of his departure until the next day after mass. Ysanjo complied, for having heard mass, they asked for Amadis, and he told them,

      “Arm yourselves and I shall tell you his message.”

      And after they were armed, Ysanjo began to weep bitterly and said:

      ”Oh, sirs, what sorrow and...

    • CHAPTER XLIX How durin, oriana’s page, returned to his mistress with the reply to the message that he had brought for amadis, and concerning the weeping she did when she had the news.
      (pp. 470-474)

      After Durin left Amadis in the forest where Patin remained wounded, as we have related, he started out on the road to London, where King Lisuarte was, and he hurried his pace in order to acquaint Oriana with that unfortunate news about Amadis, so that, if it were possible, he might help somewhat in the matter in which her letter had done so much harm. And he covered so much distance that in ten days he reached London; and dismounting at his lodging, he went to the palace of the queen. And when Oriana saw him, her heart was so...

    • CHAPTER L How gullan the pensive took the shield and the arms of amadis, which he found at the fountain of the grassy plain without any guard, and brought them to the court of king lisuarte.
      (pp. 475-482)

      After Don Guilan the Pensive left the fountain where he found the arms of Amadis, as has been told you, he traveled seven days over the road to the court of King Lisuarte, and always wore the shield of Amadis slung from his neck; he never took it off except in two places where he was forced to fight, when he gave it to his squires and took his own. And one was when he met two knights, nephews of Arcalaus, and they recognized the shield and sought to take it away from him, saying they would take it to...

    • CHAPTER LI Which tells how, while beltenebros was on the poor cliff, a ship arrived there in which corisanda was coming in search of her lover, florestan, and of the things that happened; and what she recounted at the court of king lisuarte.
      (pp. 483-492)

      Beltenebros being on the Poor Cliff, as we have already told you, one day the hermit had him sit down beside him on a stone bench that was at the door of the hermitage, and said:

      “Son, I beg you to tell me what it is that made you shout so in your dreams when we were at the Fountain of the Grassy Plain.”

      “That I shall tell you, good sir, gladly, and I beseech you in heaven’s name to tell me what you make of it, whether it be to my pleasure or my sorrow.”

      Then he told him...

    • CHAPTER LII How the maid of denmark went in search of amadis, and by lucky chance, after much effort, landed on the poor cliff, where amadis, who was called beltenebros, was; and how they came to see lady oriana.
      (pp. 493-499)

      The maid of Denmark was with the queen of Scotland for ten days, not so much for her pleasure as because she was quite seasick, and moreover because she had not found any news of Amadis in that land, to which she had come with high hopes of obtaining some, believing that the death of her lady would be entailed by the bad report that she carried. And bidding goodbye to the queen, bearing the gifts that she gave her for Queen Brisena, and Oriana, and Mabilia, her daughter, she returned to the sea in order to go back with...

    • CHAPTER LIII How don galaor and florestan and agrajes left the firm island in search of amadis; and how they traveled a long time without being able to find any trace of him, and so they came completely disconsolate to the court where king lisuarte was.
      (pp. 500-515)

      It has already been related to you how Don Galaor and Don Florestan and Agrajes left the Firm Island on their quest for Amadis, and how they traveled through many lands, each one following a separate route, performing mighty exploits at arms, not only in populated places but also in forests and on mountains, of which, because they did not complete their quest, no mention is made, as we have already said. Then at the end of a year, during which they could find out nothing, they returned to the place which they had agreed upon, which was a hermitage...

    • CHAPTER LIV How, when king lisuarte was at table after eating, a strange knight entered completely armed and challenged the king his whole court; and concerning what florestan did with him; and how oriana was consoled and amadis found.
      (pp. 516-525)

      King Lisuarte being at table after eating, and the table having been cleared, when Don Galaor and Don Florestan and Agrajes were about to bid him farewell in order to escort Corisanda on her way, a strange knight in full armor except head and hands, entered the gate of the palace, and two squires with him; and he was bearing in his hand a letter with five seals, and kneeling he gave it to the king saying to him:

      “Read that letter, and afterwards I shall tell you what I come for.”

      The king read it, and on seeing that...

    • CHAPTER LV How beltenebros ordered arms and complete equipment made in order to go and see his lady oriana, and concerning the adventures that happened to him on the way, he overcoming don quadragante and the giants famongomadan and basagante.
      (pp. 526-542)

      Then returning to Beltenebros, who had remained in the quarters of the lay sisters, waiting for the message from his lady, the story tells that being already, because of his great contentment, considerably restored in health and strength, he gave orders to Enil to have made in that town near where he was, some arms with a green field and as many small lions in gold as there would be room for, along with his device, and to buy for him a good horse and a sword and the best coat of mail that he could get. Enil went up...

    • CHAPTER LVI How beltenebros, the aforementioned adventures having been finished, went to the fountain of the three jets, from where he arranged to go to miraflores, where his lady oriana was; and how a strange knight brought some jewels testing faithful lovers to the court of the king; and beltenebros with his lady oriana went unrecognized to win the glory of the quest in the test of true love.
      (pp. 543-552)

      Beltenebros, experiencing great pleasure at having concluded such a dangerous confrontation, having taken leave of the maidens and knights, returned to the other maidens whom he had found at the fountain, who had already emerged from among the trees to come to him. And he gave orders to Enil to go to London to see Gandalin, Enil’s cousin, and to have some arms and armor made similar to those he had borne in those battles, for his were all so shattered that he had no protection from them, and to buy him a good sword, and at the end of...

    • CHAPTER LVII How beltenebros and oriana sent the maid of denmark to the court to ascertain the reply which for security they had sent to ask the king for, and how they went to the test and were the ones who won the honor over all others.
      (pp. 553-567)

      Next day they told the maid of Denmark to go to London to find out what reply the king was giving. to Enil, and to tell the queen and all the ladies-in-waiting and maidens that Oriana had felt ill and she was staying abed. The maiden went at once to carry out their order and she did not return until quite late; and her delay was because the king came out to receive Queen Briolanja, who had come there, and she was bringing a hundred knights to look for Amadis, under the direction of his brothers. “And she brought twenty...

    • CHAPTER LVIII How beltenebros came to miraflores and was with his lady oriana after the victory of the sword and headdress; and from there he went to the battle that was agreed upon with king cildadan, and what happened in it at the victory that they had.
      (pp. 568-581)

      Beltenebros was with his lady in Miraflores for three days after he had won the sword and the headdress of flowers; and on the fourth day he left there alone at midnight, with only his arms and horse, for he ordered his squire Enil to go to a castle that was at the foot of a mountain near where the battle was to take place. This castle belonged to an old knight who was called Abradan, from whom all the knights errant received much service; and that night Beltenebros passed near the army of King Lisuarte. And he traveled so...

    • CHAPTER LIX How king cildadan and don galaor were carried away in order to heal them, and were placed, the one in a strong tower flanked by the sea, the other in a garden with high walls and adorned with iron gratings, where each one of them, on recovering consciousness, thought he was in prison, they not knowing by whom they had been brought there and what else had happened to them.
      (pp. 582-595)

      Now we shall tell you what became of King Cildadan and Galaor. Know you that the maidens who carried them away took care of their wounds and on the third day they were completely conscious again. And Don Galaor found himself inside a garden in a finely wrought edifice supported by four marble pillars, enclosed from pillar to pillar with a strong grating of iron, so that the garden, from a bed where he was placed, was visible, and what he could manage to see of it appeared to be surrounded by a high wall, in which there was a...

    • CHAPTER LX How the king saw the rare spectacle of fires coming along over the sea, which were from a ship in which urganda the enchantress was traveling; and what happened to him with her.
      (pp. 596-606)

      After having supped, the king being on a gallery, it being already almost bedtime, on looking toward the sea he saw coming over it two fires that were approaching the town; at which all were frightened, it seeming to them a strange thing that fire should unite with water. But when they drew nearer they saw between the fires a galley on the mast of which some huge burning candles appeared so that it seemed that the whole galley was burning. The noise was so loud that all the people of the town came to the walls to see that...

    • CHAPTER LXI How king lisuarte was discussing with his knights his desire to attack the island of the boiling lake in order to set free from prison king arban of north wales and angriote of estravaus; and how he being thus engaged, a giant maiden came by sea and asked the king in the presence of the queen and the court that amadis fight with ardan canileo; and if that ardan canileo were defeated, the island would be subject to the king, and the prisoners whom they so greatly desired to set free would be yielded; and if amadis were defeated, they wanted only to be allowed to take his head to madasima.
      (pp. 607-626)

      Urganda having left as you have heard, and some days having passed, whUe King Lisuarte was riding through the countryside talking with his knights about the voyage he wished to make to the island of Mongaza, where the Boiling Lake was, in order to release from prison King Arban of North Wales and Angriote of Estravaus, they saw approaching over the sea a ship that was coming to land at the port of that town, and he went there at once to find out who was traveling in it. When the king arrived, there were already coming in a small...

    • CHAPTER LXII How the battle was fought between don bruneo of bonamar and madaman the envious, brother of the big damsel; and concerning the uprising caused through envy of these knights who were friends of amadis, for which reason amadis took leave of the court of king lisuarte.
      (pp. 627-646)

      This battle between Amadis and Ardan Canileo having taken place as you have heard, there appeared promptly the next day before the king Don Bruneo of Bonamar, and with him many good knights by whom he was loved and esteemed; and he found there the big damsel, who was saying to the king that her brother was ready for the battle, that he should order that one to come with whom he was to fight; and although the vengeance achieved on him would be small in comparison with the worth of that brave Ardan Canileo, since no more could be...

    • CHAPTER LXIII How amadis took his leave of king lisuarte, and with him ten other knights, relatives and friends of amadis, the best and most vigorous of all the court; and they pursued their way to the firm island, where briolanja was trying the adventure of the staunch lovers and that of the forbidden chamber; and how they decided to free madasima and her maidens from the power of the king.
      (pp. 647-662)

      As Amadis saw the dislike that the king showed toward him, taking with him all those knights he went to take leave of him; and as he entered the palace, and they saw his face changed from what it was accustomed to be, and at such a time that the tables were already set, they all arrived to hear what he would say. And coming before the king, he said to him:

      “Sire, if you wrong me in any way, God and you know it, and now I shall say no more, because although my services were great, much greater...

    • CHAPTER LXIV How oriana found herself in great distress on account of the departure of amadis and the other knights, and more so on finding herself pregnant; and how twelve of the knights who were with amadis on the firm island came to protect madasima and the other maidens who were placed with her in danger of death without having any just reason as to why they should die.
      (pp. 663-682)

      It has been related to you how Amadis was with lady Oriana in the castle of Miraflores during the period of a week apparently; from that union Oriana was made pregnant, which was not known or perceived by her. as a person who knew little about such matters, until the great change in her health and the weakness of her person had already made it manifest to her. And when she realized it, she drew Mabilia and the maid of Denmark aside, and weeping, said to them:

      “Alas, my good friends! What will become of me? For as I see...

  9. NOTES
    (pp. 683-685)