Collectivization of Agriculture in Eastern Europe

Collectivization of Agriculture in Eastern Europe

ENNO E. KRAEHE
PHILIP E. MOSELY
EDMUND O. STILLMAN
ERNEST KOENIG
NICOLAS SPULBER
JOZO TOMASEVICH
IRWIN T. SANDERS Editor
Copyright Date: 1958
Pages: 224
https://www.jstor.org/stable/j.ctt130jc0w
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  • Book Info
    Collectivization of Agriculture in Eastern Europe
    Book Description:

    Collectivization of agriculture is an essential feature of the Communist program for the satellite countries of Eastern Europe. It is a means of extending state control of agriculture as well as the basis for developing large-scale industrial and military power. Irwin T. Sanders has edited this excellent group of papers by specialists on Eastern Europe and American rural social scientists, which collectively serve as an analysis of efforts to regiment the East European peasant.

    To those for whom the terms "collective farm" and "collectivization" have little meaning, this book will provide an actual picture of Communist effort to organize millions of peasants into a standard pattern of production and control. Such regimentation, these writers show, has led to less efficient agriculture from the standpoint of total production although it facilitates the delivery of produce to state economic enterprises.

    eISBN: 978-0-8131-6422-9
    Subjects: History, Sociology, Political Science

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-iv)
  2. FOREWORD
    (pp. v-vi)
    Martin M. White

    SPRING EACH YEAR bring to the campus of the University of Kentucky numerous delegates to scores of conferences. The spring of 1955 was no exception; yet it claims a unique quality, for on April 14–16 the University was host to the Conference on Collectivization in Eastern Europe.

    This Conference, which was directed by Professor Irwin T. Sanders of the University’s Department of Sociology, brought together specialists in Eastern European agriculture—some of them former government officials in the preCommunist days—and rural social scientists who had no particular acquaintance with the area. Five well-known authorities delivered background papers to...

  3. Table of Contents
    (pp. vii-vii)
  4. MAPS
    (pp. viii-viii)
  5. TABLES
    (pp. ix-x)
  6. INTRODUCTION
    (pp. 1-6)
    Irwin T. Sanders

    THE DRAMATIC STORY of the struggle between the Eastern European peasants and Communist governments is best revealed in the fate of official efforts all “collectivizing” the family holdings into kolkhozi, or collective farms. The box score to date shows that the peasant has more than held his own in some of the countries, with the situation seemingly running against him in other countries. Yugoslavia and Poland have – for the time being at least – given up the idea of “collectivizing” the peasant; Hungary is trying to restore what collectivization it can from the aftermath of the October, 1956, revolution. In Czechoslovakia,...

  7. Chapter 1 EASTERN EUROPE AND WORLD AFFAIRS
    (pp. 7-23)
    Enno E. Kraehe

    IN A GENERAL WAY, when historical, political, and economic factors, as well as geography, are taken into account, the term Eastern Europe refers to the territory between Russia on the east and Germany, Austria, and Italy on the west. Some, especially certain German nationalists, might wish to extend Central Europe a good deal farther east than this, and others, especially geographers, might prefer to include in Eastern Europe all Russia up to the Ural Mountains. However, this book is concerned with the phenomenon of collectivized agriculture outside the Soviet Union, and that means the area west of Russia but still...

  8. Chapter 2 THE PEASANTRIES OF EASTERN EUROPE
    (pp. 24-48)
    Irwin T. Sanders

    EASTERN EUROPE has often been called “the peasant belt.” The statistics of rural-urban distribution testify revealingly how dominant the peasant way of life is in this area. For 1930—a halfway period between the two World Wars—in four countries (Albania, Bulgaria, Romania, and Yugoslavia) more than 70 percent of the people were dependent upon agriculture; in Poland, over 60 percent; in Hungary, more than 50 percent. Only Czechoslovakia (with 33 percent) bad less than half of her population in agriculture. But even in the case of Czechoslovakia the modern societies of Czechs and Slovaks alike developed by gradual differentiation...

  9. Chapter 3 COLLECTIVIZATION OF AGRICLTURE IN SOVIET STRATEGY
    (pp. 49-66)
    Philip E. Mosely

    COLLECTIVIZED AGRICULTURE, with its profound political, economic, and cultural impact, is an essential part of the Communist system elaborated and applied in the Soviet Union. Now it has been imposed upon the satellite or captive countries of Eastern Europe; it has also been adopted with some modifications in Yugoslavia and in Communist China, which lie within the geographical sphere of the Communist ideology. Under Communist regimes, collectivization provides the basic structure of large-scale, state-controlled agriculture as well as the indispensable underpinning for the development of large-scale industry and of military power. It also confronts the Communist regimes with numerous and...

  10. Chapter 4 THE COLLECTIVIZATION OF BULGARIAN AGRICULTURE
    (pp. 67-102)
    Edmund O. Stillman

    THE TRANSFER of the Soviet land system to the Eastern European satellites was an agrarian resolution imposed from without and from above.¹ The peculiarities of satellite collectivization policies, in my opinion, are frequently traceable to the absence of a genuinely national revolutionary elan.

    In the Soviet Union the institution of the collective farm, or kolkhoz, has a continuous history dating back to the Stalinist land offensive of 1928–1932, and even earlier to the first post-Revolutionary efforts to encourage the growth of rural communes and artels. The precise origins of the idea of the collective farm are more or less...

  11. Chapter 5 COLLECTIVIZATION IN CZECHOSLOVAKIA AND POLAND
    (pp. 103-139)
    Ernest Koenig

    THIS ESSAY will center on four questions covering only the most important aspects of collectivization in czechoslovakia and poland. However, these questions seem broad enough to embrace these basic factors: (1) What are the reasons for collectivization? (2) How does the process of collectivization proceed? (3) How are collectives organized? (4) What are the material and economic results of collective farming?

    It has been held that the policy of collectivization has been primarily determined by the ease with which agricultural resources needed for industrial development can be exacted from the collectives. This is the view advanced by western students of...

  12. Chapter 6 COLLECTIVIZATION IN HUNGARY AND ROMANIA
    (pp. 140-165)
    Nicolas Spulber

    THE DECADE extending from 1945 to the present can be divided into two parts: (1) up to 1948–1949, the period of land reform; (2) after 1948–1949, the period collectivization of agriculture. During the first period, wide land reforms brought about not only the splitting up of large estates, but also a further parceling of an already highly subdivided countryside in Romania, The measures taken since 1948–1949 aim precisely at undoing the achievements of the first period. They tend toward the liquidation of the excessive land parceling and of the peasant ownership, as well as toward the concentration...

  13. Chapter 7 COLLECTIVIZATION OF AGRICULTURE IN YUGOSLAVIA
    (pp. 166-192)
    Jozo Tomasevich

    YUGOSLAV AGRICULTURE during the interwar period was characterized by predominantly peasant subsistence farming, by primitive techniques of production, by dearth of capital and small capacity to save and to invest, by a growing agricultural overpopulation which had a tendency to lower the living level of those occupied in agriculture, by a primitively organized market for agricultural products, by an unsolved problem of agricultural credit, and by a heavy taxation burden. The traditional antagonism between the city and the village was growing rather than abating. Generally speaking, the peasantry had practically no influence on the formulation of government policies either in...

  14. APPENDIX A. Marxist Population Doctrine
    (pp. 193-195)
    J. Allan Beegle and Ray E. Wakeley
  15. APPENDIX B. Mechanization of Agriculture in the Balkans
    (pp. 196-206)
    Branko M. Peselj
  16. APPENDIX C. Peasantisms
    (pp. 207-208)
    Ray E. Wakeley
  17. APPENDIX D. Who’s Who in the Seminar on Collectivization of Agriculture in Eastern Europe
    (pp. 209-214)