Challenges to Chinese Foreign Policy

Challenges to Chinese Foreign Policy: Diplomacy, Globalization, and the Next World Power

Yufan Hao
C. X. George Wei
Lowell Dittmer
Copyright Date: 2009
Edition: 1
Pages: 416
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  • Book Info
    Challenges to Chinese Foreign Policy
    Book Description:

    When Beijing hosted the 2008 Summer Olympics, China symbolically asserted its role as an emerging world power -- a position it is not likely to relinquish anytime soon. China's growing economy, military reforms, and staggering productivity have contributed to its ascendancy as a major player in international affairs. Western scholars have attempted to explain Chinese foreign policy using historical or theoretical evidence, but until this volume, few studies from a Chinese perspective have been published in English.

    InChallenges to Chinese Foreign Policy: Diplomacy, Globalization, and the Next World Power, editors Yufan Hao, C. X. George Wei, and Lowell Dittmer reveal how Chinese scholars view their nation's rise to global dominance. Drawing from a wealth of foreign relations experts including scholars native to the region, this volume examines the unique challenges China faces as it adapts in its role as a world leader, and it analyzes how China's evolving international relationships are shaping the global landscape of the twenty-first century.

    eISBN: 978-0-8131-5006-2
    Subjects: Political Science

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-iv)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. v-vi)
  3. Introduction
    (pp. 1-14)
    Yufan Hao

    China’s increasing economic and military capabilities have attracted much attention in recent years. Within the span of a single generation, China has moved from an almost isolated state to a hub of a globalized economy, from an obsolete and bloated army to a professional force possessing high-tech excellence, and from hostility toward global institutions to active participation in multilateral organizations. China has the fastest growing economy in the world, and its diplomacy has also become increasingly sophisticated, expanding its influence both in Asia and elsewhere. Chinese foreign policy has become less personal, less radical, less ideological, and more pragmatic and...

  4. 1. Overview: The Evolution of China’s Diplomacy and Foreign Relations in the Era of Reform, 1976–2005
    (pp. 15-34)
    Zhang Baijia

    This chapter traces the development of China’s diplomacy since that nation undertook economic reform and opened itself up to the outside world. There have been two major stages: the initial, unfolding stage of reform from 1978 to 1991, and the stage of constructing an economic system and socialist market from 1992 to 2000. Since then, China’ reform has been guided by the goal of achieving comprehensive, harmonious, and sustainable development, and its need for political and social reform has become increasingly urgent. Therefore, this can be considered the third stage in the development of China’s diplomacy. In each stage, the...

  5. Part I. China’s Relations with the United States
    • 2. Building a New Conceptual Framework for U.S.-China Relations
      (pp. 37-56)
      Jianwei Wang

      One constant challenge for the policy makers in China and the United States since the end of the Cold War has been to find a new, mutually agreeable conceptual framework for the relationship between the two giants. During the Cold War period, the nature of the relationship was more utility oriented than anything else. The two countries sought not a convergence of their ideologies or values but rather a convergence of their interests. Those interests were narrowly defined within a framework of anti-Soviet expansionism. For the purpose of thwarting the perceived Soviet threat, China and United States formed a quasi-strategic...

    • 3. China’s New Leadership and Strategic Relations with the United States
      (pp. 57-70)
      Jia Qingguo

      China’s current government has been in office for more than five years. During this time, China’s relations with the United States have received unprecedented international attention. Although most people agree that the relationship is of unparalleled importance to the world as well as to the two countries, people disagree about how this relationship is going to evolve. Optimists point at the growing interdependence and expanding base of the relationship and argue that China and the United States will be able to manage their relationship in a rational and mutually beneficial manner. Pessimists call attention to the so-called logic of great-power...

    • 4. American Nuclear Primacy or Mutually Assured Destruction: The Future of the U.S.-China Strategic Balance of Power
      (pp. 71-84)
      Baohui Zhang

      The nuclear balance of power between the United States and China will be a major security issue in the twenty-first century. On the one hand, China is rapidly expanding its offensive nuclear forces. According to the Pentagon, the Chinese are deploying a new generation of land- and sea-based strategic weapon systems.¹ On the other hand, the United States has begun the deployment of a multitiered ballistic missile defense system. As Stephen J. Cimbala has observed, “Absent an unknown and unforeseeable technology breakthrough in offense or defense, we are in for a period of competition between the two kinds of technologies.”²...

  6. Part II. China’s Relations with Other Major Powers
    • 5. The Sino-Russian Strategic Relationship: Ghost of the “Strategic Triangle”?
      (pp. 87-114)
      Lowell Dittmer

      The relationship between the two vast empires astride the Eurasian heartland has been troubled for centuries, despite certain superficial similarities in size and in political and economic structure. The Mongol Golden Horde invaded Russia in the thirteenth century, burning Moscow and taking Kiev, and continued to rule southern Russia and extort tribute from the north for the next 200 years, leaving a historical legacy of dread. Russia would lag China developmentally for the next several centuries. Its population did not reach 13 million until 1725 (compared with China’s brilliant civilization and, by that time, about 150 million people), and the...

    • 6. The European Union and China: Partnership with Competition
      (pp. 115-132)
      Xinning Song

      China’s relationship with the European Union (EU) is the best external bilateral relationship it has—better than that with the United States, Japan, and Russia. Politically, EU-China relations have matured and become institutionalized, with annual summits between China and the EU, as well as with EU member states such as Great Britain, Germany, France, and Spain. Most of the top Chinese and European leaders have paid mutual visits in the last few years, and more than two-thirds of the European commissioners have been to China. Dialogues have taken place between representatives of almost every level of government, covering most of...

    • 7. China’s Japan Policy: Beijing’s View of the U.S.-Japan Alliance
      (pp. 133-152)
      Quansheng Zhao

      Chinese foreign policy toward Japan can be analyzed from many different angles. The U.S.-Japan alliance has been the foundation of Japanese foreign policy in the postwar era, so this chapter uses Beijing’s changing view of that alliance to examine the major factors influencing China’s Japan policy.

      When analyzing how Chinese foreign policy has affected Beijing’s attitude toward the U.S.-Japan alliance over the past several decades, one can discern three different foreign policy approaches: the history-embedded approach, the national interest–driven approach, and the comanagement of international crises approach. Until recently, the People’s Republic of China (PRC) emphasized the first two...

  7. Part III. China’s Regional Relations
    • 8. The Korean Peninsula: A Chinese View on the North Korean Nuclear Issue
      (pp. 155-172)
      Yufan Hao

      History and geography have combined to make the Korean peninsula important to China’s security. This importance lies not only in the peninsula’s long common border with China’s industrial heartland in the northeast but also in the convergence—and often the clash—of the interests of Russia, Japan, and the United States in Korea. For the last century, Korea has served as an area of conflict and an invasion corridor for these three powerful states. The Chinese were involved in the Korean War from 1950 to 1953, supporting North Korea after the United States intervened on behalf of South Korea. This,...

    • 9. China’s Dilemma over the North Korean Nuclear Problem
      (pp. 173-182)
      Shi Yinhong

      The history of the North Korean nuclear problem, from October 2002 to the present, is full of puzzles, many of which concern China’s behavior. No one, not even policy makers themselves, can solve these puzzles before all the relevant data are available. However, careful observation, a historical and empathic perspective, and a strategic perception can help our understanding of the situation. If the primary task in studying China’s foreign policy is to develop a preliminary formula for interpreting or even predicting China’s policy orientation, the main target of this research is to identify the fundamental parameters of China’s diplomatic behavior,...

    • 10. Changes in South Asia since 9/11 and China’s Policy Options
      (pp. 183-196)
      Du Youkang

      Since the end of the Cold War, and especially since the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, and subsequent developments, South Asia has witnessed significant and profound changes. These changes and their implications go beyond the region. China is closely connected with the South Asian subcontinent, so the situation there has a direct bearing on the security and stability of China’s border areas and may even affect its whole peripheral environment. This chapter reviews the major post-9/11 changes in South Asia, analyzes China’s opportunities and challenges related to these developments, and presents some possible policy options for China’s dealings with...

    • 11. After the Anti-Secession Law: Cross-Strait and U.S.-China Relations
      (pp. 197-216)
      Zhidong Hao

      The March 2008 presidential election restored the Kuomintang (KMT) to power in Taiwan. Since the KMT is sympathetic to improving relations with mainland China, and since it was voted back into power based on that platform, one wonders what this means for the future of cross-strait relations. Just three years earlier, on March 14, 2005, the National People’s Congress of the People’s Republic of China (PRC) adopted an anti-secession law with regard to Taiwan. The party in power at the time, the Democratic Progressive Party (DPP), had some fairly strong reactions to the law and continued to follow policies that...

    • 12. Hong Kong and Macao: In between China and the West
      (pp. 217-236)
      Ting Wai

      Even though Hong Kong was a British colony for 155 years, it has always been “useful” to China. The city played a very important role in the economic, societal, and even political development of China. Every Chinese knows that Hong Kong was the cradle of the revolutionary thoughts of Sun Yat-sen, who was educated in medicine in Hong Kong and later founded the Republic of China. During the 1930s and 1940s, cadres and intellectuals of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) were sent to Hong Kong to propagate revolutionary ideas and establish “united fronts” to fight against the Japanese as well...

  8. Part IV. Chinese Diplomacy with Chinese Characteristics
    • 13. Between Rhetoric and Pragmatism: Nationalism as a Driving Force of Chinese Foreign Policy
      (pp. 239-252)
      Suisheng Zhao

      During the standoff that occurred after a U.S. spy plane collided with a Chinese jet fighter and landed on Hainan Island in 2001, theWashington Postran a front-page story headlined “New Nationalism Drives Beijing.”¹ Such a warning reflects the roiling sense of anxiety in many Asian and Western political capitals: Has a virulent nationalism emerged from China’s “century of shame and humiliation,” making its rise less than peaceful? Has the Chinese government exploited nationalist sentiments to gain leverage in international affairs, or has nationalism driven Chinese foreign policy in a more irrational and inflexible direction?

      This political concern is...

    • 14. Engagement or Sanction? U.S. Economic Diplomacy toward China since the Cold War
      (pp. 253-274)
      C. X. George Wei

      Economic policy is the “soft power” that has been employed in international history since the Athenian era in the late fifth century b.c.¹ Up until World War I, U.S. foreign policy makers, whether following an isolationist or an open-door policy, believed that free trade and commerce would promote peace.² That changed, however, when Woodrow Wilson declared in 1919 that “a nation boycotted is a nation in sight of surrender. Apply this economic, peaceful, silent, deadly remedy and there will be no need for force.”³ After World War II, U.S. foreign policy makers, due to their Cold War mentality, increasingly used...

    • 15. The Rupture of the Sino-Soviet Alliance: An Assessment of the National Intelligence Evaluation
      (pp. 275-294)
      Shen Zhihua

      In October 2004, I was invited to attend a special academic conference in Washington, D.C., on U.S. intelligence during the Cold War. Some valuable original files, known as the National Intelligence Evaluation (NIE), had recently been deciphered by the U.S. National Intelligence Council. These files, consisting of evaluations and forecasts by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), purportedly represent the most authoritative intelligence obtained by the U.S. government regarding the situation, government policies, and stages of development in mainland China from 1948 to 1976. There are many more or less reasonable comments and accurate inferences in these documents, but what interests...

    • 16. A Misty Cold War in the Himalayas: China’s Historical Temperament in International Relations
      (pp. 295-318)
      Xiaoyuan Liu

      In recent years, numerous predictions about China’s rise in the twenty-first century have been made based on the precedents of the great powers’ ascendance in world history. These exercises, however, have overlooked what can be termed China’s “historical temperament,” which was affected or even remolded by its own experiences in modern international relations. In the nineteenth century, the Euro-American–dominated international system extended into East Asia and caused the collapse of an interstate political culture rooted in the region’s Sinocentric cultural sphere. Consequently, states in the region were compelled to redefine their positions in international relations, retune their outlooks about...

    • 17. An Intercultural Communication Model of International Relations: The Case of China
      (pp. 319-334)
      Wenshan Jia

      Most of the scholarly literature on Chinese diplomatic behavior and foreign relations, and indeed on international relations in general, is policy driven, issue focused, and short-term oriented. The predominant theoretical perspectives are largely derived from the modern disciplines of the social sciences and humanities, such as political economy, political science, and history. This is not surprising, since such academic disciplines were founded primarily in the intellectual tradition of the modern West, which has weathered and thus been shaped and reshaped by two world wars, one cold war, and now the war on terror. Winning or maximizing one’s group or national...

  9. Conclusion
    (pp. 335-348)
    Lowell Dittmer

    For the last three decades, China has been the fastest growing economy on earth. The statistics are striking: since 1978, China’s gross domestic product (GDP) has grown an average of 9 percent per annum, increasing sixfold from 1984 to 2004; per capita income has risen fivefold, lifting 400 million people out of poverty. China has thus become one of the world’s economic “locomotives,” pulling Japan out of its long stagnation by increasing Japanese imports, and helping the United States and Europe control inflation with abundant supplies of low-cost exports. In 2004, China alone contributed one-third of the total international economic...

  10. English-Chinese Terms
    (pp. 349-360)
  11. About the Contributors
    (pp. 361-364)
  12. Index
    (pp. 365-377)