LASHIPA

LASHIPA: History of Large Scale Resource Exploitation in Polar Areas

Edited by Louwrens Hacquebord
Volume: 8
Copyright Date: 2012
Published by: Barkhuis
Pages: 172
https://www.jstor.org/stable/j.ctt13wwxkn
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  • Book Info
    LASHIPA
    Book Description:

    This book contains most of the papers presented at the final LASHIPA workshop in St Petersburg, Russia 2-4 November 2009. The workshop was organized to finalize the bilateral LASHIPA Russia-Netherlands project and to discuss possible future cooperation between the participants of the sub-project of the Eurocore Boreas project and the participants of the International Polar Year project Large Scale Historical Exploitation of Polar Areas (LASHIPA). LASHIPA and CEE/Boreas are linked together by different fields of expertise. The common grounds of the two projects are the relation between industrial resource development and science in an international perspective. Knowledge production and knowledge transfer from science to industry as well as between different national communities of resource users are very important in the Arctic as is transfer of legitimacy. All these fields might give opportunities for future research. The different contributions in this book try to answer some of these questions.

    eISBN: 978-94-91431-60-9
    Subjects: History

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. I-IV)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. V-VI)
  3. Preface
    (pp. VII-VIII)
  4. Introduction
    (pp. IX-XIV)
    Louwrens Hacquebord

    The main questions considered at the St Petersburg Workshop were: what did we do so far, where are we now and what are the possibilities for cooperation in the future?

    The LASHIPA project got under way in 2004 with fieldwork in Longyearbyen on Svalbard. The idea was born at an international conference in Barentsburg, Svalbard in 2003. At the beginning the LASHIPA project was more an educational than a scientific research project, with many students involved. The International Polar Year (2007-2008) offered possibilities for raising money and the Research Councils of Sweden, Russia and the Netherlands supported the project financially....

  5. The Organization of Pomor Hunting Expeditions to Spitsbergen in the 18th Century
    (pp. 1-16)
    Alexei Kraikovski, Yaroslava Alekseeva, Margarita Dadykina and Julia Lajus

    Descriptions of Russian hunting expeditions to Spitsbergen in both academic and popular literature suffer from being described in too general terms. They are usually mentioned as “numerous”, and results of hunting are described as “very profitable”. However, most of them are not based on solid documentary evidence or quantitative estimations. In these publications figures are either not provided at all, or if provided references are unclear. Even figures on the number of ships involved show basic uncertainty and unreliable exaggerations. Too often references which look reliable stem from unreliable sources published at the end of the 19thor at the...

  6. Productivity and Profitability of Russian Spitsbergen Hunting in the Late 18th Century
    (pp. 17-32)
    Alexei V. Kraikovski

    The main problem of any research concerning 18thcentury Russian activities on Spitsbergen is a specific situation concerning sources. In the 18thcentury both governmental officials and independent observers considered walrus hunting (including the Spitsbergen and Novaya Zemlya expeditions) as an inextricable element of Northern blubber production together with White Sea sealing.¹

    For the Pomors the walrus hunting on Spitsbergen and Novaya Zemlya was one industry. A lot of known 18thcentury walrus hunters used to visit both Spitsbergen and Novaya Zemlya.² Cases are even known when the hunting team initially prepared for Novaya Zemlya but finally decided to go...

  7. Perceptions of Polar Resources: a Comparison of the Animal Remains of the Russian Hunting Station Kokerineset and the Dutch Whaling Station Smeerenburg
    (pp. 33-46)
    Ypie I. Aalders

    From the beginning of the 18thcentury until the middle of the 19thcentury Russian hunters organized yearly hunting expeditions to Spitsbergen. Most of these expeditions included wintering on the archipelago. Contemporary historical sources mention how the Russians exploited a wide variety of animals here, amongst others walrus, polar fox, polar bear, birds and seals.¹ In this presentation I will examine the available archaeological data to get a better understanding of how the Russian hunters exploited the natural resources of Spitsbergen. For this I will use the Russian hunting station Kokerineset, situated in Green Harbour as a case study. Excavations...

  8. In Search of Profit in the High Arctic. The Commercial Background of the Dutch Expedition to Spitsbergen in 1920
    (pp. 47-60)
    Hidde de Haas

    In late 2011, the naming committee at the Norwegian Polar Institute officially recognized the historic name of Rijpsburg for a former Dutch mining settlement on Bohemanflya, a peninsula on the northern side of the central Icefjord on Spitsbergen (figure 1).¹ While only a low impact decision in itself – a historic name with Dutch origins will from now on be shown on geographical maps of the region – it offers a relevant starting point for a study into the backgrounds of this settlement. The name dates back to 1920, when a Dutch expedition went to Spitsbergen to develop a coal...

  9. Spitsbergen – Imperialists beyond the British Empire
    (pp. 61-70)
    Frigga Kruse

    Spitsbergen lies in the European High Arctic. 800 kilometres of sea separate it from Northern Norway and it is closer to the North Pole than either Alaska or Siberia. Approximately half the size of Scotland, the archipelago lacked an indigenous population. Its documented history began in 1596. Since then it has been the focus of exploration and exploitative industries such as whaling, hunting and trapping, and mining. In the early seventeenth century, whaling was characterized by Dutch and English rivalries. An English company made a claim on behalf of the Crown in 1614, but this was soon forgotten. British interest...

  10. Winning Coal at 78° North: Mining, Contingency and the Chaîne Opératoire in Old Longyear City
    (pp. 71-82)
    Seth DePasqual

    Mining systems can appear straightforward and self-explanatory at first glance. Coal mines utilize a number of technologies and devices that are specific to a range of tasks. For example, every mine will incorporate some kind of transportation system be it a narrow-gauge track network, incline tramway or aerial tramway. Their presence is somewhat inherent and mining companies often follow similar trajectories of development. Environment also weighs heavily on how particular mining systems are arranged. Arctic snowstorms, for instance influence how transportation systems are laid out and maintained. And yet mining systems, like any other human endeavor, are also organized according...

  11. Barentsburg: The Soviet Period in the History of the Mine
    (pp. 83-86)
    Alexandr Portsel

    According to the Paris agreement of 1920 Norway has sovereignty of the archipelago of Spitsbergen. But all participants of the agreement have a right to free economic activity on the archipelago. Spitsbergen’s coal was delivered to the Kola Peninsula in large volumes in the 1920s thanks to the “Arcticugol” trust, which was a shareholder of the “Anglo-Russian Grumant” company. In 1931 the mines of “Anglo-Russian Grumant” were transferred to being Soviet property. In 1931 Soviet representatives started negotiations with the Dutch company “Nespico” on the purchase of its Barentsburg mine. The financial part of the deal was described in 1940...

  12. "The Essence of the Adventure": Narratives of Arctic Work and Engineering in the Early 20th Century
    (pp. 87-104)
    Dag Avango and Anders Houltz

    Why did people in the early 20th century decide to leave their homes and find work in the distant, harsh environment of the Arctic? A century ago, the coal mines of Sveagruvan on Spitsbergen attracted considerable numbers of Swedes of different social and professional background, most of them men but some women, to earn their living in a context quite alien to anything they had previously experienced. What were their motives? How did they perceive and relate their own situation?

    For a both public and scholarly audience, the leading role on the polar stage of the late 19th and the...

  13. Heritage in Our Wake: A Review of Heritage Provisions Managing Svalbard’s Industrial Past
    (pp. 105-112)
    Cameron Hartnell

    LASHIPA is now at the tail end of its Spitsbergen research, with student scholars completing their sub-projects and the project looking for the next avenue of investigation. Since 2004, we have collaborated in seven field campaigns that have supported intensive research efforts into the archipelago’s industrial past. The project’s research accomplishments are not in doubt. We have added extensive detail to an industrial history that was once patchy. Perhaps more importantly, we have helped bring multi-national perspectives to a past previously dominated by the views of single nations.

    Now is a good time to consider the heritage systems that will...

  14. A Science & Technology Studies (STS) Approach on the Evolution of the Modern Whaling Industry
    (pp. 113-126)
    Ulf I. Gustafsson

    The power of myths, legends and heroic actors to drive and sustain a sense of communal identity and national narrative has been central in the creation of the self-image of many nations.¹ In the case of Norway, whose northerly oriented image of a polar nation has been the focal point for several researchers, scientists such as Nansen, Sverdrup and others played vital roles in creating and cultivating this self-image.² Friedmann has illustrated how the scientific achievements of Nansen and Birkeland were central in designing and cultivating this image by for example transforming the aurora borealis from a regional phenomenon to...

  15. The History of Exploration and Exploitation of the Atlantic Arctic and its Geopolitical Consequences
    (pp. 127-146)
    Louwrens Hacquebord

    On July 28 2007 on television all over the world, the special envoy of the Russian President for International Cooperation in Polar Regions Artur Chilingarov could be seen holding a photograph of a Russian flag.¹ This flag was placed on the sea floor at the North Pole to mark the Russian territorial claim on the slope of the continental shelf in the Arctic Ocean. By doing this, he continued a tradition of more than four hundred years and showed that not so much has changed in the use of symbols in the global political arena since the heyday of Western...

  16. Cold Conflict: The Pentagon’s Fascination with the Arctic (and Climate Change) in the Early Cold War
    (pp. 147-160)
    Ronald E. Doel

    Pentagon officials learned about the potential significance of polar climate change from earth scientists – specifically meteorologists and climatologists – shortly after World War II ended. The most direct communication came through the Research and Development Board, established under the Joint Chiefs of Staff to encourage close cooperation between military officers and civilian scientists on issues affecting national security. In June 1947, the influential Swedish-American meteorologist Carl-Gustav Rossby, who had organized the rapid training of thousands of new meteorologists during the Second World War, forcefully argued that arctic climate variation threatened U.S. strategic interests. Strong evidence indicated recent warming at...

  17. Euroarctic Strategies and Synergies
    (pp. 161-172)
    Urban Wråkberg

    That global warming is melting the sea ice of the High North has been making headlines for a long time. Some commentators have drawn further media attention by claiming that this melting is also eroding the hitherto stable number and positions of the northern geopolitical players. These alarmists have predicted a global scramble of national agents and private enterprises for newly accessible natural resources, particularly after a Russian flag was planted on the sea bottom at the North Pole in 2007 (a geopolitical stunt that some Russian individuals pulled while charting the seabed for the submission of Russia’s Arctic Exclusive...