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Antarctic policymaking and science in the Netherlands, Belgium and Germany (1957-1990)

Antarctic policymaking and science in the Netherlands, Belgium and Germany (1957-1990)

Benjamin Peter Abbink
Volume: 6
Copyright Date: 2009
Published by: Barkhuis
Pages: 263
  • Book Info
    Antarctic policymaking and science in the Netherlands, Belgium and Germany (1957-1990)
    Book Description:

    The central questions of this research are the following: What was the Antarctic policy of the Netherlands from the late 1950s until 1990? What were its motives, goals, means and effects? What were the roles of the government, the scientific community, non-governmental organisations and possible other actors in this policy? How can these be explained?The focus of this study is on Dutch Antarctic policy. In order to explain Dutch Antarctic policy from the late 1950s until 1990 and to place it in a broader context, Dutch policy will be compared with the Antarctic policies of Belgium and Germany (Federal Republic of Germany, FRG) in the same period.6 The comparison offers insights into the functioning of the ATS and into the roles - if any - of the three countries in this international regime in the period under investigation. This adds another central question to this research: How does Dutch Antarctic policy compare with the Belgian and German Antarctic policies in the same period? This research will not focus on the actual Antarctic scientific research activities of the Netherlands, Belgium and Germany from the late 1950s until 1990 but will concentrate on their Antarctic policies. Policy with regard to science is one aspect of this.

    eISBN: 978-94-91431-58-6
    Subjects: Archaeology

Table of Contents

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  1. Front Matter
    (pp. I-IV)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. V-VI)
  3. List of figures
    (pp. VII-VII)
  4. List of pictures
    (pp. VII-VIII)
  5. Introduction
    (pp. 1-14)

    Today, the Netherlands fully participates in international Antarctic affairs. Dutch scientists participated recently in the fourthInternational Polar Year(IPY) of 2007/2009 – which ran from March 2007 till March 2009 - and the Dutch Antarctic research programme, which is part of theNetherlands Polar Programme(NPP), receives government funding on a structural basis. The Netherlands is fully integrated in both the international Antarctic scientific and political communities. The Dutch Academy of Sciences (Koninklijke Nederlandse Akademie van Wetenschappen, KNAW) is a member of theScientific Committee on Antarctic Research(SCAR), and the Netherlands is a Consultative Party to the Antarctic...

  6. I Origins of the Antarctic Treaty System
    (pp. 15-38)

    To understand the Antarctic policies of the Dutch, Belgian and German governments it is necessary to obtain insight into the Antarctic Treaty System (ATS), the international regime concerning Antarctic affairs. The Antarctic Treaty, also known as the Treaty of Washington, is the cornerstone of the ATS. Its key elements are the exclusively peaceful use of the Antarctic region and the principle of scientific cooperation.¹ The treaty was signed in Washington DC on December 1 1959 by delegates of twelve countries and it came into force on June 23 1961.² The twelve signatory countries are: Argentina, Australia, Belgium, Chile, France, Japan,...

  7. II The IGY (1957-1958), the Antarctic Treaty (1959), and the Netherlands, Germany and Belgium
    (pp. 39-70)

    During the years after WW II, international cooperation increased enormously. Within the framework of Western European and Euro-Atlantic cooperation, the Netherlands, Belgium and Germany (FRG) joined forces in several fields from the late 1940s and 1950s onwards. They were military allies as members of the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO, 1949, Germany being a member since 1955).¹ Economic cooperation between these three and other European countries was stimulated by the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC, 1951), the European Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM, 1957) and the European Economic Community (EEC, 1957).² From 1957 till 1958, the Netherlands, Belgium and Germany...

  8. III Belgian-Dutch Antarctic cooperation and its aftermath, 1960-1970
    (pp. 71-108)

    The Netherlands had neither participated in the Antarctic programme of the International Geophysical Year (IGY) of 1957-1958, nor in the making of the Antarctic Treaty of 1959. However, the country did become involved in Antarctic research in the 1960s when theNederlandse Organisatie voor Zuiver-wetenschappelijk Onderzoek(Dutch Organization for Pure Scientific Research; ZWO) granted funds for Antarctic research.¹ The ZWO, the national research council, is financed by the Dutch Government and the Dutch Antarctic research was carried out in cooperation with Belgium. This cooperation culminated in Dutch participation in three Belgian wintering expeditions and in three summer campaigns to the...

  9. IV Non-participation and accession in the 1970s
    (pp. 109-156)

    In the 1970s, shortly after the Belgian-Dutch Antarctic expeditions, neither the Netherlands nor Belgium was actively involved in Antarctic research. A lack of interest in Antarctic science on the part of the Dutch and Belgian governments of this period was characteristic. However, Belgium remained involved in international Antarctic affairs at a political level via the ATCMs. In the Netherlands as well as in Belgium individuals tried to persuade their government to become involved in Antarctic science. There was also a serious attempt to start Antarctic research at a European level. As had happened 60 years before, Belgian scientists again tried...

  10. V Renewed Belgian and Dutch interest in Antarctic politics during the 1980s
    (pp. 157-196)

    In the 1980s, the Dutch and Belgian Antarctic policies of non-involvement in Antarctic research and politics started to change. Belgium, a Consultative Party to the Antarctic Treaty (CP), had not been involved in Antarctic research since 1970, since the last summer campaign which took place in cooperation with South Africa. In 1985, the country re-started its Antarctic research activities. The Netherlands had not been involved in Antarctic research since the last Belgian-Dutch Antarctic expedition of 1966, and the country had never been involved in the management of Antarctica, although it became a Non-Consultative Party to the Antarctic Treaty (NCP) in...

  11. VI Towards Dutch Consultative Status, 1985-1990
    (pp. 197-218)

    Dutch involvement in Antarctic research increased in the period from 1985 till 1990. This process led to Dutch membership of SCAR and to Dutch Consultative Status at the Antarctic Treaty in 1990. As such, the starting of the first Dutch Antarctic research programme in 1985 represented the first hurdle to be taken towards the full integration of the Netherlands in the international scientific and political Antarctic communities.

    From 1985 till 1990, the same actors worked to achieve this as during the previous period from 1980, and with the same motives. TheWerkgroep Antarctica with W. Thomassen, Foreign Affairs, Education & Sciences...

  12. Conclusion
    (pp. 219-232)

    For many years, with the exception of the Belgian–Dutch Antarctic expeditions which took place in the period 1963-1967, the Netherlands took no part in Antarctic research at all. The country started with Antarctic research on a structural basis only from 1985. The Netherlands acceded to the Antarctic Treaty as a Non-Consultative Party (NCP) in 1967 and achieved the status of Consultative Party (CP) in 1990. The timing of its accession was almost synchronic with the ending of the Belgian–Dutch Antarctic expeditions and the acquisition of Consultative Status occurred shortly before the departure of the first Dutch Antarctic Expedition...

  13. References
    (pp. 233-240)
  14. Archives
    (pp. 241-244)
  15. Interviews
    (pp. 245-246)
  16. Nederlandse samenvatting
    (pp. 247-260)
  17. Dankwoord/Acknowledgements
    (pp. 261-264)