Conflict Among Nations: Bargaining, Decision Making, and System Structure in International Crises

Conflict Among Nations: Bargaining, Decision Making, and System Structure in International Crises

GLENN HERALD SNYDER
Paul Diesing
Copyright Date: 1977
Pages: 600
https://www.jstor.org/stable/j.ctt13x0wmf
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  • Book Info
    Conflict Among Nations: Bargaining, Decision Making, and System Structure in International Crises
    Book Description:

    How do nations act in a crisis? This book seeks to answer that question both theoretically and historically. It tests and synthesizes theories of political behavior by comparing them with the historical record. The authors apply theories of bargaining, game theory, information processing, decision-making, and international systems to case histories of sixteen crises that occurred during a seventy-five year period. The result is a revision and integration of diverse concepts and the development of a new empirical theory of international conflict.

    Originally published in 1978.

    ThePrinceton Legacy Libraryuses the latest print-on-demand technology to again make available previously out-of-print books from the distinguished backlist of Princeton University Press. These paperback editions preserve the original texts of these important books while presenting them in durable paperback editions. The goal of the Princeton Legacy Library is to vastly increase access to the rich scholarly heritage found in the thousands of books published by Princeton University Press since its founding in 1905.

    eISBN: 978-1-4008-7118-6
    Subjects: Law

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-iv)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. v-vi)
  3. List of Figures
    (pp. vii-viii)
  4. List of Tables
    (pp. ix-x)
  5. PREFACE
    (pp. xi-xiv)
    Glenn H. Snyder and Paul Diesing
  6. GLOSSARY
    (pp. xv-2)
  7. CHAPTER I INTERNATIONAL CRISES AND INTERNATIONAL THEORY
    (pp. 3-32)

    This book may be viewed from two different perspectives. On the one hand, it is a study of how states and statesmen behave in international crises, and it uses several kinds of theory to describe and explain that behavior. From this perspective, the purpose of the analysis is to increase our understanding of crises, and the theories are used as analytical tools. From another point of view, the purpose is to improve and integrate the theories—chiefly systems, bargaining, and decision-making theories—using crises as an empirical source for the testing, revision, augmentation, and synthesis of theory. Here the empirical...

  8. CHAPTER II FORMAL MODELS OF BARGAINING
    (pp. 33-182)

    In this chapter we summarize, test, and revise the various formal conceptions of bargaining appearing in the literature. A formal conception is one that can be expressed as a mathematical or computer model, that is, as a highly abstract logical construct, composed of postulates, definitions, and logical deductions.

    The various formal conceptions of bargaining in the literature all describe pretty much the same kind of process, but they emphasize different aspects of the process. For instance, no theorist denies that bargaining takes place over time, but time is entirely absent from some models, is present incidentally in computer models, and...

  9. CHAPTER III CRISIS BARGAINING: STRATEGIES AND TACTICS
    (pp. 183-281)

    In this chapter we chiefly take up the bargaining process in crises, employing a less formal mode of analysis than in the preceding chapter. Since bargaining is largely a process of manipulating values and perceptions of them, we begin with a statement of the value structures involved in crises, which also links the discussion here to the formal game structures presented in Chapter II. We then attempt to define the notion of “bargaining power.” Then we move to an analysis of specific strategies and tactics in the bargaining process, grouped into the categories of persuasion, accommodation, and coercion. The last...

  10. CHAPTER IV INFORMATION PROCESSING
    (pp. 282-339)

    In this chapter we take up information processing and develop a model of bargaining as a process of correcting initial errors of estimation and interpretation. The previous chapter looked at the bargaining process as a process of mutual influence, with outcomes being determined basically by the parties’ assessments of relative power and interest. It was implicitly understood that the parties arrive at these assessments or try to change the other’s assessments by sending and receiving information, but the process of interpreting information was not explored. Here we correct this omission and thus move toward a more complete theory of crisis...

  11. CHAPTER V DECISION MAKING
    (pp. 340-418)

    In this chapter we examine how bargaining decisions are made. This completes our examination of the bargaining model of Chapter IV; but, in addition, the shift of attention to internal characteristics of decision-making units leads to revisions of the model and to a supplementary model. We will concentrate mainly on strategic decisions, of which there are about fifty documented instances in our cases. The number of tactical decisions could well run into the thousands, so it would be impossible to examine them all systematically.

    Our procedure will be to use three current theories of decision making to organize and interpret...

  12. CHAPTER VI CRISES AND INTERNATIONAL SYSTEMS
    (pp. 419-470)

    The behavior of states in a crisis is affected by the nature of the international system at the time they occur. We may call this the “external” parameter of crisis interaction. While the international system may be described in terms of many variables, two are of paramount importance for the study of crises: (1) the “structure” of the system, i.e., the number of major actors and the gross distribution of military power among them, and (2) the nature of military technology. Our historical research has encompassed two distinct international systems in terms of these variables. The system in the latter...

  13. CHAPTER VII SUMMARY AND SYNTHESIS
    (pp. 471-530)

    This book has been guided by two complementary goals: (1) to develop a theory of international crisis behavior and (2) to achieve a measure of synthesis among several important theories in international politics. For the latter objective, crises have served as an empirical focal point for theory integration, the rationale being that crises highlight in microcosm many of the essential features of international politics. Of course, we cannot claim that our synthesis amounts to a “general theory.” Substantively it deals only with the politico-strategic side of international life, and the focus on crises tends to emphasize conflictual over collaborative elements....

  14. APPENDIX: CASE SUMMARIES
    (pp. 531-570)
  15. INDEX
    (pp. 571-578)
  16. Back Matter
    (pp. 579-579)