Crises of Political Development in Europe and the United States. (SPD-9)

Crises of Political Development in Europe and the United States. (SPD-9)

Edited by Raymond Grew
DAVID D. BIEN
STANLEY G. PAYNE
FOLKE DOVRING
WALTER M. PINTNER
JOHN R. GILLIS
ROMAN SZPORLUK
RAYMOND GREW
KEITH THOMAS
J. ROGERS HOLLINGSWORTH
ARISTIDE R. ZOLBERG
Copyright Date: 1978
Pages: 448
https://www.jstor.org/stable/j.ctt13x15xd
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  • Book Info
    Crises of Political Development in Europe and the United States. (SPD-9)
    Book Description:

    As the last volume in the series sponsored by the SSRC Committee on Comparative Politics, this book reflects-as does the preceding volume-the Committee's decision to devote renewed attention to the original state building experiences of the West, after having studied political development in the newer countries of the Third World. The contributors attempt to discern patterns of historical change in the different sequences of crises that affect all states in their development.

    Following an introductory and theoretical statement by Raymond Grew, each chapter focuses on a different country or area. Each of these essays applies and evaluates the Committee's concept of crises of development, i.e., crises of identity, legitimacy, participation, penetration, and distribution.

    The distinguished historians and political scientists who contribute to the volume are: Keith Thomas (on the United Kingdom), Aristide R. Zolberg (on Belgium), Folke Dovring (on Scandinavia), J. Rogers Hollingsworth (on the United States), Stanley G. Payne (on Spain and Portugal), David D. Bien (on France), Raymond Grew (on France and Italy), John R. Gillis (on Germany), Walter M. Pintner (on Russia), and Roman Szporluk (on Poland), with Lucian W. Pye providing the Preface.

    Originally published in 1979.

    ThePrinceton Legacy Libraryuses the latest print-on-demand technology to again make available previously out-of-print books from the distinguished backlist of Princeton University Press. These paperback editions preserve the original texts of these important books while presenting them in durable paperback editions. The goal of the Princeton Legacy Library is to vastly increase access to the rich scholarly heritage found in the thousands of books published by Princeton University Press since its founding in 1905.

    eISBN: 978-1-4008-6843-8
    Subjects: Political Science, History

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-iv)
  2. FOREWORD
    (pp. v-viii)
    Lucian W. Pye

    This is a unique book in that for the first time a group of distinguished historians have analyzed the evolution of the countries of their spe cialization according to a common framework of concepts developed by political scientists. The authors of this ninth and final volume of Studies in Political Development were persuaded to review the experiences of sixteen Western countries in terms of certain theoretical formulations proposed by the Committee on Comparative Politics of the Social Science Research Council inCrises and Sequences in Political Development,the seventh volume of this series.

    The collaboration was not easy, but the...

  3. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
    (pp. ix-x)
  4. Table of Contents
    (pp. xi-2)
  5. CHAPTER 1 The Crises and Their Sequences
    (pp. 3-37)
    RAYMOND GREW

    Each of the following essays is an independent study of the political development of a Western nation or nations. Each was written to stand on its own as analysis and, along with a brief bibliography emphasizing works in English, as an introduction to current interpretations of each country’s political history. The several authors have thus maintained a sovereignty as indominatable as that of the nations they study. At the same time, the chapters of this book employ common categories of analysis and an essentially parallel organization. Conceived com paratively, they are intended to be read together, each in the context...

  6. Maps of Europe
    (pp. 38-40)
  7. CHAPTER 2 The United Kingdom
    (pp. 41-98)
    KEITH THOMAS

    Analytic rigor in historical writing has always required the use of abstractions; and nothing is to be gained by resisting new concepts simply because they are unfamiliar. But the historian who is asked to employ the terminology of “political development” inevitably finds himself subject to certain inhibitions. For this new language seems to have a value-ridden quality. Beneath the talk of “modernization,” “politically mature societies,” “balanced growth,” and “the successful resolution of crises,” one can discern the assumption that the con temporary institutions of North America and parts of Western Europe represent a universal culmination of the political process, and...

  8. CHAPTER 3 Belgium
    (pp. 99-138)
    ARISTIDE R. ZOLBERG

    During the month that followed August 25, 1830, the Dutch govern ment was faced with intermittent riots in Brussels and other southern cities. While the Dutch made half-hearted attempts to negotiate with southern representatives who desired administrative separation, and equally half-hearted attempts to subdue the rioters by force, a coalition intent on secession emerged. On October 4, a provisional government proclaimed the independence of the southern provinces under the name of Belgium. Following some territorial adjustments that gave the country approximately its present shape, the existence of the new state was guaranteed by the international community in 1839. Belgian society...

  9. CHAPTER 4 Scandinavia: Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, Sweden
    (pp. 139-162)
    FOLKE DOVRING

    Scandinavia, or northern Europe, has been part of the world we call “modern” at least since it joined the medieval church. Through gradual adjustments, the area has been “modernized” as successfully as any. Gradual changes have continued over long periods, and there have been few overt crises. Historians and political scientists have traditionally focused their attention on dramatic episodes, of which there have been many in the history of all five countries. More recent interest in economic and social history, by contrast, emphasizes long-term processes. For the Scandinavian region, analysis of the “critical situations” offers more of interest when these...

  10. CHAPTER 5 The United States
    (pp. 163-196)
    J. ROGERS HOLLINGSWORTH

    The most important fact to keep in mind when studying political change in America is that the United States is a product of a settler society. In many respects, its history resembles that of such other set tler societies as New Zealand, Australia, South Africa, and Canada more than that of various European countries. Like the history of other settler societies, nineteenth-century American political history was very much concerned with developing a frontier, confronting a native population, lessening the ties with a colonial power, and transplanting social institutions from the “mother country.”

    In contrast to the Europeans, the Americans in...

  11. CHAPTER 6 Spain and Portugal
    (pp. 197-218)
    STANLEY G. PAYNE

    The instability of modern Spanish government and its failure to develop a viable representative polity on the British or Scandinavian models have usually been attributed to certain inherent deficiencies of Spanish society. These include the supposed lack of a middle class, the assumed strength of the church, the entrenched power of a vaguely defined “oligarchy” of land and wealth, the backwardness of Spanish culture in terms of literacy and technological training, and the slow growth of the economic system. The conventional view of non-Spanish scholars tends to assume that the left has by and large played a pro gressive and...

  12. CHAPTER 7 France
    (pp. 219-270)
    DAVID D. BIEN and RAYMOND GREW

    The questions raised by the search for crises of development are in many respects closer to those that preoccupied historians of France in earlier generations than to the ones that evoke the greatest excitement today. Michelet, looking for the roots of French character, or Carlton J.H. Hayes, writing about how the French schooled a nation of patri ots, might have readier answers to questions about identity than contemporary historians fascinated by local customs or family structure. Studies of royal officials and the spread of the king’s justice have given way, as favorite dissertation topics, to criminality, mendicancy, migrations; penetration is...

  13. CHAPTER 8 Italy
    (pp. 271-312)
    RAYMOND GREW

    The issues of modern Italian history are largely ones of modernization, and the most significant controversies among historians of Italy have often been about the nature (and incompleteness) of that process. In the nineteenth century Italian nationalism presented itself as the natural awakening of a people long suppressed by foreigners, ignorance, and poverty. General progress, then, accounted for development; and historians sought to determine when changes in Italy were essentially autonomous or the result of foreign influence. Liberal historiography, dominant from unification through the 1950s, measured development more concretely in terms of constitutional guarantees, administrative efficiency, individual liberties, representative government,...

  14. CHAPTER 9 Germany
    (pp. 313-346)
    JOHN R. GILLIS

    The “german question,” interpreted either as a problem of inter national relations or as a purely internal affair, has traditionally been approached in a comparative manner, the frame of reference being the development of the Western European nation states. During the eighteenth century and for a good part of the nineteenth, France and England set the standards by which Germans judged their own political institutions. Later, as a more nationalistic mood replaced the earlier cosmopolitanism, Western models were increasingly rejected as unsuited to Germany’s particular geopolitical requirements. But, even at their most xenophobic, German academic and political leaders continued to...

  15. CHAPTER 10 Russia
    (pp. 347-382)
    WALTER M. PINTNER

    Russian history provides an intermediate case for the study of economic development, and perhaps for the whole process of modernization. In the early nineteenth century, and probably before that, Russians were well aware of the special position that their country occupied in relation to both Western Europe and the rest of the world. In economic development, technology, and the diffusion of education, Russia for centuries followed a Western path although, at times at least, the lag has been great.

    Political institutions in Russia have, however, evolved quite differently from those in Western Europe since the middle ages. One could say...

  16. CHAPTER 11 Poland
    (pp. 383-418)
    ROMAN SZPORLUK

    For well over a hundred years Poland experienced its crises of de velopment under rather peculiar circumstances. Just as Poland had begun to modernize and establish a new political system under the Constitution of the Third of May 1791, it was partitioned by its powerful neighbors. The Poles survived as a “nation without a state,” and this lack of national statehood seriously influenced the sequence of crises and their outcome in Poland.

    The decline and fall of old Poland has been a central theme of Polish historiography for a long time. “Was Poland’s destruction caused by the superior force of...

  17. CONTRIBUTORS
    (pp. 419-422)
  18. INDEX
    (pp. 423-434)
  19. Back Matter
    (pp. 435-435)