Chinese Approaches to Literature from Confucius to Liang Ch'i-Ch'ao

Chinese Approaches to Literature from Confucius to Liang Ch'i-Ch'ao

Edited, with an Introduction, by Adele Austin Rickett
Chia-ying Yeh Chao
Yu-shih Chen
Donald Holzman
C. T. Hsia
David Pollard
Adele Austin Rickett
John C. Y. Wang
Siu-kit Wong
Copyright Date: 1978
Pages: 288
https://www.jstor.org/stable/j.ctt13x176h
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    Chinese Approaches to Literature from Confucius to Liang Ch'i-Ch'ao
    Book Description:

    These essays, by Chinese and Western scholars, treat selected aspects of Chinese literary theory, history, and criticism from the age of Confucius to the beginning of the twentieth-century.

    The topics examined include Confucius as a literary critic (Donald Holzman); the view ofch'i, or vital force, as a decisive element in creative writing (David Pollard); the literary theories of the eleventh-century poet and essayist Ou-yang Hsiu (Yu-shih Chen) and his contemporary Huang T'ing-chien (Adele Rickett); and the seventeenth-century philosopher-poet Wang Fu-chih (Siu-kit Wong). Other essays consider the Ch'ang-chou School of the Ch'ing dynasty (Florence Chia-ying Yeh Chao); the distinctive methods of criticism applied to theDream of the Red Chamberby the Chih-yen chai commentators (John Wang); and the educative function of fiction as outlined by Liang Ch'i-ch'ao and Yen Fu at the turn of the century (C.T. Hsia).

    Originally published in 1978.

    ThePrinceton Legacy Libraryuses the latest print-on-demand technology to again make available previously out-of-print books from the distinguished backlist of Princeton University Press. These paperback editions preserve the original texts of these important books while presenting them in durable paperback editions. The goal of the Princeton Legacy Library is to vastly increase access to the rich scholarly heritage found in the thousands of books published by Princeton University Press since its founding in 1905.

    eISBN: 978-1-4008-7086-8
    Subjects: Language & Literature

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-iv)
  2. Preface
    (pp. v-vi)
  3. Table of Contents
    (pp. vii-viii)
  4. Chronology of Chinese Dynasties
    (pp. ix-x)
  5. Abbreviations
    (pp. xi-2)
  6. Introduction
    (pp. 3-20)
    ADELE AUSTIN RICKETT

    In December 1970 a number of “hunters” gathered in the lush, tropical island of St. Croix, Virgin Islands, to search for the meaning of Chinese literary theory and criticism. The most well-known critics were not the direct subjects of the papers presented at the conference since it was felt that they had already been well introduced to the Western world through translations or scholarly studies. Lu Chi, Liu Hsieh, Ssu-k’ung T’u, Han Yü, and Yen Yü, to name just a few of them, were inevitably cited, of course, but the main purpose of the conference was to expand the knowledge...

  7. Confucius and Ancient Chinese Literary Criticism
    (pp. 21-42)
    DONALD HOLZMAN

    Surely there is no more bookish civilization than China’s, no civilization more prone to revere its ancient writings and to seek for guidance in its daily affairs within the pages of its traditional and even modern literature. And yet when we look into ancient Chinese writings to seek for general remarks about the nature of this literature—perhaps the broadest way of defining “literary criticism”—we come very near to being completely frustrated. Whole volumes have been consecrated to the study of what the ancient Greeks, and in particular Aristotle, wrote about literature, and their influence still persists. The historians...

  8. Ch’i in Chinese Literary Theory
    (pp. 43-66)
    DAVID POLLARD

    The concept ofch’ihas a long history in the realm of Chinese philosophical writings and from about the beginning of the third century A.D. it has held an important place in theoretical and critical writings on literature as well. In an effort to determine whatch’imeant in the vocabulary of traditional Chinese literary criticism, I have made a study of both ancient critical texts and the works of modern scholars. What I here pass on in the way of analysis is largely the fruit of the latters’ investigations of the tremendous number of texts in which the term...

  9. The Literary Theory and Practice of Ou-yang Hsiu
    (pp. 67-96)
    YU-SHIH CHEN

    It is usually held that theku-wenmovement is an unbroken tradition from T’ang to Sung and that the prose of this period makes up a more or less homogeneous whole. The career of Chinese prose, when seen from a broad enough perspective, does lend support to this view. Han Yu 韩遗 (768-824) protested against the ornate and allusive style of parallel-prose, objected to the Buddhist and Taoist ideology in the current literature, and proposed, as an alternative, a return to the Six Classics, which to his mind embodied the dual virtues of lofty style and orthodox belief.¹ Two centuries...

  10. Method and Intuition: The Poetic Theories of Huang T’ing-chien
    (pp. 97-120)
    ADELE AUSTIN RICKETT

    There has been a tendency on the part of literary historians to group poets and critics of poetry of the Sung dynasty in distinct categories or schools as a way of dealing with their creative work. Perhaps this tendency arose in an effort to treat in orderly fashion the vast output in poetic expression and theory that characterized the years of both the Northern and Southern Sung. The two best-known twentieth-century general works of Chinese literary criticism, Kuo Shao-yu 郭韶毅,Chung-kuo wen-hsiieh p’i-p’ing shih仲國聞薛丕坪石, and Lo Kentse 讓你讓,Chung-kuo wen-hsiieh p’i-p’ing shih,both present Sungdynasty criticism...

  11. Ch’ing and Ching in the Critical Writings of Wang Fu-chih
    (pp. 121-150)
    SIU-KIT WONG

    Wang Fu-chih 王夫之 (1619–1692)¹ was hardly known as a literary critic in his own day and his views of poetry have not been either popular or influential since. But it is possible to establish that his critical writings are characterized by a clarity and precision of expression, a consistency of standard, and, ultimately, a sense of relevance and purpose. These qualities, not always discoverable even in some of the bestknown Chinese critics, should qualify Wang Fu-chih as a major critic by such standards as are likely to be found acceptable in our own times. The immediate object of this...

  12. The Ch’ang-chou School of Tz’u Criticism
    (pp. 151-188)
    CHIA-YING YEH CHAO

    The Ch’ing dynasty has a deserved reputation as the renaissance period oftz’u,not only for the outstanding poets who wrotetz’u,but also because of the development of critical schools with theories about the form. Throughout the dynasty there were three major schools: the Che-hsi 车溪, the Yang-hsien 仰贤, and the Ch’ang-chou 張宙, all named after the region to which its members largely belonged. The Che-hsi School advocated the kind of poetic refinement of Chiang K’uei 蒋癸 (1155-c. 1221) and Chang Yen 苍颜 (1248–13?). It was founded by Chu Yi-tsun 楚逸纲 (1629–1709) and continued by Li E...

  13. The Chih-yen-chai Commentary and the Dream of the Red Chamber: A Literary Study
    (pp. 189-220)
    JOHN C. Y. WANG

    The importance of the Chih-yen-chai Commentary in the study of the text and the author of theDream of the Red Chamberwas fully recognized when in 1928 Hu Shih published his study on the so-calledchia-hsü许多 (1754) version of the novel (in manual transcription) accompanied by Chih-yen-chai’s comments.¹ Since then, several other transcribed versions bearing Chih-yen-chai’s comments have been discovered,² and a great deal of scholarly discussion has ensued as a result. Invariably, however, the discussion has centered on such topics as the new light thrown by the commentaries on the life of the author and his original...

  14. Yen Fu and Liang Ch’i-ch’ao as Advocates of New Fiction
    (pp. 221-257)
    C. T. HSIA

    Many scholars and journalists of the late Ch’ing period championed the novel as an instrument for national reform. In 1897 Yen Fu 嚴復 (1853–1921), then editor of the TientsinKuo-wen pao該文葆, wrote with his close friend Hsia Tseng-yu 夏曾瑜 (1865–1924) a long essay entitled “Pen-kuan fu-yin shuo-pu yüan-ch’i” 筆寬福真元普祁 (Announcing Our Policy to Print a Supplementary Fiction Section), which has been generally regarded as the first piece of criticism to affirm the social function of fiction in modern times.¹ This was followed by Liang Ch’i-ch’ao’s 梁啟超 (1873–1929) much shorter “Yi-yincheng-chih hsiao-shuo hsii” 易銀城志蕭碩 (Foreword to Our...

  15. List of Contributors
    (pp. 258-260)
  16. Index
    (pp. 261-268)
  17. Back Matter
    (pp. 269-269)