Archetypal Images in Greek Religion: 5. Zeus and Hera: Archetypal Image of Father, Husband, and Wife

Archetypal Images in Greek Religion: 5. Zeus and Hera: Archetypal Image of Father, Husband, and Wife

CARL KERÉNYI
TRANSLATED FROM THE GERMAN BY Christopher Holme
Copyright Date: 1975
Pages: 230
https://www.jstor.org/stable/j.ctt13x190c
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    Archetypal Images in Greek Religion: 5. Zeus and Hera: Archetypal Image of Father, Husband, and Wife
    Book Description:

    What did Zeus mean to the Greeks? And who was Hera, united with Zeus historically and archetypally as if they were a human pair? C. Kerenyi fills a gap in our knowledge of the religious history of Europe by responding to these questions. Examining the wordZeusand its Greek synonymstheosanddaimon, the author traces the origins of Greek religion in the Minoan-Mycenacan civilization. He shows how Homer's view of the gods decisively shaped the literary and artistic tradition of Greek divine mythology. The emergence of the Olympian family is seen as the expression of a humane Zeus cult determined by the father image but formed within the domain of Hera.

    Originally published in 1976.

    ThePrinceton Legacy Libraryuses the latest print-on-demand technology to again make available previously out-of-print books from the distinguished backlist of Princeton University Press. These paperback editions preserve the original texts of these important books while presenting them in durable paperback editions. The goal of the Princeton Legacy Library is to vastly increase access to the rich scholarly heritage found in the thousands of books published by Princeton University Press since its founding in 1905.

    eISBN: 978-1-4008-6976-3
    Subjects: Religion

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-vi)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. vii-viii)
  3. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
    (pp. ix-x)
  4. INTRODUCTION
    (pp. xi-2)
    C. K.

    In the volumeDionysos: Archetypal Image of Indestructible Life,I offered a historical account of the religion of Dionysos from its beginnings in the Minoan culture down to its transition to a cosmic and cosmopolitan religion of late antiquity under the Roman Empire. This chapter of the religious history of Europe had been dealt with before—not, it is true, as a concrete, consistent, and coherent whole but at least in details or generalizations—in classical studies and archaeology, in philosophy and psychology. With this book on Zeus and Hera I aim to fill a gap in the account of...

  5. I. THE WORD ‘ZEUS’ AND ITS SYNONYMS, ‘THEOS’ AND ‘DAIMON’
    (pp. 3-20)

    After World War I, in a period when an intellectual expansion was expected in and from classical studies, the two most famous Greek scholars in Germany were invited to lecture on Zeus: Hermann Diels and Ulrich von Wilamowitz-Moellendorff. Their lectures summarized what was known at the time about the supreme god of the Greeks. The historical exploration of antiquity had reached its highest point. The two lectures are characterized as much by their mutual contradictions (and that of Diels also by an internal contradiction) as by a common limitation. They are limited by a narrowness of attitude toward religion, or...

  6. II. THE BEGINNINGS OF THE ZEUS RELIGION AND ITS EARLY HISTORY
    (pp. 21-37)

    There is no question that Greek religion was primarily Zeus religion and no question that the Zeus religion was the religion characteristic of the Greeks. In what follows this is shown in detail. The most probable hypothesis is that the rise of the correlation Zeus at one pole with the Greeks at the other constituted a beginningbeforewhich it is not possible to speak of the existence either of Greek religion or of the Greeks whom we know in history as the bearers of that religion. The question is when this correlation arose. Were the Greeks who first invaded...

  7. III. THE EMERGENCE OF THE OLYMPIAN DIVINE FAMILY
    (pp. 38-59)

    The simple god-experience contained in the name Zeus requires no further analysis by the historian and in itself does not admit of any further development. It happened in the prehistory of the Greeks and it is not even important to assign the exact point of time and the exact tribe of Greeks in which it happened. According to the view put forward as the most probable in this book, it must have happened among the first immigrants, in the initial phase of that period of time filled with Greek prehistory, early history, and history, on the well-known scene of Greek...

  8. IV. POSEIDON AS ‘HUSBAND’ AND ‘FATHER’
    (pp. 60-90)

    In all conceivable situations, for gods and men, Zeus was called “father.” Among the numerous evidences of his worship, however, there is not one of a special cult of “Zeus Pater.”¹ There was no cult that specially emphasized his fatherhood or defined it more precisely. It was Poseidon who bore the epithet “Pater” in a definite cult, and the myth upon which this cult was founded throws some light on the question as to what sort of “father” he was. Homer has Poseidon appear beside Zeus in the patriarchal family only in a rather subordinate position, which did not exclude...

  9. V. ZEUS THE BROTHER-HUSBAND
    (pp. 91-113)

    The supreme god of the Greeks, the event that became more present the more suddenly it broke through darkness-darkness of the sky, darkness of chaotic events among men-and thus deserved the epithet “Phanaios,” “one who appears as light and brings Mght”¹: this supreme god early on assumed a father image. Yet, this supreme power was not wholly comprised either in the father image or in the patriarchal father role in the Olympian divine family. It was more sublime than the father without actually being sublimated out of him. In no sense was it an “almighty god” sublimated out of the...

  10. VI. HERA CULTS IN THE PELOPONNESE, EUBOEA, AND BOEOTIA
    (pp. 114-147)

    In the history of Greek religion, before the time of Homer, Hera was already on the way to being sublimated into the pure image of the wife and consort. The content of her archetypal form was something the goddess brought with her from a more ancient time. About this period some sure inferences can be drawn from the Hera cult site on the mainland, in Argos. In this ancient correlation where Hera had occupied the divine side, the counterpole to a worship rendered above all by women, she was a more complex figure than that which she later became by...

  11. VII. THE GREAT GODDESS OF SAMOS AND PAESTUM
    (pp. 148-180)

    Samos in the east and Paestum in the west, with their temples, testify to the power of the Hera religion in a manner deserving of the closest attention from students of human history. In the fundamental correlation to which every religion can be reduced, and in this special case the correlation between the Great Goddess Hera and those who actually needed her religion, there have been not only sacrificers on the human side but also builders-communities that channeled the economic strength at their disposal into a remarkable flow of building activity. Who was the partner at the receiving end of...

  12. ABBREVIATIONS
    (pp. 182-182)
  13. LIST OF WORKS CITED
    (pp. 183-196)
  14. INDEX
    (pp. 197-211)
  15. Back Matter
    (pp. 212-212)