The Labor Force in Economic Development: A Comparison of International Census Data, 1946-1966

The Labor Force in Economic Development: A Comparison of International Census Data, 1946-1966

Copyright Date: 1975
Pages: 280
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  • Book Info
    The Labor Force in Economic Development: A Comparison of International Census Data, 1946-1966
    Book Description:

    This book explores growth and structural change in the labor force that accompany economic development. It reports on labor force characteristics in one hundred countries around the world, a project of the Population Studies Center at the University of Pennsylvania.

    Based on a world-wide compilation of labor force and population statistics of censuses taken during 1946-1966, it presents previously inaccessible data on sex and age patterns of participation in economic activities, the size of the labor force in proportion to population, and changes in these areas associated with economic development. Patterns related to the level and speed of development, the structure of employment, urbanization, and age structure of population are defined. Conclusions are offered with regard to changing participation by women, young people, and the elderly.

    Originally published in 1976.

    ThePrinceton Legacy Libraryuses the latest print-on-demand technology to again make available previously out-of-print books from the distinguished backlist of Princeton University Press. These paperback editions preserve the original texts of these important books while presenting them in durable paperback editions. The goal of the Princeton Legacy Library is to vastly increase access to the rich scholarly heritage found in the thousands of books published by Princeton University Press since its founding in 1905.

    eISBN: 978-1-4008-6814-8
    Subjects: Business

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-iv)
  2. Preface
    (pp. v-vi)
    John D. Durand and Ann R. Miller
  3. Table of Contents
    (pp. vii-ix)
  4. List of Figures
    (pp. x-x)
  5. List of Tables
    (pp. xi-2)
  6. ONE Introduction
    (pp. 3-14)

    A nation’s economy has been described as a huge machine that devours natural resources, labor, and capital and turns out the multitude of goods and services that make up the gross national product.¹ But the economy is not an inanimate contraption of steel and concrete; it is primarily an organization of human beings, and it has some attributes of a living organism. It can grow and expand its capacity to consume inputs and produce outputs; and, like a tree, how well it grows depends very much on the environment in which it is planted. For the growth of the economy,...

  7. TWO Measures of Labor Force Dimensions
    (pp. 15-44)

    The size of the labor force in proportion to the total population—that is, the ratio of income-producers to consumers—is measured by the crude activity rate (CAR). This is defined for the present study as the number of labor force members ten years of age and over per 100 of the total population. Crude activity rates and other measures of labor force participation are listed in Table A.1, Appendix A, for each of the hundred countries as of each census year for which data were compiled.

    For a cross-sectional view of levels of the rates, we consider the data...

  8. THREE Regional Patterns
    (pp. 45-77)

    Labor-force participation rates can be viewed as products of demand and supply factors interacting within a framework of culture and social institutions that govern the functional roles of individuals according to sex, age, and other attributes. Since this framework is not the same in different societies, it is to be expected that the levels of the participation rates may differ between countries in similar economic circumstances, and that similar economic developments may have different effects on the trends of the rates over time.¹ The extent to which participation is reported in the censuses may also be affected by cultural and...

  9. FOUR Economic Development and Relative Size of the Labor Force
    (pp. 78-92)

    Let us turn now to the question, how labor force dimensions and patterns of participation in income-producing work may change in the processes of economic development. Beginning with the measures of crude activity rates and their components as defined in chapter 2, let us see how their levels and their changes between censuses differ among countries at different levels of development.

    To classify countries by relative levels of economic development, we will use an index composed of two indicators: energy consumption per head and the percent share of the nonagricultural sector in total employment or labor force. The two are...

  10. FIVE The Decrease of Participation by Males in the Labor Force in the Process of Economic Development
    (pp. 93-122)

    A decrease of participation by males in income-producing work seems to take place almost universally in societies undergoing modern economic development. It was observed in the preceding chapter that in the cross section of census statistics, the mean level of male standardized activity rates declines progressively as the level of development of the countries rises. A similar pattern was observed in the United Nations study of a cross section of data of censuses taken around 1950.¹ The measures of labor force changes during postwar intercensal periods likewise indicate an almost universally decreasing trend accompanying the progress of economic development in...

  11. SIX Changes in Women’s Participation in the Labor Force in the Process of Economic Development
    (pp. 123-146)

    Economic development in some countries has brought an increase in participation by women in the labor force, partly or wholly compensating for the decrease in men’s participation, while in other countries, women’s participation also has decreased.¹ In the United States, for example, females in the labor force increased from 16.6 percent of the female population ten years of age and over in 1890 to 31.3 percent in 1960, while in Belgium, the rate dropped from 32.6 in 1890 to 23.5 in 1961. The trend since the beginning of the census record has been predominantly upward in Sweden; downward in Switzerland;...

  12. SEVEN Review of Principal Findings
    (pp. 147-160)

    The data compiled for this study afford two views of variations in labor-force participation rates and other aspects of labor-force dimensions in relation to economic development: the cross-sectional view of the status quo at recent census dates in a hundred countries at different levels of development, and the dynamic view of changes accompanying the progress of economic development in fifty-eight countries during intervals between recent censuses. Both views are seriously distorted by flaws in the statistics, and the relationships in question are distorted, in addition, by influences of factors that have little or nothing to do with economic development. Inferences...

  13. APPENDIX A Country Tables
    (pp. 161-207)
  14. APPENDIX B Selection and Adjustment of Data
    (pp. 208-217)
  15. APPENDIX C Adjustment of Age Limits and Classifications
    (pp. 218-223)
  16. APPENDIX D Standardized and Refined Activity Rates
    (pp. 224-227)
  17. APPENDIX E Measures of Population Structure Effects
    (pp. 228-234)
  18. APPENDIX F Measures of Participation by Females in Agricultural and Nonagricultural Employment
    (pp. 235-238)
  19. APPENDIX G Defects of Census Enumerations of Female Agricultural Workers and Unpaid Family Workers
    (pp. 239-249)
  20. APPENDIX H Indicators of Economic Development
    (pp. 250-254)
  21. Index
    (pp. 255-260)
  22. Back Matter
    (pp. 261-261)