The Peruvian Experiment: Continuity and Change Under Military Rule

The Peruvian Experiment: Continuity and Change Under Military Rule

edited by Abraham F. Lowenthal
Copyright Date: 1975
Pages: 500
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  • Book Info
    The Peruvian Experiment: Continuity and Change Under Military Rule
    Book Description:

    Peru's self-proclaimed "revolution"-surprisingly extensive reforms initiated by the military government-has aroused great interest all over Latin America and the Third World. This book is the first systematic and comprehensive attempt to appraise Peru's current experiment in both national and regional perspective. It compares recent innovative approaches to Peru's problems with the methods used by earlier regimes, providing original and stimulating interpretations of contemporary Peru from the viewpoints of political science, sociology, history, economics, and education.

    Originally published in 1976.

    ThePrinceton Legacy Libraryuses the latest print-on-demand technology to again make available previously out-of-print books from the distinguished backlist of Princeton University Press. These paperback editions preserve the original texts of these important books while presenting them in durable paperback editions. The goal of the Princeton Legacy Library is to vastly increase access to the rich scholarly heritage found in the thousands of books published by Princeton University Press since its founding in 1905.

    eISBN: 978-1-4008-7014-1
    Subjects: Business, Political Science

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-iv)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. v-vi)
  3. List of Tables
    (pp. vii-vii)
  4. List of Figures
    (pp. vii-viii)
  5. Preface
    (pp. ix-xiv)
    Abraham F. Lowenthal
  6. Contributors
    (pp. xv-2)
  7. 1 Peru’s Ambiguous Revolution
    (pp. 3-43)
    Abraham F. Lowenthal

    Peru’s “Revolutionary Government of the Armed Forces” has now completed its first six years in power, the equivalent of a presidential term under the country’s constitution. Headed by General Juan Velasco Alvarado, the army’s top-ranking officer when he led the October 1968 coup which toppled President Fernando Belaúnde Terry, the Peruvian regime has already attracted considerable attention. Military officers and civilian politicians in countries as different as Argentina and Ecuador, Bolivia and Brazil, Cuba and the Dominican Republic, Uruguay and Colombia, have expressed their interest in (and usually their admiration for) the Peruvian experiment. Fidel Castro has acclaimed the Peruvian...

  8. 2 The New Mode of Political Domination in Peru
    (pp. 44-78)
    Julio Cotler

    The Revolutionary Government of the Armed Forces, which came to power on October 3, 1968, has unquestionably closed one chapter of Peru’s history and opened another. It has brought profound transformations to the economic, political, and social life of Peru. Perhaps the central feature of these transformations has been the elimination of what had been in the twentieth century the most important center of economic and political power in Peruvian society—the export oligarchy and the foreign economic interests with which this sector of the oligarchy had been closely associated. In place of this dependent-oligarchic mode of economic organization, the...

  9. 3 Government Policy and the Distribution of Income in Peru, 1963–1973
    (pp. 79-127)
    Richard Webb

    This essay attempts to measure the impact of government policy on the distribution of income in Peru since 1963. The governments of Belaúnde (1963–1968) and Velasco (since 1968) have both professed a deep concern with economic injustice, and both have been held up as models of peaceful progress toward social justice. During the last decade the Peruvian state has sharply expanded its size and its control over the economy. Both regimes can point to important redistributive measures. Belaúnde stressed schooling and rural development, for instance. Velasco decreed a land reform, an industrial reform, and other property transfers. The objective...

  10. 4 Squatter Settlements and Policy Innovation in Peru
    (pp. 128-178)
    David Collier

    The reformist military government which has ruled Peru since 1968 has introduced important innovations in policy toward squatter settlements. Taken together, these innovations constitute a coherent policy which appears to be one of the more successful aspects of the government’s effort to transform Peruvian society. At the same time, however, the program in the settlements is a curious blend of policies from earlier periods—drawing not only on policies of a previous reform government, but also on policies proposed and carried out by the Peruvian Right.

    This chapter analyzes the steps through which the current programs in squatter settlements have...

  11. 5 Transforming the Rural Sector: Government Policy and Peasant Response
    (pp. 179-219)
    Susan C. Bourque and David Scott Palmer

    On June 24, 1969, Juan Velasco Alvarado announced to the Peruvian nation the long-awaited Agrarian Reform Law. As indicated in the passage above, the new law was to destroy those “unjust social and economic structures” which had oppressed the peasantry. Further, the government would direct the destruction of those institutions. We argue in this paper that the present military government has pursued a course of active interest in the integration of the rural population and has taken the lead in developing a policy for restructuring rural institutions: production, ownership, and organization. However, Peru’s agrarian structure and rural population are vast...

  12. 6 Land Reform and Social Conflict in Peru
    (pp. 220-253)
    Colin Harding

    The agrarian reform program which the military government of Peru has been carrying out since June 1969 is the first serious attempt to make fundamental changes in the country’s agrarian structure and to find overall solutions to problems that have been growing increasingly pressing in the course of decades of debate and piecemeal legislation. By 1976 some 11 million hectares of land should have been transferred to 340,000 families; by the end of July 1974, just under 5 million hectares had been allocated to 196,523 families, mainly organized into production cooperatives (CAPs) andsociedades agricolas de interés social(SAISs) of...

  13. 7 Continuity and Change: Peruvian Education
    (pp. 254-301)
    Robert S. Drysdale and Robert G. Myers

    Education is a double-edged, if somewhat blunt, sword. It can accelerate or retard economic growth, facilitate or inhibit income redistribution, open or restrict employment opportunity, maintain or undercut privilege, and foster a liberating form of social participation or strengthen social control. While serving to integrate a society, it can also be a source of some tensions. Each modern government and each national political force struggles to position the cutting edge to shape the world according to its view. Examining the substance and dynamics of educational reform, proposed and promulgated, should, therefore, help us understand more general views held and processes...

  14. 8 Direct Foreign Investment in Peru: New Rules for an Old Game
    (pp. 302-349)
    Shane Hunt

    The Peruvian Revolution has altered drastically the place of direct foreign investment in the nation’s economic life. The dimensions of this change can be appreciated only if we begin before the beginning, tracing the evolution of policies and attitudes toward foreign investment in the twenty years preceding October 1968, when civilian government came to an end. The paper begins with a summary of that history. Then it describes how the present government has developed its foreign investment policy, first by reviewing the development of general laws and policy statements, then by surveying several case histories of expropriation and contract renegotiation....

  15. 9 New Forms of Economic Organization in Peru: Toward Workers’ Self-Management
    (pp. 350-401)
    Peter T. Knight

    Since taking power in October 1968, President Velasco and other Peruvian government spokesmen have stressed the important role they assign to new forms of economic organization in moving Peru toward their professed goal, a fully participatory social democracy. Under the 1969 Agrarian Reform Law the government has transformed the vast majority of affected private landholdings into collective enterprises—the Agrarian Production Cooperatives (CAPs) and the Agricultural Societies of Social Interest (SAISs)—rather than parcel them out to individual tenants and workers. Beginning in 1970, firms in manufacturing industry, mining, fishing, and telecommunications have been reformed by the introduction of “labor...

  16. 10 Belaúnde and Velasco: On the Limits of Ideological Politics
    (pp. 402-438)
    Jane S. Jaquette

    The study of politics in Latin America has recently experienced a resurgence of interest in the question of ideology as part of what Kalman Silvert has described as the rejection of the positivist, neoutilitarian view dominant for twenty years. A return to institutionalism is now seen, not to the sterile institutionalism of the past with its dry totting up of legal documents and its inability to deal with extraconstitutional political arrangements, but to a broader definition of institutions as, in Silvert’s words, “historically developed clusters of routinized behavior patterns with their appropriate sets of sanctions.”¹ This definition invites examination of...

  17. Appendix. Guide to the Study of Contemporary Peru
    (pp. 439-458)
    Abraham F. Lowenthal
  18. Index
    (pp. 459-480)
  19. Back Matter
    (pp. 481-483)