Anarchists of Andalusia, 1868-1903

Anarchists of Andalusia, 1868-1903

Temma Kaplan
Copyright Date: 1977
Pages: 288
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    Anarchists of Andalusia, 1868-1903
    Book Description:

    Andalusian anarchism was a grassroots movement of peasants and workers that flourished in Cádiz Province, the richest sherry-producing area in the world, from about 1868 to 1903. This study focuses on the social and economic context of the movement, and argues that traditional interpretations of anarchism as irrational, spontaneous, or millenarian are not justified. The extensive archival research undertaken for this book leads Temma Kaplan to a major reinterpretation of the nature of anarchism.

    Using the police reports in local archives to reconstruct the lives of more than three hundred rank-and-file anarchists, Temma Kaplan shows that the Andalusian movement was highly organized and dedicated to defending the interests of workers and peasants through a wide variety of organizations. These included trade unions, workers' circles, and women's societies, all of which favored general strikes and insurrections rather than terrorism.

    Originally published in 1977.

    ThePrinceton Legacy Libraryuses the latest print-on-demand technology to again make available previously out-of-print books from the distinguished backlist of Princeton University Press. These paperback editions preserve the original texts of these important books while presenting them in durable paperback editions. The goal of the Princeton Legacy Library is to vastly increase access to the rich scholarly heritage found in the thousands of books published by Princeton University Press since its founding in 1905.

    eISBN: 978-1-4008-6971-8
    Subjects: Political Science

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-vi)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. vii-viii)
  3. List of Figures
    (pp. ix-ix)
  4. List of Tables
    (pp. ix-x)
  5. Acknowledgments
    (pp. xi-xiv)
  6. Abbreviations
    (pp. xv-1)
  7. [Map]
    (pp. 2-2)
  8. INTRODUCTION. The Lay of the Land
    (pp. 3-11)

    This book is about Andalusian anarchism, a grass-roots movement of peasants and workers that grew and flourished between 1868 and 1903 within certain boundaries. Northern Cadiz Province, containing Jerez de la Frontera, the richest sherry district in the world, was the scene of insurrections, strikes, and general strikes throughout the latter part of the nineteenth century. Andalusian anarchism is synonymous with those revolutionary episodes and the gathering of thousands of people into community organizations related to militant trade unions.

    This examination of the component forces of the anarchist movement in Northern Cádiz Province seeks to shed light on broader issues...

  9. CHAPTER 1 Prologue: Sherry and Society in Jerez de la Frontera
    (pp. 12-36)

    The evolution of anarchism in Northern Cádiz Province was inextricably tied to the declining prosperity of independent winegrowing peasants, pruners, and coopers after 1863, and their collective response to their condition. Diminished autonomy in their work induced skilled people to band together, creating new cooperative organizations and modifying old ones. These associations were designed to retain control over what remained of workers’ and peasants’ power, and to fight against a new system of work relations they opposed. Before discussing how bourgeois and petty bourgeois politics in this area were intimately associated with the fortunes of sherry production and sale, the...

  10. CHAPTER II Capitalist Development and Bourgeois Politics in Northern Cádiz Province
    (pp. 37-60)

    Changes in the work process and the politics that developed from them were products of larger social transformations attributable to the growth of capitalism. More than merely an economic system centered on the sherry industry, capitalism represented the most fundamental reordering of relationships since the Reconquest. No facet of life was left untouched. No individual remained aloof.

    Spain, like Prussia and many other nations, became a capitalist country in the nineteenth century in a futile attempt to preserve the remnants of the Old Regime. This reactionary goal led the governors of the Spanish state to set in motion a series...

  11. CHAPTER III Bourgeois Revolution and Andalusian Anarchism: The First Phase, 1868 to 1872
    (pp. 61-91)

    The political history of Spanish anarchism has been adequately documented, largely within the past decade. But the connections between the Republicans and early anarchists have not been explained, nor has the way in which anarchists fused their ideology with local working class and peasant culture been analyzed, nor has the process by which anarchism threw down such deep roots in Northern Cadiz Province been described. Attempts by wine producers to wrest control of their trade from an unsympathetic state provided impetus to the local Republicans, and linked them to workers and peasants engaged in the wine trade. The structural basis...

  12. CHAPTER IV Insurrectionary Politics, 1869 to 1873
    (pp. 92-110)

    Bakuninist leaders and Intransigent Republicans in Cádiz Province shared a commitment to insurrectionary politics directed by a political elite. Against this tendency, local anarchists in Andalusia attempted to create a popular movement, organized around sections and militant trade unions, the goal of which was to win local control for the masses of working people. There was, in effect, a two-way split between Intransigents and local groups. All this was complicated and masked by the united struggle of both against the Spanish state between 1868 and 1873.

    At first, in late 1868, the militance of Republican forces in the south won...

  13. CHAPTER V Repression and its Fruit, 1873 to 1883
    (pp. 111-134)

    Andalusian anarchists have frequently been viewed as terror ist fanatics who acted out of frustration rather than according to a political strategy. A good deal of that interpretation focuses on their actions during the decade from 1873 to 1883, and particularly on the Black Hand trials and the crime wave of 1883. Close examination reveals, however, that Andalusian anarchism underwent a basic organizational change during that period. The region as a whole resisted the insurrectionary exhortations of the Federal Commission. On the other hand, anarchists in Cadiz Province, faced with extreme local repression, attempted to fight against the established order,...

  14. CHAPTER VI Collectivism versus Communism: Unions and Community, 1881 to 1888
    (pp. 135-167)

    The challenge to anarchism in Andalusia was to organize those who were working while, simultaneously, winning solidarity from masses of women and the unemployed. Ideological splits over how this might be accomplished, and about whether workers or the poor community ought to be given priority in the struggle to win anarchism, plagued the FTRE throughout its history in Andalusia. Theoretical issues took political form at the Second National Congress of the FTRE in Sevilla in 1882, when anarcho-communists and anarcho-collectivists split over long-range goals and short-term strategy, a division that reflected fundamental differences between reformist trade unionism and terroristprone communalism....

  15. CHAPTER VII We the Workers of the Fields
    (pp. 168-205)

    The general strike periodically resolved the contradictions between reformist trade unionism and communalism, tendencies that had plagued the Andalusian movement in the eighties. The three most important general strikes in Cádiz Province were in Jerez in January 1892, the Cádiz Bay area in 1902, and Alcalá del Valle in 1903. Very little was spontaneous about them. In all three, workers and peasants, by uniting community associations around the leading trade unions, were able to attack the ruling class and the government with at least some success. These attempts to seize and hold key areas for anarchism used old community organizations,...

  16. CHAPTER VIII Spontaneity and Millenarianism
    (pp. 206-212)

    Popular movements challenge historians. They often seem to emerge out of nowhere, disseminate their message by mysterious means, and apparently disappear. Historians seeking to account for the forces driving Andalusian anarchists have focused on evidence of their spontaneity and millenarianism.

    Anarchists were committed to building a revolutionary movement that would not coerce its members. This lack of coercion was what the anarchists meant by spontaneity. As one anarchist remarked in the eighties, “organization, the grouping of organs for a vital function, is always the result of spontaneous evolution. In plants and animals, molecules associate, dissociate, and group together again without...

  17. Bibliography
    (pp. 213-246)
  18. Index
    (pp. 247-266)
  19. Back Matter
    (pp. 267-267)