Evolution of the Igneous Rocks: Fiftieth Anniversary Perspectives

Evolution of the Igneous Rocks: Fiftieth Anniversary Perspectives

H. S. YODER EDITOR
Copyright Date: 1979
Pages: 600
https://www.jstor.org/stable/j.ctt13x1dkm
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    Evolution of the Igneous Rocks: Fiftieth Anniversary Perspectives
    Book Description:

    The Evolution of the Igneous Rocks, by N. L. Bowen, appeared in 1928 and had a profound influence on later generations of petrologists. Drawing on his series of lectures at Princeton University in the spring of 1927, Dr. Bowen identified, outlined, and applied the principles of physical chemistry relevant to petrological processes. Whereas the major petrochemical questions he discussed are still relevant today, the answers appear to change with time. The purpose of the present volume is to provide an updated view of those questions, in the light of almost fifty years of accumulated observations, using the principles Bowen set forth.

    Originally published in 1979.

    ThePrinceton Legacy Libraryuses the latest print-on-demand technology to again make available previously out-of-print books from the distinguished backlist of Princeton University Press. These paperback editions preserve the original texts of these important books while presenting them in durable paperback editions. The goal of the Princeton Legacy Library is to vastly increase access to the rich scholarly heritage found in the thousands of books published by Princeton University Press since its founding in 1905.

    eISBN: 978-1-4008-6850-6
    Subjects: Environmental Science, General Science

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-vi)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. vii-x)
  3. PREFACE
    (pp. xi-2)
    H. S. Yoder Jr.
  4. Chapter 1 THE PROBLEM OF THE DIVERSITY OF IGNEOUS ROCKS
    (pp. 3-14)
    G. MALCOLM BROWN

    The science of igneous pedogenesis is a study of the origin and evolution of rocks that have formed through the generation of magmas by melting processes, and the cooling of those magmas from a liquid, or liquid and crystalline state, into a glassy to crystalline state. Field and textural observations do not constitute sufficient evidence for defining a rock as igneous in origin (Barth, 1962, p. 51) but when allied with experimental studies on silicate melts similar in composition to the rock in question, the origin of the rock can be verified. Experimental studies, primarily by N. L. Bowen, formed...

  5. Chapter 2 SILICATE LIQUID IMMISCIBILITY IN MAGMAS
    (pp. 15-58)
    EDWIN ROEDDER

    The history of science is littered with the shells of cast-off concepts, each of which seemed eminently suitable to hold to perfection all aspects of the then-known body of facts. One such concept is that silicate liquid immiscibility in magmas is a mechanism to form various rock types. It was proposed by Zirkel and Rosenbusch early in the development of petrology to explain the juxtaposition of rocks having quite disparate compositions, usually without intermediate types. Rocks such as basalt and rhyolite, and various pairs of dike rocks, were thus generally and conveniently assumed to have formed simply by the “splitting”...

  6. Chapter 3 FRACTIONAL CRYSTALLIZATION AND PARTIAL FUSION
    (pp. 59-76)
    D. C. PRESNALL

    In order to develop a comprehensive theory for the evolution of the igneous rocks, a principal requirement is to explain the chemical diversity of different rock types and the often continuous nature of chemical changes between these types. At the same time, the frequency of occurrence of all rock types is not the same, and it is equally important to explain the existence of large volumes of chemically similar magma. Two very important processes controlling the chemistry of igneous rocks are partial fusion at the source region and fractional crystallization as the magmas move upward to the earth’s surface. Because...

  7. Chapter 4 CRYSTALLIZATION IN SILICATE SYSTEMS
    (pp. 77-132)
    ARNULF MUAN

    One of the most complex examples of crystallization in oxide and silicate systems is that of magmas. While the thermodynamic basis for understanding liquid-solid equilibria has been available since Gibbs’ pioneering work a hundred years ago (1876, 1878), a quantitative treatment of the crystallization of magmas is complicated by the many composition parameters and external parameters involved, as well as by lack of attainment of equilibrium.

    Inasmuch as the fundamental principles are the same for complex poly-component magmas as for compositionally simpler binary, ternary, or quaternary systems, the studies of key systems of the latter type have provided much insight...

  8. Chapter 5 THE REACTION PRINCIPLE
    (pp. 133-170)
    E. F. OSBORN

    “It will be apparent from the discussion of crystallization in typical silicate systems that a relation of liquid to crystals, characterized by reaction between them, is exceedingly common during the normal course of crystallization” (Bowen, 1928, p. 54). Bowen went on to explain that the reaction may be continuous, as in the common solid solution series, or it may be discontinuous, as when a crystalline phase that precipitated within one temperature range reacts with the liquid at lower temperatures and dissolves while one or more other phases crystallize. This feature of crystallizing silicate liquids, upon which fractional crystallization depends, was...

  9. Chapter 6 FRACTIONAL CRYSTALLIZATION OF BASALTIC MAGMA
    (pp. 171-204)
    IKUO KUSHIRO

    Bowen emphasized that the fractional crystallization of basaltic magma is a fundamental process in the generation of igneous rocks varying widely in chemical and mineralogical composition, including most of the major igneous rock types. He proposed a scheme of fractional crystallization of basaltic magma that is still essential to the understanding of the mechanisms by which the diversity of igneous rocks is produced; however, application has proved to be more limited than Bowen postulated. First, the concept of basaltic magma has changed. Although different magma types had been recognized in the 1920’s in Mull (Baileyet al., 1924), it was...

  10. Chapter 7 THE LIQUID LINE OF DESCENT AND VARIATION DIAGRAMS
    (pp. 205-232)
    RAY E. WILCOX

    In pointing out the effectiveness of the variation diagram for illustrating chemical relationships among members of an igneous rock series, Bowen (1928) particularly emphasized it as a tool in exploring the kinds and quantities of mineral phases that might have been subtracted from an evolving magma in bringing about the observed relationships in an evolutionary series by fractional crystallization. The “liquid line of descent”¹ refers to the evolutionary trend in composition of the liquid phase of the magma that results from differential withdrawal of chemical constituents from the liquid during growth of crystals. This trend is apart from the changing...

  11. Chapter 8 GLASS AND THE GLASSY ROCKS
    (pp. 233-244)
    I.S.E. CARMICHAEL

    In his compelling advocacy of the role of crystallization-differentiation as the principal process controlling the diversity of igneous rocks, Bowen sought to use the compositions of glassy rocks as the best evidence for a liquid line of descent. Obviously, a glassy rock resulted from congealed magma, and he was concerned to show that the range of composition represented by naturally occurring glasses was more restricted than that of the crystalline rocks. Of those which fell outside the glassy range, factors other than crystallization of almost crystal-free liquids were presumed to be at work in modifying their composition—perhaps accumulation of...

  12. Chapter 9 ROCKS WHOSE COMPOSITION IS DETERMINED BY CRYSTAL ACCUMULATION AND SORTING
    (pp. 245-306)
    T. N. IRVINE

    To this point in his book, Bowen had been primarily concerned with establishing that fractional crystallization was a principal process—indeed in his view,theprincipal process—in the compositional diversification of magmatic liquids. Implied in this concept is that there are large volumes of igneous rocks representing accumulations of the fractionated crystals, and as a next step Bowen undertook to search for evidence of such rocks. He concentrated particularly on the Scottish Hebrides, this being an area that was petrologically well documented for the times and with which he was personally familiar. He first examined the Central magma type...

  13. Chapter 10 EFFECTS OF ASSIMILATION
    (pp. 307-338)
    A. R. MCBIRNEY

    At the time Bowen wroteThe Evolution of the Igneous Rocks,his discussion of assimilation was set in the context of a lively debate. A large segment of petrologic theory hinged on the belief that the compositional variations of igneous rocks resulted mainly from assimilation of crustal material in more primitive magmas. Bowen’s long-time adversary, Fenner, was one of the most forceful American proponents of this view, but the importance of assimilation was also advocated by geologists such as Daly (1933) and Kennedy (1933) who, like Fenner, believed that the field relations they observed offered more compelling evidence than laboratory...

  14. Chapter 11 THE FORMATION OF SILICEOUS POTASSIC GLASSY ROCKS
    (pp. 339-350)
    DAVID B. STEWART

    The extrusion of magma onto the earth’s surface can result in such rapid cooling that crystallization is prevented. The cooling rate required to prevent crystallization depends upon the composition of the magma and especially upon its SiO₂ and H₂O contents. Nearly anhydrous silica-rich magma readily quenches to the highly viscous liquid called glass. Obsidian is glass that has rhyolite composition. Although obsidian is found in thicknesses of 10 meters or more where it has been cooled over months or years, its formation is restricted to near-surface environments. Basaltic liquids can be quenched to glass only if cooled in seconds or,...

  15. Chapter 12 THE FELDSPATHOIDAL ALKALINE ROCKS
    (pp. 351-390)
    J. GITTINS

    The term alkaline rock has been used in a variety of ways and applied to rocks as diverse as alkali olivine basalt, trachyte, syenite, and feldspathoidal rocks. It implies enrichment in alkalies (Na₂O + K₂O), but this, in turn, can be related to either the SiO₂ or the Al₂O₃ content of the rock, Silica-undersaturated rocks contain feldspathoidal minerals, and there is common agreement on calling these rocks alkaline. Silica-oversaturated rocks are not generally called alkaline unless a sodic pyroxene or amphibole (such as acmite or riebeckite) is present. In other words, a high content of alkali feldspar is not sufficient...

  16. Chapter 13 MELILITE-BEARING ROCKS AND RELATED LAMPROPHYRES
    (pp. 391-412)
    H. S. YODER JR.

    The lamprophyres were described by Bowen as a broad, ill-defined group of dike rocks, characteristically porphyritic. The phenocrystic crystals are highly femic (olivine, hornblende, mica), whereas the groundmass is alkalic. The richness of ferromagnesian and alkalic constituents is distinctive. Because of his belief that there was a strong tendency for idiomorphic crystals or porphyritic texture, or both, and a lack of well defined tachylitic, spherulitic, or aphanitic borders of the same composition as the main mass of the dike, he did not regard these rocks as ever having existed in an entirely liquid condition. He objected, therefore, to their origin...

  17. Chapter 14 THE FRACTIONAL RESORPTION OF COMPLEX MINERALS AND THE FORMATION OF STRONGLY FEMIC ALKALINE ROCKS
    (pp. 413-422)
    DAVID R. WONES

    The origin of the alkaline mafic rocks remains one of petrology’s most intriguing puzzles. Modern explanations include partial melting of ordinary mantle at high pressures, assimilation of crustal material, accumulation of volatiles within the mantle and accompanying metasomatism, or some combination of these processes. Most alkaline mafic rocks, including lamprophyres, contain phenocrysts of olivine, plagioclase, diopside, hornblende, and phlogopite, either singly or in combination. Bowen (1928) concluded from this fact that lamprophyric compositions could not exist as pure liquids and proposed that the fractional resorption of complex minerals such as biotite and hornblende by basaltic magma could produce the lamprophyres...

  18. Chapter 15 FURTHER EFFECTS OF FRACTIONAL RESORPTION
    (pp. 423-438)
    E. D. JACKSON

    The major role of fractional resorption in the formation of iron-rich alkaline rocks was discussed in the preceding chapter. In this chapter, Bowen turned his attention to the possible effects of this same process on two different, but then topical, igneous phenomena: oscillatory zoning of feldspar crystals, and concentrations of spinel, particularly chromite, in ultramafic rocks. His approach to both problems was the same. In the case of feldspar zoning he examined the effects of changing physical conditions on the binary continuous reaction system albite–anorthite. In the case of spinel formation he considered similar changes in the ternary discontinuous...

  19. Chapter 16 THE IMPORTANCE OF VOLATILE CONSTITUENTS
    (pp. 439-482)
    C. WAYNE BURNHAM

    Most readers of Chapter XYI inThe Evolution of the Igneous Rocksare left with the distinct impression that Bowen did not regard himself as one of the many petrologists to whom “a volatile component is exactly like a Maxwell demon.” In fact, he repeatedly stressed the view that small amounts of a volatile, such as H₂O, would have correspondingly small effects on the liquidus phase relations appropriate to the “dry” melts in silicate systems. Fifty years of experimentation on H₂O-bearing silicate melts of petrologic interest by scores of investigators have provided abundant confirmatory evidence for this view. This same...

  20. Chapter 17 PETROGENESIS AND THE PHYSICS OF THE EARTH
    (pp. 483-520)
    P. J. WYLLIE

    This statement was Bowen’s opening paragraph for Chapter 17, written with his customary style and clarity. Many parts of the chapter remain valid today, but knowledge of the physics of the earth has increased enormously since 1928.A brief survey . . . of some present-day conclusions in geophysical matterswas desirable fifty years ago. Today, a survey is essential, because geophysics has become a starting point for many aspects of petrogenesis. Similarly, geophysicists need the data of petrology for characterization of the earth materials whose properties they measure.

    Cosmogony, invigorated by the space program, has now become a fruitful...

  21. Chapter 18 PARTITIONING BY DISCRIMINANT ANALYSIS: A MEASURE OF CONSISTENCY IN THE NOMENCLATURE AND CLASSIFICATION OF VOLCANIC ROCKS
    (pp. 521-532)
    FELIX CHAYES

    After a long period of neglect the taxonomy of igneous rocks appears to be the object of a modest resurgence of concern.¹ Much of the current activity in this field consists of attempts to redefine and rearrange existing names, and inevitably suffers from the lack of widely accepted, reasonably objective criteria for deciding whether proposed modifications of terms already in the public domain are actually in the public interest. This chapter proposes such a criterion—the partition effected by a discriminant function—for the case in which chemical composition is of critical importance. The underlying method, however, is of broader...

  22. AUTHOR INDEX
    (pp. 533-543)
  23. SUBJECT INDEX
    (pp. 544-585)
  24. SYSTEMS INDEX
    (pp. 586-588)