Hybridization of Somatic Cells

Hybridization of Somatic Cells

Copyright Date: 1972
Pages: 190
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  • Book Info
    Hybridization of Somatic Cells
    Book Description:

    Since its discovery in I960, the hybridization of somatic cells has evolved from a biological curiosity into an analytical method that today underlies nearly all investigations of the genetic aspects of various biological phenomena. As an eyewitness to this development from its inception forward, Boris Ephrussi here relates the history of somatic hybridization and the formation of its methodology, lie follows with a discussion of the characteristics and properties of the resultant hybrid cells. Together, these topics comprise an authoritative introduction to the principles of the technique.

    Dr. Ephrussi proceeds to an examination in greater detail of three specific areas of biological research to which the techniques of hybridization are currently being applied with promising consequences. Thus the major part of the book deals with applications of somatic hybridization to mammalian genetics, cell differentiation, and cancer.

    Originally published in 1972.

    ThePrinceton Legacy Libraryuses the latest print-on-demand technology to again make available previously out-of-print books from the distinguished backlist of Princeton University Press. These paperback editions preserve the original texts of these important books while presenting them in durable paperback editions. The goal of the Princeton Legacy Library is to vastly increase access to the rich scholarly heritage found in the thousands of books published by Princeton University Press since its founding in 1905.

    eISBN: 978-1-4008-6822-3
    Subjects: Ecology & Evolutionary Biology

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-vi)
  2. Preface
    (pp. vii-x)
  3. Table of Contents
    (pp. xi-2)
  4. CHAPTER 1 Introduction
    (pp. 3-4)

    In the initial letter of invitation addressed to me two years ago, the Chairman of the Carter-Wallace Lectureship Committee explained that the purpose of these lectures was “to call the attention of students and faculty in biochemistry, biology, and chemistry to exciting developments in important areas of the life sciences.” I assumed that the development to which I owed the invitation was hybridization of somatic cells, and suggested this title for my lectures; and I take the renewed invitation* to lecture on this subject to mean that this theme had not come to be regarded meanwhile as less exciting, and...

  5. CHAPTER 2 History of Somatic Hybridization
    (pp. 5-30)

    I chose to start with an historical account of somatic cell hybridization for two reasons.

    First, in my opinion, an honest historical account by an eyewitness inevitably shows the respective roles, in any important scientific development, of deliberate, logical design and of “lucky accidents” and, hence, especially in periods of pessimism about the future which many biologists are going through right now, inspires confidence and hope that the unexpected will, again and again, bring unforeseeable solutions to what, on logical grounds, appear today to be insoluble problems.

    The second, and much less important reason, is that a history of somatic...

  6. CHAPTER 3 Application of Cell Hybridization to the Study of Formal Genetics
    (pp. 31-49)

    Personally, I have little taste for formal genetics in general, let alone that of man. But formal genetics is beyond any possible doubt an absolutely essential prerequisite to the attack on any other problem involving genetic mechanisms and that is why I must give you at least an idea of the principles on which formal genetic analysis of somatic cells is based. Since it is formal genetics of man that is at present making the most rapid strides, I shall speak exclusively about that. I wish to emphasize, however, that with the introduction of some new techniques to be mentioned...

  7. CHAPTER 4 Preliminary Technical and Theoretical Remarks on the Study of Cell Differentiation In Vitro
    (pp. 50-56)

    I have shown earlier that we have the means for beginning the genetic analysis of somatic cells of higher animals; what I have to show now is that we also have at leastsomematerial to which the genetic method can be applied for the purpose with which we shall be concerned first, i.e. cell differentiation.

    As I have mentioned already, Harris and his co-workers have shown that even highly differentiated cells such as macrophages, lymphocytes, and erythrocytes, which normally do not divide anymore, can be fused with dividing cells as well as with each other.98, 107On the other...

  8. CHAPTER 5 Application of Cell Hybridization to the Study of Differentiation: I. Reactivation of Nuclei of Differentiated Cells in Heterokaryons
    (pp. 57-70)

    I shall now speak of some insights into the problem of cell differentiation gained by hybridization of somatic cells, and I shall begin with the work of Henry Harris’ group on heterokaryons involving rabbit macrophages, rat lymphocytes, and hen erythrocytes. All three of these cell types represent terminal stages of differentiation: normally, none of them synthesize DNA. Erythrocytes, whicharenucleated in birds, are the most specialized of the three types of cells; while macrophages and lymphocytes synthesize RNA, erythrocytes apparently do not,*or only in minute amounts undetectable by the methods used by Harris and his coworkers.98, 99, 107...

  9. CHAPTER 6 Application of Cell Hybridization to the Study of Differentiation: II. The Fate of Luxury Functions in Somatic Hybrids
    (pp. 71-98)

    I shall consider now the fate of luxury functions in hybrids capable of continued multiplication. Since we are thinking of the emergence and maintenance of these functions in differentiated cells in terms of regulation of gene activities, it may be well to begin by recalling what information the studies of formal genetics (Chapter 3) have provided on the behavior of the numerous household (ubiquitous) enzymes in such multiplying hybrids.

    In general, crosses between cells (of the same or different species), differing either in theformsof, or by thepresencevs.absenceof household enzymes, give the results expected on...

  10. CHAPTER 7 Application of Cell Hybridization to the Study of Cancer
    (pp. 99-109)

    Since the discovery of somatic hybridization was made and its generality established on pairs of cell lines of which at least one was highly malignant (or transformed by an oncogenic virus), it is not surprising that the malignancy of hybrids and the presence in them of characteristics correlated with the malignant (or transformed) state were examined in the earliest investigations. All publications on the subject† concurred in showing that the hybrid cells, which were testable by inoculation into appropriate mice, apparently inherit the high malignancy of the more malignant parent (a few exceptions were observed and are mentioned in Refs....

  11. CHAPTER 8 Concluding Remarks and Postscript
    (pp. 110-116)

    In the “Introduction” to these lectures, I expressed the hope that, after you will have heard what I have to say about the present status of some biological problems, you will share my belief that there is still plenty to do for biologists of the present and next generations. It must be clear to you now that among all the problems to which I alluded, those that I had foremost in mind were problems of development, to which I devoted the greater part of my lecture time. It must have become clear to you also that, at the moment, we...

  12. Appendix
    (pp. 117-146)
  13. References
    (pp. 147-168)
  14. Author Index
    (pp. 169-172)
  15. Subject Index
    (pp. 173-175)