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Artistic Experimentation in Music

Artistic Experimentation in Music: An Anthology

Darla Crispin
Bob Gilmore
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  • Book Info
    Artistic Experimentation in Music
    Book Description:

    Essential reading for anyone interested in artistic research applied to music. This book is the first anthology of writings about the emerging subject of artistic experimentation in music. This subject, as part of the cross-disciplinary field of artistic research, cuts across boundaries of the conventional categories of performance practice, music analysis, aesthetics, and music pedagogy. The texts, most of them specially written for this volume, have a common genesis in the explorations of the Orpheus Research Centre in Music (ORCiM) in Ghent, Belgium. The book critically examines experimentation in music of different historical eras. It is essential reading for performers, composers, teachers, and others wanting to inform themselves of the issues and the current debates in the new field of artistic research as applied to music. The publication is accompanied by a CD of music discussed in the text, and by an online resource of video illustrations of specific issues.

    eISBN: 978-94-6166-166-1
    Subjects: Music

Table of Contents

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  1. Introduction
    (pp. 9-16)
    Darla Crispin and Bob Gilmore

    This book is an anthology of writings about an emerging area of research: artistic experimentation in music. The paradox implicit in this opening proposition—can one already confidently make an anthology of texts about so recent a field of enquiry?—is here answered in the affirmative. The editors believe the time is ripe for a first gathering of materials from this cross-disciplinary terrain, which cuts across and between the boundaries of the conventional categories of performance, composition, historical and critical musicology, performance studies, musical analysis, reception theory, aesthetics, and much else.

    The majority of the thirty-five texts have been written...

  2. Section I Towards an Understanding of Experimentation in Artistic Practice

    • [Section I Introduction]
      (pp. 17-22)

      This section presents ten articles that outline, in various ways, how the ORCiM focus upon artistic experimentation creates new conceptual contexts for understanding how research may be embedded in musical practice. In order to create a platform for understanding how this works, aspects of the contemporary situation regarding experimentation in the arts are presented. Of particular importance is the delineation of the difference between the specific category of “experimental music,” which has John Cage and James Tenney amongst its principal exponents, and the broader view of experimentation that is subscribed to by ORCiM, which undoubtedly includes “experimental music,” but embraces...

    • Five Maps of the Experimental World
      (pp. 23-30)
      Bob Gilmore

      When I was sixteen years old I fell in love for the first time with the music of an experimental composer. I had no idea he was an experimental composer, and back then I would have had no clue what that term meant. On the contrary, I loved his music because it was Protestant, as I was, because he did crazy things with hymn tunes, and because his music sounded like New England in autumn—at least the New England of my imagination—with barn dances and cider barrels, church bells and marching bands. It was music like no other,...

    • The Exposition of Practice as Research as Experimental Systems
      (pp. 31-40)
      Michael Schwab

      Over the last few years, Hans-Jörg Rheinberger’s theory of “experimental systems,” which he has developed in relation to the empirical sciences and molecular biology in particular, has gained currency in debates around art and research. While Rheinberger (2007, 2009, 2012a, 2013) acknowledges that a comparison between the advance of art and that of science may be made, it is striking that, in the literature to date, no coherent picture has emerged as to how his theory may productively be employed in this context. Authors who focus on the notion of “experimentation” seem to limit their discussion to practices that conceptually,...

    • Epistemic Complexity and Experimental Systems in Music Performance
      (pp. 41-54)
      Paulo de Assis

      In a process that was particularly enhanced in the twentieth century, the performance of musical “works” became a complex articulation of different types of data, information, and knowledge, retraceable in diverse material sources (including sketches, instruments, editions, recordings), in reflective discourses (in,on, andaboutmusic), and in multifarious performance “styles.” The continuous accumulation and sedimentation of such kinds of knowledge represents an exponential growth of complexity that involves technical, artistic, aesthetic, and epistemic components. Such “complexity” might be labelled—borrowing a concept from the sciences (Dasgupta 1997; Kováč [2000] 2013; Kováč 2007)—“epistemic complexity.” Considering musical works as highly...

    • Experimental Art as Research
      (pp. 55-60)
      Godfried-Willem Raes

      A number of recent developments, particularly in higher education in the arts across Europe, have resulted in the theory and practice of research in art gaining new momentum.¹ The underlying reason is simple: academic higher education, whether technical or purely scientific, can only claim to be academic when supported by scientific research and insofar as the institutions that provide such education pursue their own research. Education that consists mainly of learning skills is for this reason not academic: it is craftsmanship. In a great many European countries, the decision has been made—partly in imitation of the Anglo-Saxon model—to...

    • Tiny Moments of Experimentation: Kairos in the Liminal Space of Performance
      (pp. 61-68)
      Kathleen Coessens

      A concert performance of music seems, at first sight, a non-experimental, well-prepared activity requiring considerable technical and instrumental skill, background knowledge of context and composition, rehearsal, and interpretational fidelity to a tradition. However, small gaps—possibilities for experimentation—emerge in the elaboration, preparation, and performance of a musician’s act, in the background of the musician’s world of highly skilled practices, profound training, embodied schemata, and prepared interpretational expression. In the act of performance, in the liminal space between contingency and the hidden background of artistic practice,kairos(which I translate asthe artistic opportune choice of action) can appear and...

    • The Web of Artistic Practice: A Background for Experimentation
      (pp. 69-82)
      Kathleen Coessens

      Beneath the artist’s apparent expertise and creation—revealed in artistic realisations such as composition or performance—a complex domain of experience, knowledge, and actions is hidden and difficult to pin down. This domain consists of different tacit dimensions, which can only be made visible, understandable, by theorising, or by the introspection and interpretation of the artist. Moreover, within the process of creation, the artist is seldom consciously aware of these dimensions, the focus at that moment being creation itself—some artistic idea or aim. The tools of the artist, knowledge, expertise, experiences, and actions present in his or her creative...

    • Towards an Ethical-Political Role for Artistic Research
      (pp. 83-90)
      Marcel Cobussen

      [1] Can the subaltern speak? In 1988, the Indian philosopher Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak asked this question in an homonymic essay in which she investigated the relations between Western poststructuralist criticisms of the metaphysical subject and the representation of non-Western people (Spivak [1988] 2008, 109–30). According to Spivak one of the occurring problems was that contemporary Western intellectuals tried to speak on behalf of the suppressed, thereby unwittingly and imperceptibly reinscribing, co-opting, and rehearsing neocolonial imperatives of political domination, economic exploitation, and cultural erasure.

      How then can the subaltern—or “the other”—speak? How can she or he be understood...

    • A New Path to Music: Experimental Exploration and Expression of an Aesthetic Universe
      (pp. 91-104)
      Bart Vanhecke

      The term “experimentation in music”—or in the arts in general—is commonly used in at least three different senses: it usually refers (1) to innovativeness in artistic creation, (2) to unpredictability or indeterminacy in procedures or outcomes,¹ or (3) to experimentation in the scientific sense.² In this article, I wish to suggest a different categorisation of artistic experimentation on the basis of developmental exploration of the idiosyncratic part of an artist’s aesthetic universe. To do this, I will first discuss the concepts of aesthetic universe and culture, and I will relate these concepts to artistic practice and research as...

    • From Experimentation to CONSTRUCTION
      (pp. 105-110)
      Richard Barrett

      “Experimental” is a term we find used in quite a specific way in discussions of contemporary music. Michael Nyman’s important bookExperimental Music: Cage and Beyond, first published in 1974, uses this word to describe a stylistic or perhaps more correctly anattitudinaltendency beginning in the middle of the twentieth century for which the work and ideas of John Cage formed a central point of reference. I won’t be using the term “experimental” in this sense. I would prefer to try to establish a way in which the term can be used meaningfully in relation to creative musical practice,...

    • Artistic Research and Experimental Systems: The Rheinberger Questionnaire and Study Day - A Report
      (pp. 111-124)
      Michael Schwab

      When discussing experimentation in artistic research, one could simply relate it to experimental art practices of the twentieth century, pointing out that this is a well-established paradigm in the history of art. However, the problem of epistemology remains: how does experimentation—in particular when it comes to art, music, or design—contribute to knowledge and understanding?

      This is particularly difficult in light of the work of Karl Popper, who, inThe Logic of Scientific Discovery([1959] 2002), claims that there is no logical basis to induction, that is, the formation of universal statements based on singular observations. In short, Popper’s...

  3. Section II The Role of the Body:: Tacit and Creative Dimensions of Artistic Experimentation

    • [Section II Introduction]
      (pp. 125-130)

      In devoting a strand of work to the role of the body within the larger topic of artistic experimentation, ORCiM confronted one of the most problematic aspects of artistic research in general: the potentially idiosyncratic and even solipsistic accounts that might be presented by practitioners endeavouring to describe their own ways of working, observing their own physical and mental interfaces within the materials of that work, and trying to articulate this in language that may feel genuine to them but can often raise questions for the reader. The confrontation seemed worthwhile because here we are operating at that site of...

    • Embodiment and Gesture in Performance: Practice-led Perspectives
      (pp. 131-142)
      Catherine Laws

      The word “embodiment” has in recent years become commonplace in Practiceled research, in music and beyond. It is sometimes used simply to refer attention to the role of the body in musical practice. However, considered in the light of recent developments in phenomenology, neuroscience, and body theory, a more specific and significant context emerges, one that lies at the heart of artistic research, at the nexus between doing and understanding. Below, I argue for a determined focus on embodiment—not physicality, corporeality or simply the body—in order to avoid persistent Cartesian tendencies. The artistic research context prompts a questioning...

    • Order Matters: A Thought on How to Practise
      (pp. 143-148)
      Mieko Kanno

      The literature on how to play music is rich in quantity and variety. It ranges from do-it-yourself websites on how to play the guitar in ten easy steps to academic papers on how to enhance performance from a psychological perspective. Each teacher, author, or commentator offers a practice strategy. In any walk of life, strategies address two principal questions:whatto do andhowto do it in order to achieve an aim. The “what” question determines tasks to be undertaken and the “how” question explains the method with which those tasks are carried out. While the “what” question relates...

    • Association-Based Experimentation as an Artistic Research Method
      (pp. 149-152)
      Valentin Gloor

      Questions of methodology are of major importance to all inquiry claiming to be research.² It is only with knowledge of the method applied in a certain research project that the research outcomes can be appreciated and—crucial to all scientific research—can be verified or falsified by other researchers. Therefore, any new research field will have to cope with questions of methodology at an early stage. Due to the lack of specific knowledge in the new field known as artistic research, researchers from other fields will not be able to judge the quality of the outcomes in most cases, but...

    • Association and Selection: Toward a New Flexibility in the Form and Content of the Liederabend
      (pp. 153-156)
      Valentin Gloor

      The development of newLiederabend(evening of songs) performance settings can be linked to Hans-Jörg Rheinberger’s concept of experimental systems. “Experimental systems are to be seen as the smallest integral working units of research. As such, they are systems of manipulation designed to give unknown answers to questions that the experimenters themselves are not yet able clearly to ask” (Rheinberger 1997, 28). Within an experimental system, Rheinberger identifies “technical objects” on the one hand (the known and clearly defined experimental conditions) and “epistemic things” on the other (the “objects of inquiry. As epistemic objects, they present themselves in a characteristic,...

    • Il palpitar del core: The Heart-Beat of the “First Opera”
      (pp. 157-166)
      Andrew Lawrence-King

      In January 2011 I undertook a research, education, and performance project with students from the Royal Danish Academy of Music and invited guests, a production of Claudio Monteverdi’sL’Orfeo(1607) in the Christians Kirke, Copenhagen. This article explores the research background leading to that project and reflects on the results of the experiment

      My ongoing research and the 2011 Orfeo project are part of the performance programme of the Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence for the History of Emotions (CHE). Within CHE’s wide-ranging investigation of the historical meaning of emotions, how they shaped social and political change in the...

    • Techno-Intuition: Experiments with Sound in the Environment
      (pp. 167-174)
      Yolande Harris

      The notion of techno-intuition emerged from my artistic research into how one’s relationship to the environment is established and enhanced through sound and listening. With the aid of sonic technologies and awareness-enhancing practices, we can re-experience environments we know and access others beyond our physiological abilities, such as those underwater. Such experiences are mediated both by our technologies and by our interpretations—our techno-intuitions. Rather than consider technology as antithetical to the environment, I blend experiments using technological instruments with bodily experiences of the environment, using sound to provoke a sense of direct involvement. For example, combining both technical and...

  4. Section III Experimenting with Materials in the Processes of Music-Making

    • [Section III Introduction]
      (pp. 175-180)

      Any experimental approach to music necessitates an examination of materials, and poses complex questions about the relationships between material, form, and the process of creation and re-creation. This section focuses on the evaluation of unfamiliar musical situations. The authors pose diverse challenges to the established interactions of performance, composition and improvisation. Sometimes this takes the form of viewing a familiar composer (or other form of artist) in a new light, or of reflecting upon the susceptibility of a whole musical tradition to an experimental approach. What, for example, if we approach the playing of jazz standards from an experimental point...

    • what if?
      (pp. 181-184)
      Larry Polansky

      I often write pieces with some kind of question in mind. That question can be just about anything, but sometimes it is simply “what if?”

      Some musical ideas beg to be pursued or their own sake, on their own terms, just to see what happens. Asking the right questions—fecund, clear, as profound and ramifying as possible—is important. But the hard work for a composer is to ask elegantly, poetically, transparently, and above all, musically. There are many interesting questions, far fewer interesting pieces.

      If a question is pursued with integrity and confidence, the consequences can lead to difficult...

    • Historical Precedents for Artistic Research in Music: The Case of William Butler Yeats
      (pp. 185-196)
      William Brooks

      It is treacherous to argue that artistic research in music must necessarily conform to a particular model or template. Every research undertaking seems typically to construct its own method, its own rationale. Nonetheless, there are some properties that seem to be common to all such projects. First, they necessarily entail contributions from artists (musicians) practising their craft—contributions not just of data (which suffices for researchonorintomusical practice) but also of insights and judgments (required for researchinorthroughmusic practice). Second, the results of the research include not only discourseaboutthe problem but also...

    • Cageian Interpenetration and the Nature–Artifice Distinction
      (pp. 197-202)
      Steve Tromans

      Cage defined interpenetration as “an incalculable infinity of causes and effects” in which “each and every thing . . . is related to each and every other thing” (Cage 1958, 47, quoted in Nyman 1999, 65). This paper is concerned with exploring the research implications of Cageian interpenetration in terms of certain of the philosophical notions found in the writings of Deleuze (alone, and with Guattari).

      In contrast to the distinction that language allows us to make between performer, instrument, composer, score, audience, and environment,actuallived experience of performance events bears testament to no such clear-cut categorisations. Deleuze and...

    • Revisiting Luigi Nono’s Suffered, Serene Waves
      (pp. 203-214)
      Paulo de Assis

      Luigi Nono’s . . . . .sofferte onde serene. . . for piano and tape (1975/77) was composed during a period of intense reflection and self-criticism that led Nono to new modes of composing and to renewed perspectives on the arts, on aesthetics, and, crucially, on the political implications of art. Contrary to Nono’s pieces of the previous decade, . . . . .sofferte onde serene. . . has no direct political message. Its main focuses are the study of Maurizio Pollini’s piano sonority and playing techniques and the study of diverse compositional techniques and strategies....

    • On Kagel’s Experimental Sound Producers: An Illustrated Interview with a Historical Performer
      (pp. 215-224)
      Luk Vaes

      From 1968 to 1970, Mauricio Kagel worked onAcustica,“for experimental sound producers and loudspeakers.” In the introduction to the score, he defines the term “experimental sound producers” by describing the attitude needed by the performers who will play them: “The casting of the piece calls for unorthodox musicians who are prepared to extend the frontiers of their craft” (Kagel 1970, 129). This concept is especially interesting in the light of how the composition was “made.” Kagel did not compose it himself in the strict sense, but rather did so through a particular type of collaborative process with musicians. The...

    • Composing as a Way of Doing Philosophy
      (pp. 225-230)
      Nicholas G. Brown

      Between 2005 and 2009, I devised strategies for creating new musical works by investigating the conventions and practices of classical music in relation to wider themes in philosophy. Accordingly, these musical works were rooted in a process of thinking about music as an activity, situated in a particular culture, rather than direct experimentation with sound itself. I was interested in seeing whether the act of composing could be reframed as a way of understanding what it is we do when we “do” music and how musical experiences affect and help us as we move through our daily lives.

      This article...

    • Cycles of Experimentation and the Creative Process of Music Composition
      (pp. 231-240)
      Hans Roels

      During a research project starting in 2011 with eight contemporary composers I was surprised by one of the composers who created his music in a linear way with a very low number of revisions, initial plans, or explorations. Although there are popular images of composers who rely on inspiration instead of labouring for expressive solutions, I do not know of any empirical study that describes a creative process with such a low amount of experimentation. Research into the creative process in music composition is a rather young discipline and the number of studies is limited. According to Sloboda in 1995...

    • Changing Sounds, Changing Meanings: How Artistic Experimentation Opens Up the Field of Brahms Performance Practice
      (pp. 241-250)
      Anna Scott

      As the tenets of the historically-informed performance (HIP) movement push ever farther into later repertoires, they have encountered those composers and musicians for whom we have sounding historical traces. Twenty years ago, Robert Philip (1992, 228) predicted that when modern reconstructions of “authentic” Elgar performances met Elgar as he was recorded, there would be “a collision between two worlds, a real world which no longer exists, and a reconstructed world which never wholly existed except in the imagination.” Those of us who may have smugly anticipated this cataclysm in the late piano music of Johannes Brahms have since witnessed a...

    • Experiments in Time: Music-Research with Jazz Standards in the Professional Context
      (pp. 251-260)
      Steve Tromans

      I graduated from music college in the late 1990s and have been a working jazz musician (pianist and composer) ever since, performing in a variety of venues, for varying audience sizes, and in many different performance setups. In addition to performing my own compositions and making music in freely-improvised concerts, I often play, and am familiar with, a number of jazz standards.

      Alongside my work as a musician, for the last few years I have also been involved in practice-as-research at doctoral level. This type of research activity has enabled me to bring together the contexts of the professional and...

    • Ecosonics: Music and Birdsong, Ends and Beginnings
      (pp. 261-268)
      Stephen Preston

      In this article I will give a brief account of certain aspects of my research that touch on the problems of prior knowledge and ideological thinking in creating a new practice. To illustrate the problems, I will outline the resources I employed, and the ideas, techniques, and approaches that I have used in my research. At the same time I hope to show how the research subject itself was the means for deconstructing these ideologies, some of which were encultured and others self-constructed.

      As one of the pioneers of period instrument and historically informed performance in Britain in the 1970s,...

  5. Section IV Sound and Space:: Environments and Interactions

    • [Section IV Introduction]
      (pp. 269-274)

      It has become clear in recent decades that new ways of thinking about the materials and practices of music necessitate a fundamental reconception of the spaces (both metaphorical and literal) in which that music is presented. This idea has roots in several parallel streams of twentieth-century musical thought. Early in the century Charles Ives imagined music to be performed outdoors, or indoors in a particular spatial configuration. His conceptions were extended in the US by Henry Brant, pioneer of spatial composition, and in Europe by, among others, Karlheinz Stockhausen, whoseGruppen(1955) calls for three orchestras spatially separated. But a...

    • Speaking and Singing in Different Rooms: Conceptuality and Variation in Alvin Lucier’s I Am Sitting in a Room
      (pp. 275-280)
      Paul Craenen

      The words above are the beginning of one of the most striking works in the history of experimental music.² In the first recording, from 1969,³ Alvin Lucier speaks the words slowly, occasionally interrupted by a hesitation (Lucier has a stutter). Immediately afterwards, we hear exactly what Lucier’s voice describes. The same words are heard again, but there is an audible difference in sound colour and an increase in the background noise. The difference in colour is caused by the resonance characteristics of the room in which the original recording is played and simultaneously re-recorded. The same process is then repeated...

    • Experiment in Practice
      (pp. 281-290)
      Catherine Laws

      What might it mean to practise a composition experimentally: to approach it with an experimental mindset? This question has arisen through my ongoing experience of working with the piano music of Morton Feldman, one that has caused me to consider the specific impact of practising his compositions upon my approach to performance more generally. While I have for some years given occasional performances of Feldman’s music, this article arises out of a more focused scrutiny of the experience of performing his late piano works. Performances took place in 2009-2010 across the UK (in London, Bath, Dartington, Barnstaple, Oxford and York)...

    • The Virtual Haydn: An Experiment in Recording, Performing, and Publishing
      (pp. 291-306)
      Tom Beghin

      Between 2005 and 2009, at the Centre for Interdisciplinary Research in Music Media and Technology (CIRMMT, McGill University, Montreal), producer Martha de Francisco, engineer Wieslaw Woszczyk, and I collaborated to apply “virtual acoustics” to a complete recording of Joseph Haydn’s solo keyboard works.The Virtual Haydnis at present available on both Blu-ray (Beghin 2009) and CD/DVD (Beghin 2011). Seven historical keyboards—each representative of a part of the repertoire—combine with nine virtually recreated historical rooms—locations where Haydn’s keyboard music would have been performed. The published package contains fifteen hours of high-resolution sound (5.0 surround and 2.0 stereo,...

    • On Life Is Too Precious: Blending Musical and Research Goals through Experimentation
      (pp. 307-314)
      Juan Parra Cancino

      When trying to define the soft divisions between artistic practice and research, one of the common pitfalls that we aim to avoid is claiming that what we normally do as artists in itself constitutes research. For composers, a second trap lurks within the notion that creating a new work and “producing new knowledge” are one and the same thing and, therefore, that the act of creating music is equivalent to that of conducting research. This does not necessarily mean that a particular artistic research project conducted with the primary intention of producing new musical work as an output should be...

    • Interview with Agostino Di Scipio
      (pp. 315-322)
      Hans Roels

      Agostino Di Scipio (b. Italy, 1962) is a composer, sound artist, music theorist, and scholar. Live computer music, solo or in combination with acoustic instruments, forms a large part of his artistic oeuvre. He has also developed sound installations and large-scale music theatre works. In the last ten years, the interaction between sound, performance space, technology, and performer has become central to his work. The live electronics react to the acoustic characteristics of the hall or to unexpected sounds and, in their turn, change the sound in that hall. This feedback loop between human, technology, and environment is an essential...

    • Kairos in the Flow of Musical Intuition
      (pp. 323-332)
      Kathleen Coessens and Stefan Östersjö

      A dialogue in a moment of musical creation unfolds:

      Stefan (guitarist): Actually, I’ve been thinking that maybe this is where we should reach some kind of, a spectral kind of quartertonescordatura.

      Richard (composer): mhm, or it could be actually the harmonic series.

      Stefan: Yeah that could be . . .

      Richard: That’s actually how we do it! Let’s do the harmonic series.

      Stefan: We’re actually quite close to it . . .

      Richard: What’s the lowest you’re comfortable with doing on the bottom string?

      Stefan: C is fine.

      Richard: Maybe we should do the top six harmonics, based on...

    • Habitus and the Resistance of Culture
      (pp. 333-348)
      Kathleen Coessens and Stefan Östersjö

      Musical performance demands the re-enactment of previously imprinted and embodied expert practices. These embodied schemata structure perception, thought, action, and communication and can be adapted and re-coordinated in specific situations. They function as frames of how to behave and, act in, and interfere with the outer world. Aristotle, Marcel Mauss, and Pierre Bourdieu named these practices thehabitus: a general, mainly tacitly and socially acquired whole of embodied patterns for action and behaviour—how to sleep, how to eat, how to play, how to be a man or a woman.¹

      Artists, as other people do, develop their activities and interests...

    • Repetition, Resonance, and Discernment
      (pp. 349-364)
      Kathleen Coessens, Henrik Frisk and Stefan Östersjö

      Musical performance is an artistic manifestation consisting of action or being enacted by the artist. At the same time, the artist is in a discerning, perceiving situation, a situation of “resonance.” However, the potential of both discernment and action is dependent upon the performer’s entire artistic background which is the result of a patient acquisition of artistic skills and knowledge, and upon the cultural tools at hand. The moment ofkairos, the opportune time at which these processes come together joining the intuitive knowing and the individual skills of the performer to the clearest light is the focus of this...

    • Intuition, Hexis, and Resistance in Musical Experimentation
      (pp. 365-372)
      Kathleen Coessens and Stefan Östersjö

      Is there a difference between artistic experimentation and the making of experiments in the sciences? Despite the many ways in which these kinds of action can be said to be distinguishable from each other, the question immediately turns upon itself, toward the nature of the concept of difference. The musicologist Kofi Agawu reminds us how difference has remained a central concept behind the Western gaze on the “other” (Agawu 2003, Östersjö and Nguyên 2013). But Agawu’s critique is implicitly directed towards the binary conception of difference, such as expressed in the history of ethnomusicology as a definition of the “other.”...

  6. Appendix 1: Glossary
    (pp. 373-382)
    Anna Scott
  7. Appendix 2: Contents of CD
    (pp. 383-386)
  8. Appendix 3: Online materials
    (pp. 387-388)
  9. Appendix 4: Resources for Artistic Experimentation
    (pp. 389-390)