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Recognition and Redistribution in Multinational Federations

Recognition and Redistribution in Multinational Federations

Jean-François Grégoire
Michael Jewkes
Copyright Date: 2015
Published by: Leuven University Press
Pages: 246
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  • Book Info
    Recognition and Redistribution in Multinational Federations
    Book Description:

    World’s leading theorists of multinational justice on sub-state national minority groups. Almost without exception, multinational states across the West are facing existential crises precipitated by the resurgence of sub-state national minority groups. This edited volume brings together many of the world’s leading theorists of multinational justice in order to analyse two of the most frequent areas of debate and dispute in multinational federations: recognition and redistribution. The authors address questions such as the following: What are the most appropriate forms of institutional recognition for sub-state national groups? How is the concept of redistributive justice affected by the presence of federal institutions and autonomous sub-state nationalities? And what are the potential sources of stability that fractious federations can call upon? As well as extensive theoretical analyses, the book is peppered throughout with examples drawn from actual multinational states including Canada, Belgium, Spain, and the United Kingdom.

    eISBN: 978-94-6166-174-6
    Subjects: Philosophy

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. 1-4)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. 5-8)
  3. Preface
    (pp. 9-10)
  4. Introduction

    • Recognition and Redistribution in Multinational Federations: Reconcilable Goals, or Unresolvable Tension?
      (pp. 13-32)
      Michael Jewkes

      Conflicts over demands for recognition and redistribution are some of the fiercest, and most frequent, to erupt in multinational federal states. Yet, the relative salience of each of these issues, and the connection between them, varies pro­digiously across cases. In Scotland, for instance, recognition as a distinct nation and separate society has long since been forthcoming. As a result, it was striking how minor a role questions of ‘identity politics’ played in the independence referendum of 2014. Instead, it was primarily a dual concern about redistribution –inter-national redistribution of the proceeds generated by the sale of oil; andintra-national...

  5. Part I: Recognition in Multinational Federations

    • 1. Non-territorial Jurisdictional Authority: A Radical Possibility in Need of a Critique
      (pp. 35-56)
      Helder De Schutter

      Territoriality refers to a mode of governing in which the jurisdictional authority – the right to govern – is held by and applies to all the people who live within a geographical unit. All the people on the territory together hold the authority and are subject to it. What makes them part of the authority is their presence on the same territory.

      Territoriality belongs to the essence of our idea of statehood: the world is divided into territorial states. But territoriality is also the dominant mode of authority for internal authority divisionswithinstates. In federal states, for example, competences...

    • 2. Nations, Popular Sovereignty, and Recognition: Challenging the Indivisibility Assumption
      (pp. 57-72)
      Geneviève Nootens

      The idea of popular sovereignty has a long history in the West, an history that begins with medieval debates on the Roman notion oflex regia.² It has conveyed different meanings, ranging from the notion that people must somehow have consented to be ruled but by the same act have actually alienated their power to do so, to the one that law is legitimate insofar as it is the product of the people’s decision-making – namely, democratic self-rule (Nootens 2013). These different meanings of the idea of popular sovereignty invariably involve the nature of the governing relationship and the issue...

    • 3. Three Ways to Advance Democratic Practices: Regionalism, Nationalism and Federalism
      (pp. 73-96)
      Alain-G. Gagnon and Jean-François Grégoire

      Since the end of the First World War, the objective of empowerment has provided meaning and hope to countless disenfranchised groups and communities across the globe. The Maritime Rights Movement of the 1920s and 1930s, when several regions of Canada – mainly in the East, hence ‘Maritime’ – protested against what they saw as unfair economic policies dictated by the central government in Ottawa, is a clear example of the quest for empowerment. So too are the decolonization movements in Africa and in Asia and, more recently, the women’s rights movements and the claims of First Nations peoples that, unfortunately,...

    • 4. A Short Note on Language and Identity
      (pp. 97-106)
      Antoon Vandevelde

      Since the linguistic turn in philosophy, the crucial importance of language for the development of human thought, for the way we see reality and for our attempts to get grasp on it, has been generally acknowledged. Beyond all disagreements, Wittgenstein and Gadamer, analytic philosophers and phenomenologists, both have argued this point convincingly. However, we do not just speak Language, but thousands of different languages. The diversity of languages in this world seems to be an essential part of our human condition and not just an accidental fact. But what is precisely the meaning of the plurality of languages for the...

    • 5. Recognition and Political Accommodation: from Regionalism to Secessionism – The Catalan case
      (pp. 107-132)
      Ferran Requejo and Marc Sanjaume

      Having lived through a bloody civil war in the 1930s followed by four decades of General Franco’s dictatorship, the Spanish state carried out a transition to a democratic system at the end of the 1970s. The 1978 Constitution was the legal outcome of this transition process. Among other things, it established a territorial model – the so-called ‘Estado de las Autonomías’ (State of Autonomous Communities) – which was designed to satisfy the historical demands for recognition and self-government of, above all, the citizens and institutions of Catalonia and the Basque Country.¹

      In recent years support for independence has increased in...

  6. Part II: Redistribution in Multinational Federations

    • 6. Federalism, Contractualism and Equality
      (pp. 135-156)
      Andrew Shorten

      In this chapter, I discuss a strand of federal theory that has recently begun to receive attention, which I dub the theory of ‘federal contractualism’.² Because there is not yet a fully fleshed out ‘federal contractualist’ theory, one of my aims is to sketch the outlines of what such a theory might contain. The ambitions of these parts of the chapter are as much ‘contractualist’ as ‘federalist’, and I hope to make some suggestions about how contractualists should reason about the justice and legitimacy of federations. Meanwhile, I also seek to address substantive questions about the relationships between political autonomy,...

    • 7. Federal Distributive Justice: Lessons from Canada
      (pp. 157-182)
      François Boucher and Jocelyn Maclure

      Federalism remains somewhat understudied in contemporary political philosophy. For instance, though 40% of the world’s population lives in a federal state, political philosophers are more inclined to think about the demands of distributive justice from either a nation-state or a cosmopolitan perspective, without asking whether federal constitutional orders deserve special treatment.

      To be sure, it would be false to say that there is no interest for federalism in political philosophy.¹ The construction of the European Union, for instance, created a need to think about intergovernmental relations and division of jurisdictions from a normative (and not only an empirical/institutional) perspective.


    • 8. Fiscal Federalism and Solidarity: In Search of an Ideal Formula
      (pp. 183-192)
      Philippe Van Parijs

      How can one best combine fiscal decentralization and solidarity? In this brief analysis, I start by succinctly revisiting the main advantages and disadvantages of fiscal decentralization. Then, I sketch what I present as the optimal formula and defend it against two possible objections. Following on, I assess the actual formula currently managing the funding of the Belgian regions and examine why it differs from my own. I then conclude by expressing my personal convictions regarding the direction in which our own youthful fiscal federalism ought to progress.

      The advantages and disadvantages of fiscal decentralization are generally well-known. In terms of...

  7. Part III: Sources of Stability in Multinational Federations

    • 9. If You Can’t Trust Them, Join Them: Federalism and Trust in Divided Societies
      (pp. 195-214)
      David Robichaud

      Trust has become abuzzwordin the social sciences. It is presented as a lubricant of society, a tie or a bond of society, a condition of economic efficiency and stability, a necessity for democracies, etc. So numerous and obvious are the roles that trust plays in our everyday lives that we will not attempt to justify its central importance here. Instead, we cut straight to a troubling finding about trust, namely, that experimental psychologists, experimental economists and other social scientists have found that people have a tendency to distrust those that are ethnically different from them. Many variables have...

    • 10. Federalism as Efficient Justice
      (pp. 215-240)
      Jean-François Grégoire and Michael Jewkes

      The multinational state can sometimes seem like a difficult creature to love. Devoid of the blind patriotic devotion that the nation-state can command of its citizens almost as a matter of course, it must work harder to inspire loyalty, and never is this clearer than in the case of the minority nations that dwell within its midst. Yet, in spite of this occasional failure to ignite the passions of all, multinational political entities do seem to display a remarkable resilience (Kymlicka 2001: 116-117), to the extent that we might refer to them as an inevitable empirical reality of the world...

  8. Index
    (pp. 241-246)