Architecture

Architecture

Andrew Carpenter General Editor
Rolf Loeber
Hugh Campbell
Livia Hurley
John Montague
Ellen Rowley
Volume: IV
Copyright Date: 2015
Edition: 1
Published by: Royal Irish Academy
Pages: 558
https://www.jstor.org/stable/j.ctt14jxtzk
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  • Book Info
    Architecture
    Book Description:

    Art and Architecture of Ireland is an authoritative and fully illustrated survey encompassing the period from the early Middle Ages to the end of the 20th century. This complete five volume set explores all aspects of Irish art – from high crosses to installation art, from illuminated manuscripts to Georgian houses and Modernist churches, from tapestries and sculptures to oil paintings, photographs and video art. This monumental project provides new insights into every facet of the strength, depth and variety of Ireland’s artistic and architectural heritage.

    eISBN: 978-1-908996-65-7
    Subjects: Art & Art History

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-v)
  2. FOREWORD
    (pp. vi-vi)
    James Slevin

    As theArt and Architecture of Ireland(AAI) reaches publication, the Royal Irish Academy wishes to acknowledge those who brought the idea of this major project to the Academy and to express its gratitude and appreciation to the funders who made such an ambitious undertaking possible.

    In the spring of 2007, two art historians from University College Dublin, Nicola Figgis and Paula Murphy, asked the Academy to consider supporting a project to update Walter Strickland’s celebratedA Dictionary of Irish Artists(1913). I, as president, turned to one of the Academy’s members, Carmel Naughton, for advice and direction. We organized...

  3. GENERAL EDITORʹS PREFACE
    (pp. vii-x)
    Andrew Carpenter
  4. Table of Contents
    (pp. xi-xiii)
  5. PREFACE
    (pp. xiv-xiv)
    Rolf Loeber, Hugh Campbell, Livia Hurley, John Montague and Ellen Rowley
  6. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
    (pp. xv-xv)
  7. CONTRIBUTORS
    (pp. xvi-xix)
  8. ABBREVIATIONS
    (pp. xx-xxi)
  9. SELECT CHRONOLOGY
    (pp. xxii-xxv)
  10. [Illustration]
    (pp. xxvi-xxvi)
  11. INTRODUCTION
    (pp. 1-8)

    This volume surveys four centuries of architecture in Ireland, charting the countless architectural and engineering endeavours which have shaped and reshaped the built environment. With the whole island as its arena, it recognizes that political boundaries, divisive histories and contested identities are all contained within a shared geography. Within this geographical and temporal frame, the built environment has always been essential to developing the country’s infrastructure, to housing its population, to sustaining its civic, religious and social life, and to supporting its commercial and industrial activities. Although the design of many individual and notable buildings can be attributed with certainty...

  12. 1 PROTAGONISTS
    (pp. 9-52)

    A deposition taken after the 1641 rebellion mentioned that the Irish rebels saved the life of William Cam[p]bell of Killala to ‘helpe them to build vpp the abbey [of Moyne, Co. Mayo], he having good skill in Architecture’ (TCD, MS 831, f. 75). This is possibly one of the earliest mentions of the word ‘architecture’ in Irish documents post-1600.

    Architecture is concerned with the interaction between people, here called ‘protagonists’, and the built environment. Protagonists include one or more of the following categories: architects, draughtsmen, builders, craftsmen, engineers, developers and patrons, each of which is reviewed in the following entries,...

  13. 2 BUILDING MATERIALS, CONSTRUCTION AND INTERIOR DECORATION
    (pp. 53-96)

    Making any building, whether rudimentary or grand, modest or vast, requires the manipulation of materials according to some constructional logic in order to produce physical enclosure. These essentials of architecture are the subject of this chapter, which sets out the materials and methods of Irish building and their changing influence on habits, tastes and behaviour.

    Although their origins far predate the scope of this volume, vernacular buildings continued to make use of the same basic palette of materials until at least the nineteenth century. The main materials for the walls were earth, clay, straw and a coating of whitewash (made...

  14. 3 ARCHITECTURAL STYLES AND DISCOURSE
    (pp. 97-140)

    This chapter concerns itself with the ways in which architecture in Ireland has been discussed, described, and interpreted. Across the four centuries covered by this volume, architecture has produced a rich record of words and images. At the same time, buildings have themselves served as a medium of communication, their form and language used to convey complex messages about the status, identity and intentions of their makers. Architecture is rarely mute, but when it employs an established and readily recognizable style, it can become a commonly understood medium for particular societal messages. Of course, style is not always deployed purposefully...

  15. 4 INFRASTRUCTURE
    (pp. 141-170)

    A country’s physical infrastructure is vital to every aspect of its functioning, to the health and well-being of its citizens and to its access to the rest of the world. Ireland’s connections to other countries are channelled through its harbours, seaports and airports; its network of electricity generation and distribution channel power for factories, commerce and households; its inhabitants are kept healthy by clean water provided to homes and the removal of waste from them. Each of these public services has advanced over time, thanks to developments in engineering and in the building and maintenance of the infrastructure necessary to...

  16. 5 CIVIC, INSTITUTIONAL AND MILITARY ARCHITECTURE
    (pp. 171-246)

    Over four centuries, Ireland’s civic and institutional architecture has evolved to encompass every aspect of individual and collective life. These buildings and structures cater to everything from the most basic human needs for safety, shelter and wellbeing to the complex demands of municipal and national government. This is a built landscape which becomes more extensive, populous and varied over time, as more and more aspects of society come within the ambit of architecture, and as architecture itself becomes increasingly within the control of the state and civic authorities. In seventeenth- and eighteenth-century rural Ireland, it would have been entirely possible...

  17. 6 INDUSTRIAL AND COMMERCIAL ARCHITECTURE
    (pp. 247-286)

    Agricultural activity was the traditional engine of economic growth in Ireland throughout the period covered by this volume. Although Ireland did not experience anything like the scale and impact of the great industrial revolution in Britain, there were significant industrialized sectors in Belfast and Cork in particular, and a small-scale provincial industrial boom. Many innovations in construction techniques occurred as a result of industrialization, two examples being Slane Mill, Co. Meath, in the mid-eighteenth century, and the Market Street Store House at Guinness Brewery in Dublin, in the early twentieth century.

    Where it existed, Irish industrial architecture, which ranged in...

  18. 7 ECCLESIASTICAL ARCHITECTURE
    (pp. 287-328)

    After the Reformation, medieval parish churches and cathedrals throughout the island of Ireland were confiscated and reconfigured to accommodate the rites of the Anglican, or Established, Church of Ireland; this involved the removal of Catholic religious features such as statuary, religious wall paintings, screens and altars. This stripping laid bare the essential features of church buildings, the simplicity of interior design becoming the hallmark of early Church of Ireland interiors. There were some developments in Anglican ecclesiastical architecture in the second half of the sixteenth century (qvAAIi), but it was not until the early seventeenth century that new...

  19. 8 RURAL DOMESTIC ARCHITECTURE
    (pp. 329-388)

    Even while Ireland’s cities, large towns and villages have fitfully flourished, for the greater part of the period covered by this volume the country remained a largely rural society, its economy tied to the fruits of the land. For much of this period, the vast majority of land was owned and controlled by a minority of landowners, and several million cottiers rented tiny plots of land on which they resided in what we would now consider wretched cabins. Over time, rural tenants, because of an increasing population and the subdivisions of tenancies, occupied even smaller sections of land and correspondingly...

  20. 9 URBAN ENVIRONMENT AND HOUSING
    (pp. 389-474)

    The cities, towns and villages which sustain so much of the architecture treated in this volume, must be considered themselves as entities, the growth and evolution of which is also studied by architectural historians among many others. The forces that influence the creation of such settlements and communities are varied and complex and include geography, geology, natural resources, movement of populations, transport systems, local government, commerce and industry and the human agency of the inhabitants. Cities, towns and villages represent a layering of the built environment as fortunes and populations wax and wane, with new buildings often necessarily constructed on...

  21. 10 THE ARCHITECTURE OF RECREATION AND PUBLIC RESORT
    (pp. 475-506)

    This chapter concerns the places and buildings in which people gather in pursuit of pleasure, entertainment, sport and leisure – in open landscape such as parks and botanic gardens, and in buildings such as theatres, hotels, sports buildings and clubs. From 1600 onwards, access to such places evolved from being the preserve of the privileged few to becoming far more widely available. As the following entries attest, the development of buildings and landscapes of public resort has gone hand in hand with the expansion of democracy’s remit.

    While patterns of inhabitation and work are central to democratic social formation, the...

  22. 11 HERITAGE AND CONSERVATION
    (pp. 507-522)

    Ireland’s built heritage spans thousands of years and encompasses structures that range from the prehistoric to the post-modern, from simple vernacular buildings to highly refined designs in carefully conceived landscapes and urban settings. Although this heritage is extensive, a good deal of it is in a ruined state. In fact, Ireland features a higher density of ruined structures than other European countries such as Germany, the Netherlands and Britain. While these ruins reflect Ireland’s turbulent history, their presence is also testimony to the reverence in which they are held. This reverence, which attaches especially to ecclesiastical ruins and sites associated...

  23. IRISH ARCHITECTURE IN THE FIRST DECADE OF THE NEW CENTURY
    (pp. 523-524)

    During the first decade of the twenty-first century, Irish architecture flourished initially. A large number of significant projects of high quality were built. There was also growing international recognition of the achievements of Irish architects. All of this was aided by a sustained period of rapid economic growth, much of it based on the construction and development sectors. Following the economic collapse of 2008, the fortunes of architecture in Ireland changed. Construction activity diminished dramatically; most architectural firms reduced drastically in size, and a large number closed altogether, resulting in the emigration of many architects.

    In the aftermath of the...

  24. Appendix BIOGRAPHICAL NOTES
    (pp. 525-535)
  25. GLOSSARY
    (pp. 536-543)
  26. SELECT BIBLIOGRAPHY
    (pp. 544-548)
  27. INDEX
    (pp. 549-561)
  28. PHOTOGRAPHIC CREDITS
    (pp. 562-562)
  29. Back Matter
    (pp. 563-563)