Curbing the spread of nuclear weapons

Curbing the spread of nuclear weapons

Ian Bellany
Copyright Date: 2005
Pages: 240
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  • Book Info
    Curbing the spread of nuclear weapons
    Book Description:

    With the 2005 Review Conference of the nuclear non-proliferation treaty in the background, this book provides a fully detailed but accessible and accurate introduction to the technical aspects of nuclear energy and nuclear weapons for the specialist and non-specialist alike. It considers nuclear weapons from varying perspectives, including the technology perspective, which views them as spillovers from nuclear energy programmes; and the theoretical perspective, which looks at the collision between national and international security – the security dilemma – involved in nuclear proliferation. It aims to demonstrate that international security is unlikely to benefit from encouraging the spread of nuclear weapons except in situations where the security complex is already largely nuclearised. The political constraints on nuclear spread as solutions to the security dilemma are also examined in three linked categories, including an unusually full discussion of the phenomenon of nuclear free zones, with particular emphasis on the zone covering Latin America. The remarkably consistent anti-proliferation policies of the USA from Baruch to Bush are debated and the nuclear non-proliferation treaty itself, with special attention paid to the international atomic energy’s safeguards system is frankly appraised.

    eISBN: 978-1-84779-206-8
    Subjects: Political Science

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-iv)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. v-v)
  3. List of figures
    (pp. vi-vi)
  4. List of tables
    (pp. vii-vii)
  5. Preface
    (pp. viii-viii)
  6. List of abbreviations
    (pp. ix-x)
  7. Introduction
    (pp. 1-3)

    This book is made up of a series of partially self-contained, partially overlapping chapters, each looking at an aspect of the question at hand. Each chapter attempts to illuminate the whole or a goodly part of the spread of nuclear weapons and how to curb it, but from a particular perspective. The chapters are like a series of photographs of a particular three-dimensional object taken from different angles. In one way this should make the book easier to read, in that it can be dipped into piecemeal. Even so, a reader encountering an unsupported assertion in one chapter should be...

  8. 1 Nuclear weapons and nuclear energy
    (pp. 4-47)

    This chapter is about nuclear technology and the technical interconnections between commercial and military nuclear programmes. It is also about the spread of nuclear technology and the use to which it has been put by a number of states, both inside and outside the NPT, to bring them close to or even take them over the nuclear weapons threshold.

    Nuclear energy has peaceful applications and non-peaceful applications. The centrepiece of all political efforts to curb the spread of nuclear weapons lies in attempting to harmonise the proliferation of nuclear reactors with the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons. Nuclear reactors for peaceful...

  9. 2 Nuclear weapons and international security
    (pp. 48-75)

    In 2000, almost every state in the world (all except Cuba, India, Israel and Pakistan) publicly subscribed once again to the principle that the spread of nuclear weapons to states not already possessing them is dangerous to international security and that it should therefore be energetically discouraged.¹ The occasion was the latest review conference of the 30-year-old NPT, the chief international instrument for restricting nuclear proliferation, and for reversing such proliferation as has occurred, if its Article 6 – which amounts to a promise by the countries already with nuclear weapons in their possession to disarm themselves of them – is taken...

  10. 3 The International Atomic Energy Agency and safeguards
    (pp. 76-103)

    ‘Safeguards’ is the slightly euphemistic term officially used to describe the measures taken by the Agency (or Vienna Agency) independently to verify the declarations made by states to the IAEA concerning their nuclear material (principally enriched uranium and plutonium) and that the uses it is put to have peaceful ends. The chief method employed for verification is the despatch periodically of inspectors to the territory of the states concerned and with their agreement. The inspectors have the job of identifying and reporting any significant mismatch between what they find ‘on the ground’ and what written reports and records shared between...

  11. 4 Understanding nuclear-free zones
    (pp. 104-125)

    The purpose of this chapter is to identify the properties of an ideal nuclear-weapon-free zone (nuclear-free zone for short) and then to compare it with actual nuclear-free zones in being or seriously proposed.

    An ideal nuclear-free zone should first of all be worth having; that means it should do a job of work in solving a multilateral security dilemma, by maintaining a desirable level of international security for the participating states in the face of temptations on the part of individual states within the zone to improve their national security by going nuclear. The job of work is never done...

  12. 5 United States policy on nonproliferation and the Nuclear Non-proliferation Treaty
    (pp. 126-159)

    The history of the attitude of the United States towards the spread of nuclear weapons has been one of continuous opposition, tempered now and then by the judgement of the government of the day as to whether in particular instances the exigencies of the moment outweighed the force of the general principle.

    The starting point or the rough first draft for the US policy of hostility towards the spread of nuclear weapons is the Baruch Plan, presented in 1946 to the newly created UN Atomic Energy Commission by the US representative on the Commission, Bernard M. Baruch. At least it...

  13. 6 Bargaining for test ban treaties
    (pp. 160-172)

    The earliest specific international arrangement, at least indirectly, to restrict the spread of nuclear weapons is the PTBT of 1963. The treaty bans the testing of all nuclear explosive devices anywhere except underground, and only then when the radioactive debris from the explosion is contained wholly within the borders of the state responsible. The negotiation of the treaty – originally designed to be a comprehensive ban on all nuclear testing – began essentially in 1955, when the Soviets unbundled such an agreement from a general and complete disarmament package, starting thereby an unpicking of the all-or-nothing position on arms control and disarmament...

  14. Appendix A The Baruch Plan
    (pp. 173-180)
  15. Appendix B Atoms for Peace
    (pp. 181-186)
  16. Appendix C Treaty on the Non-proliferation of Nuclear Weapons
    (pp. 187-197)
  17. Appendix D Treaty of Tlatelolco documentation and texts
    (pp. 198-220)
  18. Appendix E Joint Declaration on the Denuclearization of the Korean Peninsula
    (pp. 221-222)
  19. Index
    (pp. 223-228)