Toward Perpetual Peace and Other Writings on Politics, Peace, and History

Toward Perpetual Peace and Other Writings on Politics, Peace, and History

Edited and with an Introduction by Pauline Kleingeld
Translated by David L. Colclasure
Jeremy Waldron
Michael W. Doyle
Allen W. Wood
Copyright Date: 2006
Published by: Yale University Press
Pages: 304
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  • Book Info
    Toward Perpetual Peace and Other Writings on Politics, Peace, and History
    Book Description:

    Immanuel Kant's views on politics, peace, and history have lost none of their relevance since their publication more than two centuries ago. This volume contains a comprehensive collection of Kant's writings on international relations theory and political philosophy, superbly translated and accompanied by stimulating essays.Pauline Kleingeld provides a lucid introduction to the main themes of the volume, and three essays by distinguished contributors follow: Jeremy Waldron on Kant's theory of the state; Michael W. Doyle on the implications of Kant's political theory for his theory of international relations; and Allen W. Wood on Kant's philosophical approach to history and its current relevance.

    eISBN: 978-0-300-12810-9
    Subjects: Philosophy

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-vi)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. vii-viii)
  3. A Brief Sketch of Kant’s Life and Works
    (pp. ix-x)
  4. A Note on the Texts
    (pp. xi-xii)
  5. A Note on the Translation
    (pp. xiii-xiii)
  6. Abbreviations
    (pp. xiv-xiv)
  7. Editor’s Introduction KANT ON POLITICS, PEACE, AND HISTORY
    (pp. xv-xxiv)

    What is peace? Is it simply the absence of war? Kant thinks not. If peace is no more than a truce used by both parties to regain strength for their next attack, if peace is no more than the continuation of war through political means, if peace is no more than the successful subjugation of one party by another, or if peace is merely local and hence still threatened by the world beyond—then there is no real peace. Real peace, according to Kant, requires the rule of just laws within the state, between states, and between states and foreigners,...

  8. Texts
    • Idea for a Universal History from a Cosmopolitan Perspective
      (pp. 3-16)

      Whatever concept of thefreedom of the willone may develop in the context of metaphysics, theappearancesof the will,¹ human actions, are determined, like every other natural event, in accordance with universal natural laws. History, which is concerned with giving a narrative account of these appearances, allows us to hope that, however deeply concealed their causes may be, if we consider the free exercise of the human willbroadly, we can ultimately discern a regular progression in its appearances. History further lets us hope that, in this way, that which seems confused and irregular when considering particular individuals...

    • An Answer to the Question: What Is Enlightenment?
      (pp. 17-23)

      Enlightenment is the human being’s emancipation from its self-incurred immaturity.¹ Immaturityis the inability to make use of one’s intellect without the direction of another. This immaturity isself-incurredwhen its cause does not lie in a lack of intellect, but rather in a lack of resolve and courage to make use of one’s intellect without the direction of another. ‘‘Sapere aude! Have the courage to make use of your own intellect!’’ is hence the motto of enlightenment.²

      Idleness and cowardice are the reasons why such a large segment of humankind, even after nature has long since set it free...

    • Conjectural Beginning of Human History
      (pp. 24-36)

      It is certainly permissible tointerjectspeculations in thecourseof an historical account in order to fill gaps in the reports, since what comes before these gaps, the remote cause, and what comes after them, the effect, can provide a reasonably certain means of discovering the intermediate causes, thereby rendering the transitions within the account intelligible. But creating a historical account entirely out of speculations does not seem much better than drafting the plan for a novel. Indeed, such an account could hardly be called aconjectural history, but rather only afabricatedhistory.—Yet what cannot rightly be...

    • Critique of Judgment, § 83–§ 84
      (pp. 37-43)

      We have shown above that we have sufficient reason to regard the human being not merely as an end of nature like all other organized beings, but rather also as theultimateend of nature here on earth, in relation to which all other things of nature compose a system of ends, according to principles of reason, though for the reflective, and not for the determining, faculty of judgment.¹ If one must find in the human being himself that which is to be promoted as an end through his association with nature, then the end must be such that either...

    • On the Common Saying: This May Be True in Theory, but It Does Not Hold in Practice, Parts 2 and 3
      (pp. 44-66)

      Of all the contracts by means of which a number of human beings unites itself into a society (pactum sociale), the contract to establish acivil constitutionamong them (pactum unionis civilis) is of such a peculiar kind that, even though it may have, with respect to itsexecution, much in common with all others (which are equally directed at some chosen end to be promoted jointly), it is nonetheless essentially distinct from all others with regard to the principle of its institution (constitutionis civilis). The union of many for some common end (which allhave) is found...

    • Toward Perpetual Peace: A Philosophical Sketch
      (pp. 67-109)

      We can leave open the question whether this satirical caption to the picture of a graveyard, which was painted on the sign of a Dutch innkeeper, applies tohuman beingsin general, or specifically to the heads of state, who can never get enough of war, or even just to philosophers who dream the sweet dream of perpetual peace. The author of this essay shall, however, stipulate one condition: since the practical politician tends to look disdainfully upon the political theorist as a mere academic, whose impractical ideas present no danger to the state (since, in the eyes of the...

    • Metaphysics of Morals, Doctrine of Right, § 43–§ 62
      (pp. 110-149)

      Bernd Ludwig has argued that the order of the text of theRechtslehreis, in many instances, not the order Kant had in mind.¹ With regard to the parts translated here, Ludwig has proposed that Kant most likely intended the sequence of sections to read as follows: 44, 43, 45, 48, 46, 49, 47, 51, 52.

      Ludwig proposes to divide § 49 into two, with the first part dealing with the executive branch and the second part with the judicial branch and the distinct functions of the three branches. He proposes to turn § 50 into Remark F and to...

    • The Contest of the Faculties, Part 2
      (pp. 150-163)

      One is asking for a piece of human history, but one of future history and not past, hence apredictivehistory which, when it is not determined by known laws of nature (as are solar and lunar eclipses), is calleddivinatorybut still natural; but which, when it can be given in no other way than by supernatural revelation and the extension of one’s view into the future, is calledvisionary(prophetic).*—Incidentally, when we ask the question of whether the humanspecies(as a whole) is improving steadily, we are concerned not with the natural history of the human...

    • Anthropology from a Pragmatic Point of View, Part 2, Section E
      (pp. 164-176)

      Giving a description of the character of a certain species of beings requires both showing that it can be brought under one concept together with other species that are familiar to us, and also that that which renders them different from one another be given and used as the peculiar property (proprietas) to distinguish it.—But if we compare a species of beings that is known to us (A) with another species that is unknown to us (non A), then how can we expect or demand of ourselves that we describe the character of the first, if we lack...

  9. Essays
    • Kant’s Theory of the State
      (pp. 179-200)

      Immanuel Kant’s theory of what we owe to the state presents an important alternative to traditional consent-based, utilitarian, and fairness-based accounts. On the consent-based approach, we are obligated to the state because we have consented to its authority; its authority is supposed to be based on a choice we made between two morally permissible alternatives (give one’s consent to, or withhold one’s consent from state authority). On Kant’s theory, however, withholding one’s consent is impermissible. According to the utilitarian approach, the state’s claim on us is based on the benefits it provides for others; and on the fairness approach, its...

    • Kant and Liberal Internationalism
      (pp. 201-242)

      What difference do liberal principles and institutions make to the conduct of the foreign affairs of liberal states? A thicket of conflicting judgments suggests that the legacies of liberalism have not been clearly appreciated. On the one hand, for many citizens of liberal states, liberal principles and institutions have so fully absorbed domestic politics that their influence on foreign affairs tends to be either perceived as exaggerated or overlooked altogether. Liberalism becomes either unselfconsciously patriotic or inherently ‘‘peace-loving.’’ On the other hand, for many scholars and diplomats, relations among independent states appear to differ so significantly from domestic politics that...

    • Kant’s Philosophy of History
      (pp. 243-262)

      Kant’s writings on human history appear at first glance to constitute only a small part of his literary output and to have only marginal significance for his philosophy. Unlike some other great modern philosophers, such as Leibniz, Hume, and Hegel, Kant was not himself a historian, not even a very well read historian of philosophy. The essays devoted chiefly to the philosophy of history consist in a few brief occasional pieces, such as ‘‘Idea for a Universal History from a Cosmopolitan Perspective’’ (1784) and ‘‘Conjectural Beginning of Human History’’ (1786), plus some parts of other essays, such as the one...

  10. Bibliography
    (pp. 263-266)
  11. Back Matter
    (pp. 267-268)