Management and Economics of Construction Safety in Hong Kong

Management and Economics of Construction Safety in Hong Kong

S.W. Poon
S. L. Tang
Francis K. W. Wong
Copyright Date: 2008
Pages: 180
https://www.jstor.org/stable/j.ctt1xw9d3
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  • Book Info
    Management and Economics of Construction Safety in Hong Kong
    Book Description:

    Hong Kong had a very bad record in construction safety in the 1980s and before. Since the early 1990s, a number of statutory regulations have been enforced in order to improve safety in Hong Kong's construction industry. The results of these efforts can gradually be seen, and this is evidenced by the significant drop in construction accidents in recent years. This book is important in keeping construction professionals informed about Hong Kong's experience in construction safety. It begins with an overview of safety management systems generally adopted in the Asian context with the support of construction accident statistics from a number of countries or cities. Other topics include factors which influence site safety programmes, construction safety management systems, safety legislation, safety auditing, the procedure of accident investigation, the Hong Kong government's mandatory SSPS (Site Supervision Plan System) that all contractors and authorized persons/registered structural engineers have to follow, and construction safety economics.

    eISBN: 978-988-8052-55-4
    Subjects: Management & Organizational Behavior

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-iv)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. v-vi)
  3. PREFACE
    (pp. vii-viii)
  4. 1 CONSTRUCTION ACCIDENT STATISTICS
    (pp. 1-32)

    This chapter presents the construction accident statistics of Japan, South Korea, Singapore, Taiwan and the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region from the mid-1990s to the mid-2000s. Data from relevant organizations’ reports have been extracted for study. Reference will also be made to the data from the UK.

    The construction accident statistics recorded since 1997 in Hong Kong are reviewed with those available in the region including Japan, South Korea, Singapore and Taiwan. These countries or regions have been chosen because of their close vicinity and their comparable performance in economy (Table 1). Some of them have provided only basic data...

  5. 2 FACTORS AFFECTING EFFECTIVENESS OF SAFETY PROGRAMMES AND SAFETY PERFORMANCE ON CONSTRUCTION SITES
    (pp. 33-50)

    On many construction sites in Hong Kong, contractors have not implemented their safety programmes adequately. This is also a worldwide phenomenon. There are problems and difficulties in connection with the implementation. This chapter examines these problems and difficulties and reports on three studies, carried out in Hong Kong (Ahmed, Tang and Poon, 1999), Mainland China (Zeng, Tam and Deng, 2004) and the UK (Sawacha, Naoum and Fong, 1999). In each of these three cases, problems and difficulties encountered in implementing safety programmes are first identified; then some possible solutions are suggested to help improve the safety performance of contractors working...

  6. 3 CONSTRUCTION SAFETY MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS
    (pp. 51-62)

    The safety records of construction in Hong Kong are considered unsatisfactory The accident rate in the Hong Kong construction industry during 1990-94, probably the worst period, was consistently in the range of 300 per 1,000 labourers each year. This means that 3 out of 10 labourers working on construction sites would come across an accident each year, which render them unable to work for at least three days. Until recent years the rate has gone down to 60 per 1,000. While the construction industry employs not more than 10% of total workers in Hong Kong, the rates of accident occurrence...

  7. 4 CONSTRUCTION SAFETY LEGISLATION IN HONG KONG
    (pp. 63-74)

    The construction industry in Hong Kong used to have a very bad reputation in terms of construction safety, particularly during the 1980s and early 1990s. One of the important measures to monitor safety performance on construction sites is through the use of legislation so that proprietors and parties concerned who have not discharged their safety responsibilities diligently and effectively may run the risk of being prosecuted. The purpose of this chapter is to introduce the background and the recent development of construction safety-related legislation in Hong Kong.

    In July 1995, the former Education and Manpower Branch of the government issued...

  8. 5 SAFETY AUDITING AND ITS USE IN PROACTIVE PREVENTION OF ACCIDENTS
    (pp. 75-86)

    Safety auditing is not in itself an element of safety management, but is a tool to measure the performance or the effectiveness of safety management. Safety audits are similar to audits conducted under quality protocols such as ISO 9000, and comprise interviews, inspection on physical conditions, tours and document review (Dennis, 1997). Safety audits can be categorized as First, Second and Third Party Audits (Legg et al., 1998). First Party Audits should be conducted by persons who are competent and as independent as possible, but may be drawn from within the organization, e.g., internal personnel located at the site being...

  9. 6 CONSTRUCTION ACCIDENT INVESTIGATION
    (pp. 87-104)

    Accident investigation is one of the 14 elements of safety management. Investigation is important as it not only reveals the real causes of an accident in determining the responsibility and liability, but also leads to necessary adjustment and improvement to prevent further accidents. This chapter presents some methods used in investigating accidents and the types of reports prepared by different relevant parties.

    The following sections present various methods of accident investigation suggested by various researchers. These methods can be considered for investigating general site accidents, plant failures , structural collapses, system failures and large scale accidents.

    During the 1980s, Hadipriono...

  10. 7 ROLE OF THE SITE SUPERVISOR
    (pp. 105-118)

    As a construction site is maintained and managed by the main contractor, the site supervisor plays a key role in the daily management of the construction site. As representative of the main contractor, he has to ensure that the construction works are completed in accordance with the drawings and within the time and budget schedules, and that the quality is up to the requirement of the contract. Also, he has to ensure that the works are constructed safely with all safety precautions and procedures adopted on site, and that all regulations including the Buildings Ordinance are complied with.

    This chapter...

  11. 8 FINANCIAL COSTS OF CONSTRUCTION ACCIDENTS AND OPTIMUM SAFETY INVESTMENT
    (pp. 119-130)

    The previous chapters have indicated a general consensus for construction contractors to improve their safety records and to increase their safety investment in construction projects. The higher the safety investment is, the better the safety performance will be. However, the extent of the investment is always a major concern. Recent research has revealed that in Hong Kong, most contractors set aside an amount of less than 0.5%, and some even less than 0.25%, of the contract sum for investing in safety in their contracts (Lai, 1995). It is, however, subject to debate as to whether such amounts are enough.

    Safety...

  12. 9 SOCIAL COSTS OF CONSTRUCTION ACCIDENTS AND THE IMPACT OF SAFETY INVESTMENT ON SOCIAL COSTS
    (pp. 131-146)

    To summarize the discussions in Chapter 8, the financial costs of a construction accident include (Tang et al., 1997):

    (1) loss due to the injured person’s absence from work

    (2) loss due to the injured person’s inefficiency after resuming work

    (3) medical expenses

    (4) fines and legal expenses

    (5) loss of time of other employees

    (6) equipment or plant loss

    (7) loss due to damaged material or finished work

    (8) loss due to idle machinery or equipment

    (9) other losses

    Ngai and Tang (1999) have attempted to compare the differences between financial costs and social costs, and to discover what...

  13. 10 HUMAN PAIN AND SUFFERING COSTS OF CONSTRUCTION ACCIDENTS
    (pp. 147-170)

    This chapter presents an estimate of the pain and suffering costs of the injured persons due to construction accidents in Hong Kong, based on an exhaustive study of High Court personal injury case judgements in connection with construction accidents in the years 1999 to 2003, and then relates the findings to the social costs previously estimated (in Chapter 9).

    The pain and suffering costs for non-fatal accidents in Hong Kong legal terms comprise damages for “Pain, Suffering and Loss of Amenities” , and “Loss of Society” (explained below) assessed by High Court judges. For fatal accident cases, pain and suffering...

  14. ABOUT THE AUTHORS
    (pp. 171-172)