Healing Trauma

Healing Trauma: A Professional Guide

Kitty K. Wu
Catherine S. Tang
Eugenie Y. Leung
Copyright Date: 2011
Pages: 396
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  • Book Info
    Healing Trauma
    Book Description:

    This is the first book written on clinical research and work related to the development of applied trauma psychology in Hong Kong. Contributed by numerous reputable researchers and clinicians, the book covers the latest research on and practice in assessment, psychological sequel (including psychological distress and growth of traumatic experience), evidence-based clinical intervention, and rehabilitation services for people affected by various traumatic stresses. Discussed in detail are interpersonal trauma like child sexual abuse and family violence, health and medical trauma such as infectious disease and the pain related to end of life, mass trauma and disaster including community psychological support programme developed in Hong Kong and Sichuan, as well as the rationale for mainstreaming trauma training in university education.

    eISBN: 978-988-8053-96-4
    Subjects: Health Sciences

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-iv)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. v-vi)
  3. Acknowledgements
    (pp. vii-viii)
    Kitty K Wu
  4. Editors and Contributors
    (pp. ix-xvi)
  5. Part I Introduction
    • 1 Gateway to the Future
      (pp. 3-12)
      Kitty K. Wu, Eugenie Y. Leung and Catherine S. K. Tang

      The development of work and research on traumatic stress has come a long way in Hong Kong. Perhaps, the answer for the future lies in the possible paths that can be taken after essential milestones have been passed in the journey. The setting up of the Critical Incident Team (CIT) in the Division of Clinical Psychology of the Hong Kong Psychological Society in 1993 was among the first and vital milestones which helps to establish the role of clinical psychology in trauma work for Hong Kong’s community (Leung, Wong, Li, Lau-Yu, and Wu, 1993; Leung et al., 1996; Leung and...

  6. Part II Assessment and Intervention
    • 2 Trauma Assessments Tools Validated in Hong Kong
      (pp. 15-34)
      Kitty K. Wu

      According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR; American Psychiatric Association 2000) the prevalence rate of Acute Stress Disorder for individuals exposed to trauma ranges from 14 to 33%. The lifetime prevalence rate of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) in community-based studies is approximately 8% for the adult population in the United States. PTSD can also occur in childhood. For children, previous studies found that PTSD can be associated with cruise ship sinking (Yule and Udwin 1991), sexual abuse (Alexander 1993; Murphy, Kilpatrick, Amick-Mcmullan, and Veronen 1988) and child survivors of war (Dyregrov, Kuterovac,...

    • 3 Psychological Management of Trauma in the 21st Century: The Role of Cognitive Behavioural Approaches in Conceptualization and Treatment
      (pp. 35-50)
      Chee-wing Wong

      This chapter looks at current approaches to trauma management in the local context, and argues that clinicians and healthcare practitioners should continuously be informed of new theoretical developments and research evidence that have been accumulating since the new millennium. Now we can no longer ignore the importance of theoretical and research advances that took place in the last decade which had effectively shaped the conceptualization of psychological effects of trauma in general, and good practice guidelines in particular. If Hong Kong were to stay on par with international standards in healthcare service delivery, practitioners should start to reconsider the work...

    • 4 Psychopharmacology for the Psychologically Traumatized Patients
      (pp. 51-88)
      Hung-kin Cheung

      Whereas at present a largely empirical approach is adopted for the psychopharmacotherapy of the psychologically traumatized patients (i.e. using medications initially developed as antidepressants, anxiolytics, anticonvulsants, antipsychotics, etc), in the future a more rational approach will be used.

      Potentially useful medications in future will consist of agonists of neuropeptide Y, serotonin, opioid, NMDA/glutamine, BDNF, insulin-like growth factor-1 and GABA; and antagonists of corticotropin-releasing factor, catecholamines, substance P, cholecystokinin and kindling mechanisms.

      Predictors of response to pharmacotherapy include being male, young, and having multiple traumatic events, combat-related trauma, and no dissociative symptoms.

      There are 2 approaches of psychopharmacotherapy for the psychologically...

    • 5 Resilience, Growth, and Distress After a Traumatic Experience
      (pp. 89-104)
      Samuel M. Y. Ho

      Over the last decade, human beings had been threatened by a series of devastating catastrophes either caused naturally or factitiously, such as the 2004 Southeast Asian mega-earthquake and its accompanying tsunami and the 9/11 terrorist attack, respectively. Adversities as such are undoubtedly a traumatic experience limited not only to victims and their significant others, but also people around the world. In fact, negative life events are inevitable in our life journey as many of us would encounter highly challenging life crises such as accidents, chronic illness, and bereavement in our lifetime. Past studies reported that individuals have a lifetime prevalence...

  7. Part III Interpersonal Trauma
    • 6 Prevention of Child Sexual Abuse: A Public Health Approach
      (pp. 107-132)
      Frendi W. S. Li

      There is clear evidence of significant associations between Child Sexual Abuse (CSA) and a range of mental health problems (Andrews, Corry, Slade, Issakidis, and Swanston 2004). As a result, there has been a proliferation of CSA prevention programmes in the past two decades both in Western countries and locally in Hong Kong. This chapter provides a review of the existing CSA prevention programmes, followed by a discussion on the problems that hinder the evaluation, development and efficacy of CSA prevention. The dissociation between intervention practice and theoretical base, and the inadequacy of targeting children in the prevention efforts will also...

    • 7 Working with Familial Child Sexual Abuse: A Family-based Relational Approach
      (pp. 133-176)
      Ellen Yee-man Ma and Delphine Cheuk-wai Yau

      Child sexual abuse and child protection should not be perceived only on an individual level in terms of personal trauma, but to be understood with a larger system perspective, with intervention from the legal and social systems. Yet, for the scope of the present chapter, we choose to focus on the psychological effects² of sexual abuse on children and adolescents and their families, and on the different therapy modalities in a Hong Kong Chinese setting, bearing in mind the influence of culture, belief systems and values on therapists as well as on clients. We also choose to focus on the...

    • 8 Wounding and Being Wounded: Vulnerabilities, Emotional Injuries and Victimization of the Male Batterers — A Qualitative, Collective Case Study
      (pp. 177-200)
      Chung-ming Chan

      Towards the end of last century, our society has slowly awakened to the impact of the partner violence problem. A Central Information System was set up in 1998 and has since then recorded a continuing increase of newly reported partner violence cases: 1,009 in 1998, 3,034 in 2002, 1,665 in the first six months of 2006, with the majority of victims being women (96% in 1998; 92% in 2002; 85.9% for the first six months of 2006). The society has been particularly shaken up by the occasional homicide-suicide family tragedies. In the Tsz Wan Shan incident in January 2002, a...

  8. Part IV Health and Medical Trauma
    • 9 Understanding Psychological Distress for People Recovering from Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome in Hong Kong
      (pp. 203-220)
      Alma Au, Iris Chan, Patrick Chung-ki Li and Kam-mei Lau

      The chapter explores the complex relationships among mood, cognitive functioning, and subjective memory in medical-related trauma. Forty-one patients who had contracted the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) were interviewed about two months after their discharge. Disruption areas, social support, and emotional distress were assessed. Out of this group, 23 patients aged between 20 to 34 were further assessed for cognitive functioning. The number of disruption areas and the lack of satisfaction with social support were found to be significant correlates of psychological distress. Though no group differences were found in the cognitive test performance, patients with subjective memory complaint reported...

    • 10 Alleviating the Pain of Death and Dying with Modern Palliative Care
      (pp. 221-240)
      Doris Man-wah Tse

      Death and dying in Hong Kong is highly medicalized and institutionalized. Every year, there are more than 36,000 deaths in Hong Kong, and one-third was caused by cancer. According to the Hong Kong Cancer Registry, there were 12,093 cancer deaths in Hong Kong in the year 2006. Hong Kong is also among one of the places with the highest life expectancy at birth in the world. In 2006, the life expectancy at birth of male was 79.4 years while that of female was 85.5 years.

      Although cancer is the major cause of death, these patients also had other comorbid chronic...

  9. Part V Mass Trauma and Disaster
    • 11 Psychological Support for the Community After Disasters: A Review of the Development in Hong Kong
      (pp. 243-264)
      Helios K. C. Lau

      After the infamous attack on the World Trade Center in 2002, Mr. Giuliani, the then Mayor of New York City, said he was glad that the attack took place in New York City because it was probably the city in the world that was most prepared for this. Whether this was true was another story but what he said prompted me to ask the question, “Are we ready?”

      Many will join me to say, with their fingers crossed, of course, that Hong Kong is a “blessed place” (福地). In a place this small, packed with close to 7 million people,...

    • 12 Applying Psychological First Aid from Disaster to Personal Crises: Hong Kong Red Cross Community-based Psychological Support Programme
      (pp. 265-274)
      Wilson Wong

      The usefulness of providing a non-interventionist form of early psychological support to promote mental health after emergencies and crises has been documented in a number of settings (Litz, et al. 2002; McNally, Bryant, and Ehlers 2003; Ommeren, Saxena, and Saraceno 2005; World Health Organization [WHO] 2003). It is coherent with adopting a holistic approach to humanitarian assistance in providing not only medical, physical, and tangible support but psychological, social and intangible support to promote health in a broader dimension. Over the ongoing development in the past decade, the guiding principle for humanitarian assistance is no longer whether to provide psychological...

    • 13 Report on the Model of Psychological Service Adopted for the Deyang Rehabilitation, Prosthetic and Orthotic Centre for Survivors of 5.12 Earthquake in Sichuan, China
      (pp. 275-292)
      Kitty K. Wu, Sumee K. Chan, Eugenie Y. Leung, Brian Y. Ip and Ocean H. Hung

      A magnitude-8 earthquake struck 92 kilometres north-west of Sichuan’s provincial capital, Chengdu, on 12 May 2008. According to World Health Organization (WHO 2008), a total of 18,084 aftershocks had been detected after the quake, reported casualties as of 16 July included 69,197 people dead, 374,176 people injured, and 18,238 people missing. The number of people affected was 46.24 million. Among the earthquake sites, Deyang was one of the most affected areas. The death toll has reached 17,137 there; 74,086 people were injured and 570 people were reported missing. Among the injured, thousands of them have become disabled and required amputation...

  10. Part VI Training
    • 14 Educating for Life Adversities and Challenges: Mainstreaming Trauma Training in University and Professional Training Curriculum
      (pp. 295-312)
      Catherine So-kum Tang

      Current literature has revealed that people who have suffered psychological trauma are at increased risk for physical and mental health disorders (Kessler, Sonnega, Bromet, Hughes, and Nelson 1995; Norris et al. 2002). There is an increasing demand on the provision of immediate and long-term mental health services to direct victims of trauma as well as to indirect victims comprising family, friends, and community members who identify with the traumatic event. While practice guidelines and quick reference guides have been devised to insure the standard of care and treatment for traumatized individuals and communities (American Psychiatric Association 2004; Foa, Keane, and...

  11. Part VII Closing
    • 15 Action Before Trauma: Reflections on Psychological Trauma
      (pp. 315-320)
      Eugenie Y. Leung

      With the advent of the concept of PTSD, people become aware of the potential risk and long-term psychological impact arising from traumatic experiences. Researchers and practitioners have focused their attention on a wide range of trauma stressors such as military combat, terrorist attack, torture, being taken hostage, natural or manmade disasters, violent personal assault, serious accidents, learning about sudden, unexpected death or life-threatening disease. In this volume, we have witnessed the development of trauma psychology in Hong Kong in terms of identification, treatment and prevention. We will continue to work on improving our knowledge in trauma, sharpening our assessment tools,...

  12. Appendices
    (pp. 321-372)
  13. Index
    (pp. 373-380)