Australia and Cyber-warfare

Australia and Cyber-warfare

Gary Waters
Desmond Ball
Ian Dudgeon
Volume: 168
Copyright Date: 2008
Published by: ANU Press
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  • Book Info
    Australia and Cyber-warfare
    Book Description:

    This book explores Australia's prospective cyber-warfare requirements and challenges. It describes the current state of planning and thinking within the Australian Defence Force with respect to Network Centric Warfare, and discusses the vulnerabilities that accompany the use by Defence of the National Information Infrastructure (NII), as well as Defence's responsibility for the protection of the NII. It notes the multitude of agencies concerned in various ways with information security, and argues that mechanisms are required to enhance coordination between them. It also argues that Australia has been laggard with respect to the development of offensive cyber-warfare plans and capabilities. Finally, it proposes the establishment of an Australian Cyber-warfare Centre responsible for the planning and conduct of both the defensive and offensive dimensions of cyber-warfare, for developing doctrine and operational concepts, and for identifying new capability requirements. It argues that the matter is urgent in order to ensure that Australia will have the necessary capabilities for conducting technically and strategically sophisticated cyber-warfare activities by the 2020s. The Foreword has been contributed by Professor Kim C. Beazley, former Minister for Defence (1984-90), who describes it as 'a timely book which transcends old debates on priorities for the defence of Australia or forward commitments, [and] debates about globalism and regionalism', and as 'an invaluable compendium' to the current process of refining the strategic guidance for Australia's future defence policies and capabilities.

    eISBN: 978-1-921313-80-6
    Subjects: Political Science

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-iv)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. v-viii)
  3. Abstract
    (pp. ix-x)
  4. Contributors
    (pp. xi-xii)
  5. Acronyms and Abbreviations
    (pp. xiii-xviii)
  6. Foreword
    (pp. xix-xx)
    Kim C. Beazley

    In 2002 I visited Afghanistan as part of a parliamentary delegation. At Bagram base, while visiting our Special Air Service (SAS) contingent, we were hosted at the headquarters of the 10th Mountain Division on one of the first of their seemingly interminable deployments to the Afghanistan fight. There we saw soldiers sitting behind banks of personal computers controlling everything from the Division′s logistics to the units in the field.

    We witnessed the interaction between US dominance of the electro-magnetic sphere and its use of cyber-space. Satellites beamed in the ongoing battle and communications relevant to the forces engaged. The Division...

  7. Chapter 1 Introduction: Australia and Cyber-warfare
    (pp. 1-4)
    Gary Waters and Desmond Ball

    In 2005 Air Commodore (Ret′d) Gary Waters and Professor Desmond Ball examined the key issues involved in ensuring that the Australian Defence Force (ADF) could obtain information superiority in future contingencies.¹ The authors discussed force posture, associated command and control systems, information support systems, operational concepts and doctrine. They discussed the ADF′s approach to Network Centric Warfare (NCW); examined the command and control aspects of dispersed military operations utilising networked systems; outlined some of the principal strategic, organisational, operational, doctrinal and human resource challenges; and discussed the information architecture requirements for achieving information superiority.

    Through its NCW developments, the ADF...

  8. Chapter 2 The Australian Defence Force and Network Centric Warfare
    (pp. 5-32)
    Gary Waters

    The global economy continues to be more networked through information and communication technologies that are fast becoming ubiquitous. Decision-to-action cycles are reducing to cope with the increasing pace of change, which is placing a premium on innovation, information sharing and collaboration. At the same time, national security is being broadened, large quantities of information are flowing along with calls for better quality information, and connectivity is increasing, all of which leads to an increase in the strategic value of information. Ed Waltz expresses it well as:

    the role of electronically collected and managed information at all levels has increased to...

  9. Chapter 3 Information Warfare Attack and Defence
    (pp. 33-58)
    Gary Waters

    Information is used to create value and achieve a desired end-state or effect. Preventing this value from being realised, on the one hand, and protecting those systems that allow that value to be realised, on the other, are caught up in the notion of Information Warfare (IW). This chapter addresses these two aspects—the value of information and IW. It discusses the methods an adversary might use to attack Australia′s networks and other capabilities and what we should do to prevent that. Cyber-crime is the other side of the same coin—posing a threat to our networks. We need to...

  10. Chapter 4 Targeting Information Infrastructures
    (pp. 59-84)
    Ian Dudgeon

    The national, defence and global information infrastructures underpin and enable today′s information society. They play a critical role in how we and others live, and they shape and influence our decision cycle, i.e. what we see, think, decide and how we act. In defence terms, these infrastructures largely determine the functional efficiency of a country′s Command, Control, Communications, Computers, Intelligence, Surveillance, Reconnaissance and Electronic Warfare (C4ISREW) and net-warfare capability. And in both defence and broader national security terms, they provide a pathway to psychological operations. Foreign information infrastructures can be targeted to weaken the military capability and national morale of...

  11. Chapter 5 Protecting Information Infrastructures
    (pp. 85-118)
    Gary Waters

    As discussed in chapter 2, the concept of Network Centric Warfare (NCW) anticipates ready access to information. This demands an ability to protect information such that its security can be as assured as its ready access. From a military perspective, therefore, the Australian Defence Force (ADF) must balance the quest for information superiority against the potential for creating an operational vulnerability. And it must do this within the broader context of balancing security and privacy as it increasingly shares information. From a national perspective, the Australian Government will wish to balance these same issues as it shares information across national...

  12. Chapter 6 An Australian Cyber-warfare Centre
    (pp. 119-148)
    Desmond Ball

    The Australian Defence Force (ADF) is in the process of being transformed to enable it to gain information superiority in future contingencies.¹ Substantial elements of its future Information Warfare (IW) architecture are already in place, such as the Collins-class submarine, some of the satellite communications (SATCOM) systems, and some of the land-based intelligence facilities, but these will all have to be extensively modified and technically updated. However, most of the ADF′s force and support elements remain inadequately networked. Other advanced capabilities, including the Royal Australian Navy (RAN)′s Air Warfare Destroyers (AWDs), new Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF) fighter aircraft, and...

  13. Bibliography
    (pp. 149-166)
  14. Index
    (pp. 167-174)