Civic Insecurity

Civic Insecurity: Law, Order and HIV in Papua New Guinea

Volume: 6
Copyright Date: 2010
Published by: ANU Press
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  • Book Info
    Civic Insecurity
    Book Description:

    Papua New Guinea has a complex 'law and order' problem and an entrenched epidemic of HIV. This book explores their interaction. It also probes their joint challenges and opportunities—most fundamentally for civic security, a condition that could offersome immunity to both. This book is a valuable and timely contribution to a limited but growing body of scholarship in the social and structural contexts of HIV epidemiology in Papua New Guinea. The volume offers a unique collection of interdisciplinary insights on the connections between law and order and the HIV epidemic and is presented in a manner accessible to a wide audience, scholars and lay people alike… Significantly, this is the first volume to critically examine the complex and inexorable links between HIV, gender, violence, and security within a theoretical framework thv at illuminates the challenges of the epidemic for PNG's future cohesion and stability as a young nation…The importance of this courageous book cannot be overstated. While it communicates an urgent and potent message about the need for immediate action … it offers insightful reflections on the processes and possibilities of social transformation that undoubtedly will have enduring scholarly and practical value. Dr Katherine Lepani, Social Foundations of Medicine, The Australian National University.

    eISBN: 978-1-921666-61-2
    Subjects: Sociology

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-iv)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. v-vi)
  3. Cover and Section illustrations
    (pp. vii-viii)
  4. Figures, Maps and Tables
    (pp. ix-x)
  5. Glossary
    (pp. xi-xii)
  6. Contributors
    (pp. xiii-xiv)
  7. Acknowledgements
    (pp. xv-xvi)
  8. Joan’s Story
    (pp. xvii-xviii)
  9. Introduction
    • Introduction
      (pp. 3-14)

      This book explores the interaction between PNG’s HIV and ‘law and order’ problems. We hope readers will take from it a richer appreciation of the potentially vicious spirals and virtuous circles that this interaction can create. Ultimately, we advance the cause of ‘deep prevention’ for these interlinked challenges, and the concept and goal of ‘civic security’ to embrace them both.

      Joan’s story, reprinted here from Papua New Guinea’s largest daily newspaper, begins this collection. She represents one face of PNG’s now endemic HIV that is so often described as undergoing ‘feminisation’. She died with AIDS and she died in violence...

    • 1. Entwined Endemics: HIV and ‘Law and Order’
      (pp. 15-44)

      Papua New Guinea has two entwined endemics: a complex ‘law and order’ problem and entrenched HIV. Each has serious implications for the nation’s future. Together they pose joint challenges and joint opportunities, most fundamentally for efforts to realise ‘civic security’ that may confer some immunity to both.

      This chapter surveys HIV and ‘law and order’ in PNG. It scopes broader dynamics in the governance of security, and the contributory roles of state, community, and their interface. It highlights how synergies of HIV and ‘law and order’ can create vicious spirals or virtuous circles. The potentials of a public health approach...

  10. Masculinity, Violence and HIV
    • 2. Masculinity Matters: Men, Gender-Based Violence and the AIDS Epidemic in Papua New Guinea
      (pp. 47-80)

      Gender has been a key category of enquiry into the AIDS pandemic for many years. Today, every major international authority involved in the response to AIDS recognises that a gendered approach is essential to success (UNAIDS 1999, 2000a; UNAIDS, UNFPA and UNIFEM 2004; UNAIDS and KIT 2005; UNDAW 2000; WHO 2003). Programmes to reduce gender inequalities are considered to be crucial to HIV prevention (see Carovano 1995; Gupta 1995; Jewkes, Levin and Penn-Kekana 2003, 132). So, there is a broad consensus that gender matters, but is it so clear that masculinity matters?

      In 2001, the United Nations General Assembly adopted...

    • 3. Teasing out the Tangle: Raskols, Young Men, Crime and HIV
      (pp. 81-116)

      This chapter revolves around the ‘raskol’, a term first used in the mid-1960s to describe young men, usually in groups, who engaged in petty theft and vandalism around Port Moresby, but later became associated with more serious property crime, violence and rape (Harris 1988, 3–16). Deriving from the English word ‘rascal’, raskolism referred to a new development in the growing town life of what was then the administrative centre of the Australian territories of Papua and New Guinea. Though raskolism still preserves certain connotations of urbanisation and opportunism, so-called raskols are now found in many rural areas while the...

  11. Networking, Sex Working and the Law
    • 4. From Gift to Commodity . . . and Back Again: Form and Fluidity of Sexual Networking in Papua New Guinea
      (pp. 119-140)

      In this essay I want to contribute to longstanding discussions about sexism and marriage, gender relations and sexuality, and prostitution and public health in Papua New Guinea (PNG). My contribution is aimed at two overlapping developments and discourses. First, since at least the late 1970s, calls have been made for the PNG state to erect and regulate brothels, ostensibly as a ‘public health’ measure to prevent the transmission of STDs, but also to sequester the signs of sexuality away from public view. Sex is bad, but prostitution is lust, being both unproductive and wasteful. Prostitution-related topics appeared throughout the 1970s...

    • 5. Decriminalisation of Prostitution in Papua New Guinea
      (pp. 141-152)

      Prostitution, as the concept is understood in Western law, was criminalised in Papua and New Guinea in the early 20th century by the colonial governments of Queensland and Australia. ¹ The Queensland Criminal Code of 1889 was imported into the laws of Papua in 1902 ² and, in a slightly different form, into New Guinea in 1921. ³ With independence in 1975 the two codes were replaced with a single code to apply throughout Papua New Guinea. ⁴ That code and its associated criminal laws, with their quaint British references to the keeping of ‘bawdy’ and ‘disorderly’ houses and ‘houses...

    • 6. Sex Workers and Police in Port Moresby (1994–1998): Research and Intervention
      (pp. 153-164)

      The structure of the sex trade in Papua New Guinea and much of the rest of the Pacific differs from that in Asia in several important ways. For the most part, women are free-lancing. They are not under contract to a brothel or other manager, and can take their clients where they find them without need to share their earnings with others. Throughout the Pacific, ports, beaches, malls, night clubs, guesthouses, hotels and residences are common sites at which commercial sex is negotiated and/or carried out. In cities with crowded poor housing areas, sex is sold or exchanged for goods...

  12. Police, Prisons, Army and Mainstreaming HIV
    • 7. The Royal Papua New Guinea Constabulary
      (pp. 167-178)

      In Papua New Guinea, the police, being members of the Royal Papua New Guinea Constabulary (RPNGC), feature heavily in popular discussions of law, order and HIV. Most typically, the police are perceived as adversely impacting upon the epidemic, via the entrenchment of negative attitudes to prostitution, police brutality and the rape of victims and offenders in communities and police stations. In addition to these harmful impacts, the RPNGC has been actively involved in HIV prevention, both within the constabulary and the community at large. This chapter discusses the ways in which the RPNGC has, and continues to, impact both negatively...

    • 8. Prisons and HIV in Papua New Guinea
      (pp. 179-190)

      The modern prison system in PNG has a relatively short history. For much of the colonial period the imprisonment of offenders, usually for short periods, was administered as an integral part of the larger system of ‘native administration’. Prisons were viewed by colonial officials as educational institutions in which prisoners learned about the ways of the Europeans and acquired respect for the authority of the colonial government. ‘Education’ consisted primarily of physical labour and prisoners were utilised in a range of public works from grass-cutting to road construction. Every government station had its own gaol under the control of the...

    • 9. HIV and the Papua New Guinea Defence Force: Risk Behaviours and Perceptions
      (pp. 191-202)

      Questions relating to the military’s role in spreading HIV or the impacts of HIV and AIDS on armies place the epidemic in contexts traditionally central to national security (Barnett and Prins 2005; Whiteside et al. 2006; Kershaw 2008; O’Keefe this volume). In PNG, concerns have been raised about the potential for HIV to drain resources from the Papua New Guinea Defence Force (PNGDF), compromise operational capacity, and spread from HIV-positive personnel to their families and to the communities where their work takes them. Fortunately, the PNGDF can exploit certain advantages in tackling HIV, including the institution’s organisational structure, an established...

    • 10. Mainstreaming HIV and AIDS in the Law and Justice Sector
      (pp. 203-216)

      The HIV epidemic in Papua New Guinea (PNG) demands effective responses from national leaders and public sector organisations charged with maintaining public health and more broadly promoting citizen welfare. These challenges are heightened in a complex sector such as law and justice—comprising six major agencies and two offices.¹

      This chapter explores opportunities and challenges for advancing a ‘mainstreaming’ response to HIV in the law and justice sector. ² Mainstreaming requires an organisation to adapt its core business to address HIV and AIDS. This approach is equally applicable to public sector, private sector and civil society organisations. Mainstreaming is a...

  13. Governance, Rights and Security
    • 11. Witchcraft, Torture and HIV
      (pp. 219-236)

      After questioning us further, they dragged me over to the Casuarina trees. They tied ropes around my hands and legs and tied me to one of the trees. I protested, ‘I am not a witch, I have done nothing’. They then dragged my mother to the other side and tied her between two Casuarina trees as well. My mother said, ‘I don’t know what you have planned for me, but let me pray first’. While she was praying they were heating an iron bar. It was not just any piece of iron, they had fashioned it such that it was...

    • 12. Community-building and Security: Case Studies
      (pp. 237-264)

      Aral, Burris and Shearing argue that a shared sense of security from physical violence and interference with property contributes significantly to better community health (2002, 632; see also Burris 2006). Conversely, the absence of security can have devastating consequences for the health of individuals, communities and, indeed, nations. As well as its direct impact on the health of victims, violence has indirect effects that erode the quality of life and the ability to improve social and economic conditions (Emmett and Butchart 2000). These include, for example, the impediment that it presents to investment for economic development, its impact on tourism,...

    • 13. Re-thinking Human Rights and the HIV Epidemic: A Reflection on Power and Goodness
      (pp. 265-274)

      The discourse on human rights in the context of the HIV epidemic has been drawn from a legal paradigm of human rights for which international human rights law provides the theoretical and legal framework. As a result, the HIV and human rights discourse has focused on the ways in which human rights law has been violated in the context of the epidemic. Extensive descriptions of HIV-related human rights violations in different cultural, economic and political contexts have been documented. These inventories are then used to confront and shame the perpetrators, a classical legal practice and the dominant practice of human...

    • 14. Enabling Environments: the Role of the Law
      (pp. 275-286)

      In the context of HIV prevention, a distinction may be drawn between approaches which aim to persuade individuals to change their behaviour, and approaches which enable behaviour change by focusing on the social and environmental factors which assist or impede that change. These enabling approaches are directed towards removing barriers to protective and preventive action, and constructing barriers to the taking of risks (Tawil, Verster and O’Reilly 1995). The provision of an enabling social environment becomes all the more necessary when we consider how much the success of individual ‘persuasion’ approaches depends on a vast range of socio-cultural, historical and...

    • 15. HIV and Security in Papua New Guinea: National and Human Insecurity
      (pp. 287-302)

      Much of the discussion in this volume focuses, understandably, on particular experiences and responses to HIV and AIDS in PNG, just as much of the international discourse focuses on the immediate needs of prevention, treatment and care. Yet the impact of the epidemic is potentially felt across all of society, and an unchecked epidemic will further challenge the collective viability of Papua New Guinea.

      Such a broad analysis might be expected in the field of International Relations, attempts to provide this overview of the epidemic have been made (e.g., Altman 2003; Brower and Chalk 2003; Eberstadt 2002; Barnett and Whiteside...

  14. Conclusion: Civic Security
    (pp. 303-316)

    This book’s overriding aim is to advance the goal of ‘civic security’. Joan’s story that was reproduced at the beginning indicated some of the term’s meanings in reverse. An abused and ostracised woman with HIV, civic security was lacking from her life and death. Within the terms of this volume her experience was one result of the vicious circle produced conjointly by HIV and the complex factors that come under the rubric ‘law and order’—and contributors have outlined others. Because the introduction and first chapter argued that civic security would offer both some immunity to such harms and a...

  15. Epilogue: Ela’s Question
    (pp. 317-322)

    In late 2003, the Howard Government announced that it was sending police, military personnel and senior public servants into PNG under a programme of expanded cooperation. The announcements and subsequent discussion on talkback radio were in terms of ‘restoring law and order’ in PNG and of ‘propping up the country’.

    As this was being reported in the papers in both countries, Ela sought advice: ‘My parents want Willie to go back to the village and go to school there. What do you think?’

    At the beginning of 2003, Ela had brought her six year-old son to Port Moresby to go...

  16. Index
    (pp. 323-338)