The Restoration of Gregorian Chant

The Restoration of Gregorian Chant: Solesmes and the Vatican edition

Dom Pierre Combe
Theodore N. Marier
William Skinner
Copyright Date: 2003
Pages: 486
https://www.jstor.org/stable/j.ctt2853fb
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  • Book Info
    The Restoration of Gregorian Chant
    Book Description:

    This book presents for the first time in English the fully documented history of the Gregorian chant restoration which culminated in the publication of the Vatican Edition ordered by Pope Pius X at the dawn of the twentieth century. It is based upon archival documents in the Abbey of St. Pierre de Solesmes.

    eISBN: 978-0-8132-1832-8
    Subjects: Music

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-iv)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. v-x)
  3. INTRODUCTION
    (pp. xi-xxxii)
    Robert A. Skeris and Dom Eugene Cardine

    The carefully documented narrative of Fr. Pierre Combe’s “History of the Restoration of Gregorian Chant,” presented to the English-speaking public for the first time in the pages which follow, concludes with the year 1912 when the Antiphonale Romanum was published. The chant books printed under the auspices of the Vatican Commission headed by Dom Pothier thus comprised the Kyriale (1905), Cantus Missae (1907), Graduale Romanum (1907), Officium Defunctorum (1909), the Cantorinus (1911), and the Antiphonale Romanum.

    The books of Gregorian chant published since 1913 have been edited by the monks of Solesmes, a tradition which continues to the present day....

  4. TRANSLATORS’ NOTE
    (pp. xxxiii-xxxiv)
  5. THE RESTORATION OF GREGORIAN CHANT
    • FOREWORD
      (pp. 3-7)

      This book is a compilation of numerous articles on the restoration of Gregorian chant that appeared in the Études Grégoriennes (Solesmes) from 1963 to 1968. The matter contained in them has been divided into two distinct parts:

      Part I. The Gregorian Reform at Solesmes

      The Reform of Gregorian Chant and the Chant Books at the Abbey of Solesmes, 1833–1883, Dom Guéranger, Dom Jausions and Dom Pothier (original version in: Études Grégoriennes VI, 1963, pp. 185–234).

      Part II. The Vatican Edition

      The Beginnings of the Gregorian Reform of St. Pius X:

      I. Dom André Mocquereau.

      II. Father de Santi...

    • LIST OF PLATES
      (pp. 8-8)
  6. ONE. THE GREGORIAN REFORM AT SOLESMES
    • I DOM GUÉRANGER’S RATIONALE
      (pp. 11-22)

      More than a hundred years have passed since a young monk methodically began studying the elements of Gregorian chant and copying old manuscripts, by order of Dom Guéranger. In his book entitled L’École Grégorienne de Solesmes,¹ Msgr. Rousseau established 1856 as the year when the very first work on Gregorian chant research was undertaken at the Abbey. This is indeed the date confirmed by the few, but valuable, authoritative testimonies that have hitherto been assembled. It will be instructive to focus on these early stages of the Gregorian restoration at Solesmes in order to ascertain the main stages of its...

    • II PERIOD OF PREPARATION
      (pp. 23-78)

      We have arrived at the year 1859, and find a young monk studying Gregorian chant under Dom Guéranger’s direction at Solesmes. He was a young cleric from the Diocese of Rennes named Paul Jausions,33bis who had requested permission to enter the novitiate on October 21, 1854. The Abbot of Solesmes observed the young monk’s love of the liturgy and his great capacity for work. Some family correspondence of the young novice reveals that even before his entrance into the novitiate, he had been deeply interested in liturgical chant. He had a position in his parish choir, and had made an...

    • III THE FIRST PUBLICATIONS
      (pp. 79-94)

      The sequence of events pertaining to the Gregorian restoration at Solesmes is better known, at least after 1880. It is customary to follow the development of these events to their successful conclusion, even though this may mean summarizing briefly those events that have already been reviewed.

      It should be noted, for example, that in 1870, Dom Guéranger was requested on at least two occasions to intervene at the Council with a view to involving Rome itself in the movement of the Gregorian restoration. The time was not ripe, and Dom Guéranger knew it. In fact, there is no proof at...

  7. TWO. THE VATICAN EDITION
    • A. Preliminaries of the Gregorian Reform under Leo XIII
      • I DOM ANDRÉ MOCQUEREAU AND THE PALÉOGRAPHIE MUSICALE
        (pp. 99-146)

        The second part of the Gregorian restoration concerns the efforts and struggles it took to gain acceptance of the restoration, particularly in Rome. We will focus on this aspect, drawing mainly on the correspondence of Dom Mocquereau, Msgr. Carlo Respighi, consultor of the Congregation of Sacred Rites and pontifical master of ceremonies, and Father Angelo de Santi, editor of Civiltà Cattolica, who was to be the mainspring of the Gregorian reform. Dom Mocquereau’s great achievement, the Paléographie Musicale, was crucial for Father de Santi in this regard, because it showed that Dom Pothier’s work was in complete conformity with the...

      • II FATHER DE SANTI AND MONSIGNOR CARLO RESPIGHI
        (pp. 147-216)

        Once he returned to Solesmes, Dom Mocquereau soon had good news from Rome. On October 19, 1891, Father de Santi told him, in fact, that the Pope had ordered the Congregation of Sacred Rites to review the Regulation of September 14, 1884, which had followed the decree of April 26, 1883, published after the Arezzo Congress to maintain the privilege of the Ratisbon edition,41 and to publish another, the interpretation of which would leave no room for hesitation concerning the Gregorian question, and which could serve as the rule for all Churches. Father de Santi also knew, through Cardinal Rampolla,...

    • B. The Work of St. Pius X
      • III THE NEW LEGISLATION OF PIUS X
        (pp. 219-270)

        It was St. Pius X, elected Pope in August 1903, who brought the Gregorian restoration movement to its fulfillment. We will see the assistance provided to Pius X by Father de Santi, with regard to both the wording of the motu proprio of November 22, 1903, and that of April 25, 1904, and the establishment of the Vatican Commission responsible for reforming the liturgical books of Gregorian chant. Yet, although the honor for this restoration is justly due to this great Pope, it is equally just to point out those who promoted that movement.139

        On August 4, 1903, Cardinal Sarto...

      • IV THE MEETINGS OF THE COMMISSION HELD IN 1904
        (pp. 271-305)

        The meetings of the Commission began on the afternoon of April 29. Six meetings were held between April 29 and June 27 at the Circle of St. Peter, at the offices of the Congregation of the Propagation of the Faith, and at St. Anselm, the Benedictine house. The purpose of these meetings was purely practical: to organize the work, and to determine the steps to be taken. In these first six meetings, there were never more than seven members of the Commission present: Dom Pothier, the President, took part in the first meeting only, and Dom Mocquereau participated only in...

      • V THE MEETINGS OF THE COMMISSION HELD IN 1905
        (pp. 306-385)

        Dom Pothier returned to Rome at the beginning of February 1905, and was received by the Pope on February 15 (Revue du Chant Grégorien, March–April 1905, p. 137). The meetings of the Commission had resumed February 12. In spite of Father de Santi’s wishes and those of Dom Mocquereau, the number of consultors remained the same. On November 12, 1904, Father de Santi had nonetheless written to Dom Mocquereau that the Pope agreed that there should be a greater number of consultors so that the preparation of the Vatican Edition might be given the best possible guarantee of success....

      • VI THE VATICAN COMMISSION FROM 1905 TO 1913
        (pp. 386-416)

        At the time when the two monks returned from Germany, Solesmes was no longer involved in the task of editing the Vatican Edition, which was being done without its cooperation or that of its friends and defenders. In 1905 and over the following year, several attempts at reconciliation were made between the Commission and the Editors, without result. But before mentioning anything more about this, a word must be said about the relentless wrangling directed against the Solesmes rhythmic editions, for the monks were challenged even with respect to the rights that had been graciously given them by Pius X,...

  8. APPENDIX I. RESOLUTIONS OF THE AREZZO CONGRESS
    (pp. 417-418)
  9. APPENDIX II. BRIEFS ADDRESSED TO DOM POTHIER
    (pp. 419-420)
  10. APPENDIX III. THE 1893 VOTUM OF CARDINAL SARTO
    (pp. 421-422)
  11. APPENDIX IV. TRANSLATION OF THE THE ORIGINAL ITALIAN TEXT OF THE DOCUMENTS RELATING TO THE ORIGINS OF THE VATICAN COMMISSION
    (pp. 423-434)
  12. APPENDIX V. BIBLIOGRAPHY
    (pp. 435-436)
  13. Plates 4–11
    (pp. 437-446)
  14. INDEX
    (pp. 447-451)
  15. Back Matter
    (pp. 452-452)