On Illustrious Men (The Fathers of the Church, Volume 100)

On Illustrious Men (The Fathers of the Church, Volume 100)

SAINT JEROME
Translated by THOMAS P. HALTON
Copyright Date: 1999
Pages: 243
https://www.jstor.org/stable/j.ctt2853x3
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  • Book Info
    On Illustrious Men (The Fathers of the Church, Volume 100)
    Book Description:

    Often cited as a source of biographical information on ancient Christian authors, On Illustrious Men provides St. Jerome's personal evaluations of his forebears and contemporaries, as well as catalogs of patristic writings known to him

    eISBN: 978-0-8132-1200-5
    Subjects: Religion

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-iv)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. v-x)
  3. EDITORIAL FOREWORD
    (pp. xi-xii)
    Thomas Halton

    In 1947 the first volume of the Fathers of the Church series, The Apostolic Fathers, carried a General Foreword from Ludwig Schopp, the first Editorial Director:

    This series of seventy-two volumes will present outstanding patristic writings and include some works never translated before…. Introductions will familiarize the reader with the life and works of the authors. While all annotations will be brief, a select bibliography may serve as means for further study.

    As Editorial Director of the Fathers of the Church since 1983, having crossed the “seventy-two volumes” limit, I have finally taken the liberty, with the benign connivance of...

  4. ABBREVIATIONS
    (pp. xiii-xviii)
  5. SELECT BIBLIOGRAPHY
    (pp. xix-xxii)
  6. INTRODUCTION
    (pp. xxiii-xxx)

    Born in 347 or 348 into a prosperous Christian family of the propertied class in Stridon near Emona,¹ Jerome went in 360 to Rome to undertake studies in grammar and rhetoric, where he had Rufinus as his friend and Aelius Donatus, the famous grammarian, as his teacher. During his student days he acquired not just a notable knowledge of Latin literature, but also an extraordinary competence in the Latin language.

    An anecdote that he himself relates² gives an interesting insight into his mode of life at that time, although he had not yet received baptism:

    When I was a boy...

  7. ON ILLUSTRIOUS MEN
    • PREFACE
      (pp. 1-5)
    • I. SIMON PETER
      (pp. 5-7)

      Simon peter, the son of john,¹ from the village of Bethsaida in the province of Galilee,² brother of Andrew the apostle,³ and himself chief of the apostles, after having been bishop of the church of Antioch⁴ and having preached to the ones who are scattered, the believers from the circumcision, in Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, Asia, and Bithynia,⁵ pushed on to Rome in the second year of Claudius to overthrow Simon Magus⁶ and held the sacerdotal chair there for twenty-five years, until the last, that is, the fourteenth, year of Nero.⁷

      2. At Nero’s hands he received the crown of martyrdom, being...

    • II. JAMES, THE BROTHER OF THE LORD
      (pp. 7-10)

      James, who is called the brother of the Lord,¹ surnamed the Just, the son of Joseph by another wife, as some think,² but, as appears to me, the son of Mary, the sister of the mother of the Lord of whom John makes mention in his book,³ was after the Lord’s passion at once ordained bishop of Jerusalem by the apostles.⁴

      2. He wrote a single epistle, which is reckoned among the seven Catholic Epistles,⁵ and even this is claimed by some to have been published by someone else under his name,⁶ and gradually as time went on to have gained...

    • III. MATTHEW, SURNAMED LEVI
      (pp. 10-11)

      Matthew, surnamed levi, first publican, then apostle,¹ composed a gospel of Christ at first published in Judea in Hebrew for the sake of those of the circumcision who believed, but this was afterwards translated into Greek, though by what author is uncertain.²

      2. Moreover, the Hebrew itself has been preserved until the present day in the library at Caesarea which Pamphilus the martyr so diligently gathered.³ I have also had the opportunity of having the volume described to me by the Nazarenes of Beroea,⁴ a city of Syria, who use it.

      3. In this it is to be noted that wherever the...

    • IV. JUDE, THE BROTHER OF JAMES
      (pp. 11-11)

      Jude, the brother of james,¹ left a short epistle which is reckoned among the seven Catholic Epistles,² and because in it he quotes from the apocryphal book of Enoch,³ it is rejected by many.⁴

      2. Nevertheless, by age and use⁵ it has gained authority and is reckoned among the Holy Scriptures....

    • V. PAUL, FORMERLY CALLED SAUL
      (pp. 12-14)

      Paul, formerly called saul, an apostle¹ over and above the number of the twelve apostles, was of the tribe of Benjamin and the town of Giscalis in Judea.² When this was captured by the Romans he moved with his parents to Tarsus [in Cilicia].³

      2. Sent by them to Jerusalem to study law, he was educated by Gamaliel, a most learned man, whom Luke mentions.⁴

      3. But after he had been present at the death of the martyr Stephen, and had received letters from the high priest of the temple for the persecution of those who believed in Christ, he proceeded to...

    • VI. BARNABAS, SURNAMED JOSEPH
      (pp. 15-15)

      Barnabas from cyprus, surnamed Joseph the Levite,¹ ordained apostle to the Gentiles with Paul,² wrote one Epistle,³ valuable for the edification of the church, which is reckoned among the apocryphal writings.⁴

      2. Afterwards he separated from Paul on account of John, a disciple also called Mark,⁵ but nonetheless exercised the work of preaching the Gospel laid upon him....

    • VII. LUKE THE EVANGELIST
      (pp. 15-17)

      Luke, a physician of Antioch,¹ as his writings indicate, was not unskilled in the Greek language.² An adherent of the apostle Paul and companion of all his journeying, he wrote a Gospel, concerning whom the same Paul says, “We send with him a brother whose praise in the gospel is among all the churches,”³ and to the Colossians, “Luke, the dearly beloved physician, salutes you,”⁴ and to Timothy, “Luke only is with me.”⁵

      2. He also wrote another excellent volume to which he prefixed the title, Acts, $ \pi\rho\acute\alpha\xi\epsilon\omega\nu $ , of the Apostles,⁶ a history which extends to the second year of Paul’s...

    • VIII. MARK THE EVANGELIST
      (pp. 17-19)

      Mark, the disciple and interpreter of Peter, wrote a short gospel at the request of the brethren at Rome, embodying what he had heard Peter tell.¹ When Peter had heard it, he approved it and issued it to the churches to be read by his authority, as Clement, in the sixth book of his Ὑ $ \pi o\tau\upsilon\pi\acute\omega\sigma\epsilon\iota\varsigma $ , and Papias, bishop of Hierapolis, record.²

      2. Peter also mentions this Mark in his First Epistle, figuratively indicating Rome under the name of Babylon: “She who is in Babylon, chosen together with you, salutes you; and so does my son Mark.”³

      3. So, taking the Gospel...

    • IX. JOHN, THE APOSTLE AND EVANGELIST
      (pp. 19-21)

      John, the apostle whom Jesus loved most,¹ the son of Zebedee, and brother of the apostle James, whom Herod, after our Lord’s passion, beheaded,² most recently of all, at the request of the bishops of Asia, wrote a Gospel³ against Cerinthus and other heretics,⁴ and especially against the then-arising doctrine of the Ebionites, who assert that Christ did not exist prior to Mary.⁵ On this account he was compelled to maintain His divine birth.

      2. But there is said to be yet another reason for this work, in that, when he had read the volumes of Matthew, Mark, and Luke, he...

    • X. HERMAS
      (pp. 21-22)

      Hermas,¹ whom the apostle Paul mentions in writing to the Romans, “Greetings to Phlegon, Hermes, Patrobas, Hermas, and the brethren that are with them,”² is reputed to be the author of the book which is called The Pastor³ and which is also read publicly in some churches of Greece.⁴ It is in fact a useful book, and many⁵ of the ancient writers quote from it as authority,⁶ but among the Latins⁷ it is almost unknown....

    • XI. PHILO THE JEW
      (pp. 23-26)

      Philo the jew, born in Alexandria¹ of a priestly stock,² and for that reason included by us among ecclesiastical writers, because, writing a book on the first church in Alexandria of Mark the evangelist, he engaged in praise of us Christians, recalling that they existed, not just there, but in many provinces, and calling their dwellings monasteries.³

      2. From this it is apparent that the first church of believers in Christ was such as the monks now imitate and emulate, so that nothing is held in private by anyone, not one among them is rich, not one poor, their patrimonies are...

    • XII. LUCIUS ANNAEUS SENECA
      (pp. 26-27)

      Lucius annaeus seneca of Cordova,¹ a disciple of the Stoic Sotion,² and paternal uncle of the poet Lucan,³ was a man of very temperate life whom I would not place in a catalogue of saints, were it not that I was prompted to do so by those Letters from Paul to Seneca and from Seneca to Paul⁴ which are very widely read.

      2. In these, when Seneca was Nero’s teacher and the most influential person of the period,⁵ he said that he wished to have the same position among his own [i.e., the pagans] which Paul had among the Christians.⁶

      3....

    • XIII. JOSEPHUS, SON OF MATTHEW
      (pp. 28-30)

      Josephus, son of Matthew, a priest of Jerusalem,¹ made prisoner by Vespasian, was released by Vespasian’s son, Titus.² Coming to Rome, he offered to the emperors, father and son, his seven books On the Captivity of the Jews,³ which were deposited in the public library, and by the fame of his genius he merited a statue in Rome.⁴

      2. He also composed twenty other volumes, On Antiquities,⁵ from the beginning of the world to the fourteenth year of Domitian Caesar,⁶ and two books ἀ $ \rho\chi\alpha\iota\acute o\tau\eta\tau o\varsigma $ , of antiquities, Against Apion, an Alexandrian grammarian,⁷ who in the reign of Caligula, sent as legate...

    • XIV. JUSTUS OF TIBERIAS
      (pp. 30-30)

      Justus of tiberias, of the province of Galilee,¹ attempted also to compose A History of Jewish Events² and certain short commentaries on the Scriptures.³

      2. Josephus, however, accused him of falsity.⁴

      3. And it is well known that he and Josephus wrote at the same time.⁵...

    • XV. CLEMENT THE BISHOP
      (pp. 31-32)

      Clement,¹ of whom the apostle Paul in his Epistle to the Philippians wrote, “with Clement and my other fellow-workers whose names are written in the book of life,”² was the fourth bishop of Rome after Peter, in that Linus was second and Anacletus, third,³ although the greater part of the Latins⁴ think that Clement was second after the apostle.

      2. He wrote in the name of the Roman church a most useful Letter to the Church of Corinth,⁵ which in some places is even read publicly,⁶ which seems to me to correspond to the style of the Epistle to the Hebrews...

    • XVI. IGNATIUS THE BISHOP
      (pp. 32-34)

      Ignatius, the third bishop of the church of Antioch after the apostle Peter,¹ condemned to the beasts in the persecution begun by Trajan,² was bound in chains and sent to Rome.³

      2. When on his voyage he came to Smyrna, where Polycarp, disciple of John, was bishop,⁴ he wrote

      a Letter to the Ephesians,⁵

      a second, To the Magnesians,⁶

      a third, To the Trallians,⁷

      a fourth, To the Romans,⁸ and

      after he left Smyrna he wrote To the Philadelphians

      and To the Smyrnaeans,10

      and, personally, To Polycarp,11 commending to him the church of Antioch.

      3. In this letter he offers a testimony...

    • XVII. POLYCARP THE BISHOP
      (pp. 35-36)

      Polycarp, a disciple of John the apostle,¹ and ordained by him as bishop of Smyrna, was the leader of all of Asia,² in that he had seen and had as teachers some of the apostles and of those who had seen the Lord.³

      2. In the reign of the emperor Antoninus Pius, on account of some questions concerning the day of the Pasch, he came to Rome, where Anicetus was bishop,⁴ and he brought back to the faith very many of those believers who had been deceived by the persuasiveness of Marcion⁵ and Valentinus.

      3. When Marcion happened to meet him and...

    • XVIII. PAPIAS THE BISHOP
      (pp. 36-38)

      Papias, a disciple of John and bishop of Hierapolis in Asia,¹ wrote only five volumes, entitled An Explanation of the Discourses of the Lord.² In these, since he is asserting in his preface that he does not follow various opinions but that he has the apostles as witnesses, he says:³

      2. “I examined what Andrew said, what Peter said, what Philip, Thomas, James, John, Matthew, and any other of the disciples of the Lord said, and what Aristion and the elder John, the disciples of the Lord, were saying. For I did not suppose that books were useful for me to...

    • XIX. QUADRATUS THE BISHOP
      (pp. 39-40)

      Quadratus, a disciple of the apostles, was named bishop of Athens as successor to Publius,¹ when the latter was crowned with martyrdom for Christ. By his faith and zeal he reunited the church, which was in terror and disarray.

      2. When Hadrian spent the winter in Athens, and visited Eleusis² and, initiated into almost all the Greek mysteries,³ presented an opportunity to those who hated the Christians to harass the believers without a decree of the emperor,⁴ Quadratus presented a treatise to him composed In defense of our religion, very useful, and full of reasoning and of faith, worthy of the...

    • XX. ARISTIDES THE PHILOSOPHER
      (pp. 40-40)

      Aristides of athens,¹ a most eloquent philosopher who became a disciple of Christ without relinquishing his philosopher’s gown, was a contemporary of Quadratus.²

      Like Quadratus, he presented to the emperor Hadrian a volume containing an account of our teaching, namely, the Apology for Christians,³ which, surviving down to the present day, is a proof of his talent among philologists.⁴...

    • XXI. AGRIPPA CASTOR
      (pp. 41-42)

      Agrippa, surnamed castor,¹ a very learned man, refuted with great effectiveness the twenty-four volumes of the heretic Basilides,² which the latter had composed against the Gospel,

      2. in which he disclosed all his mysteries and named his prophets, Bar Cochebas and Bar Coph,³ and other barbarous names, which cause terror to his hearers, and Abraxas,⁴ his supreme deity, a name which occupies about the space of a year in the numerical system of the Greeks.

      3. Now Basilides, from whom the Gnostics had their origin, lived in Alexandria in the time of Hadrian,⁵ at the very time that Bar Kochba,⁶ the leader...

    • XXII. HEGESIPPUS THE HISTORIAN
      (pp. 42-43)

      Hegesippus, a near contemporary of the apostles,¹ compiled an account of ecclesiastical events, from the Passion of the Lord down to his own time,² and assembled much data useful for his readers. He composed five books in a simple style³ calculated to express also the colloquial speech of the followers of the Christian life.

      2. He said that he came to Rome in the time of Anicetus, who was the tenth bishop after Peter,⁴ and that he remained there down to the episcopacy of Eleutherus, who was formerly a deacon of Anicetus.⁵

      3. Furthermore, in disputations against the idols⁶ he composed a...

    • XXIII. JUSTIN THE PHILOSOPHER
      (pp. 43-46)

      Justin the philosopher,¹ who continued to wear the philosopher’s garb, was born in Neapolis, a city of Palestine; his father was Priscus, son of Bacchius.² He accomplished great feats for the religion of Christ, to the point of presenting to Antoninus Pius and his sons and the senate a book entitled, Against the Pagans,³ without being ashamed of the ignominy of the cross.⁴ He presented another book to the successors of the same Antoninus, Marcus Antoninus Verus and Lucius Aurelius Commodus.⁵

      2. A third book of his survives, Against the Pagans,⁶ where he discourses about the nature of demons;

      and a...

    • XXIV. MELITO THE BISHOP
      (pp. 46-48)

      Melito of the province of Asia, bishop of Sardis,¹ presented to the emperor Marcus Antoninus Verus,² who was a disciple of the orator Fronto,³ a volume in defense of Christian dogma.⁴

      2. He also wrote other volumes,⁵ among which were the following:

      On the Pasch,⁶ two books;

      On the Life of the Prophets,⁷ one book;

      On the Church, one book;

      On Sunday, one book;

      On Faith, one book;

      On Creation, one book;

      On the Senses, one book;

      On the Soul and the Body, one book;

      On Baptism,⁸ one book;

      On Truth, one book;

      On the Birth of Christ, one book;

      On...

    • XXV. THEOPHILUS THE BISHOP
      (pp. 48-49)

      Theophilus, the sixth bishop of the church of Antioch,¹ in the reign of the emperor Marcus Antoninus Verus,² composed a book, Against Marcion, which survives down to the present day.

      2. Also ascribed to him are

      three volumes, To Autolycus

      one volume, Against the Heresy of Hermogenes,⁴

      and other short, elegant tracts which pertain to the edification of the church.⁵

      3. I also have read Commentaries on the Gospel⁶ and on The Proverbs of Solomon⁷ ascribed to his authorship, which do not seem to me to match the elegance and style of the previous volumes....

    • XXVI. APOLLINARIS THE BISHOP
      (pp. 49-50)

      Apollinaris, bishop of Hierapolis in Asia,¹ lived during the reign of the emperor Marcus Antoninus Verus² and presented to him an excellent work, In Defense of the Faith of the Christians

      2. There are also extant of his, Against the Pagans,⁴ five books,

      and On Truth,⁵ two books,

      and Against the Cataphrygians⁶ [one volume], from the time when Montanus was beginning his error, with his crazy prophetesses, Prisca and Maximilla.⁷...

    • XXVII. DIONYSIUS THE BISHOP
      (pp. 50-51)

      Dionysius, bishop of the church of Corinth, was a man of such eloquence and zeal that he instructed by letter not only the people of his own city and province, but also of other provinces and cities.

      2. Among his letters¹ is one, To the Spartans,

      a second, To the Athenians,

      a third, To the Nicomedians,

      a fourth, To the Cretans,

      a fifth, To the Church of Amastri and the other churches of Pontus,

      a sixth, To the Faithful of Knossos and to Pinytus, the bishop of that city,

      a seventh, To the Romans, which he addressed to their bishop, Soter,...

    • XXVIII. PINYTUS THE BISHOP
      (pp. 51-51)

      Pinytus of crete, bishop of the city of Knossos,¹ wrote a very elegant letter To Dionysius, bishop of Corinth,² in which he taught that the faithful should not continue to be fed on a milk diet lest they be taken by surprise as children on the last day, but should be fed on solid food³ so that they might advance to a spirited old age.

      2. He also lived under Marcus Antoninus and Aurelius Commodus....

    • XXIX. TATIAN THE HERESIARCH
      (pp. 51-53)

      Tatian,¹ who first as a teacher of eloquence attained no small fame for himself for his rhetorical skill,² became a follower of Justin Martyr,³ and flourished in the church as long as he did not depart from his side.

      2. Later, however, inflated with the pride of eloquence, he founded a new heresy which is called the Encratite,⁴ which Severus further increased, and after whom the heretics of his party are called Severians⁵ down to this present day.

      3. Moreover Tatian wrote numerous volumes, one of which, Against the Pagans,⁶ survives, which is the most famous⁷ in repute among all his works....

    • XXX. PHILIP THE BISHOP
      (pp. 53-54)

      Philip, bishop of Crete, or rather of the city of Gortyn,¹ of which Dionysius makes mention in the letter which he wrote to the church of that city,²

      2. published an important work Against Marcion,³ and flourished in the time of Marcus Antoninus Verus and Lucius Aurelius Commodus.⁴...

    • XXXI. MUSANUS
      (pp. 54-54)

      Musanus,¹ not undistinguished among those who wrote on the doctrine of the church, in the reign of the emperor Marcus Antoninus Verus,² composed a work directed at certain brethren who had fallen away from the church into the heresy of the Encratites.³...

    • XXXII. MODESTUS
      (pp. 54-55)

      Modestus,¹ who also lived in the reign of the emperor Marcus Antoninus and Lucius Aurelius Commodus, wrote a work Against Marcion² which is still extant.

      2. Other compositions are ascribed to him, but scholars reject them as spurious.³...

    • XXXIII. BARDESANES THE HERESIARCH
      (pp. 55-56)

      Bardesanes was regarded as famous in Mesopotamia.¹ At first he was a follower of Valentinus,² but then became his adversary, and finally started a new heresy.³ He was held in repute by the Syrians for his passionate character and vehemence in debate.⁴

      2. He wrote countless works against almost all heresies which had originated in his time. The most famous and most powerful of his works was On Fate,⁵ which he presented to Marcus Antoninus,⁶ and many other volumes on persecution which his followers translated from Syriac into Greek.⁷

      3. If his efficacy is so splendid and great in translation, what do...

    • XXXIV. VICTOR THE BISHOP
      (pp. 56-57)

      Victor, thirteenth bishop of the city of Rome,¹ wrote On the Question of the Pasch² and certain other works,³ and ruled the church for ten years in the time of the emperor Severus.⁴...

    • XXXV. IRENAEUS THE BISHOP
      (pp. 57-59)

      Irenaeus, a priest of bishop Pothinus who governed the church of Lyons in Gaul,¹ was sent to Rome as a delegate by the martyrs of that city concerning some questions of the church and brought a letter to bishop Eleutherus² which honored his name.

      2. Later, when Pothinus attained the crown of martyrdom for Christ when he was nearly ninety years old, Irenaeus replaced him.³

      3. It is clear that he was a disciple of Polycarp, the bishop and martyr of whom we made mention already.⁴

      4. He wrote Against Heresies, in five books,⁵

      a short work, Against the Pagans,⁶

      another, On Knowledge,⁷...

    • XXXVI. PANTAENUS THE PHILOSOPHER
      (pp. 59-60)

      Pantaenus, a philosopher of the Stoic school,¹ according to a certain ancient custom in Alexandria, where, beginning with Mark the Evangelist, there were always teachers of the church,² was endowed with such wisdom and learning both in the Scriptures and in secular literature that he was sent by Demetrius, bishop of Alexandria, into India³ at the request of legates from this people.

      2. And there he found that Bartholomew of the twelve apostles had preached the coming of the Lord Jesus according to the Gospel of Matthew which, written in Hebrew letters, he brought back with him on his return to...

    • XXXVII. RHODO, THE DISCIPLE OF TATIAN
      (pp. 60-61)

      Rhodo, an asian by birth,¹ educated in the Scriptures at Rome by Tatian of whom we have spoken above,² composed numerous works, and especially one, Against Marcion,³ in which he shows how also the Marcionites were at variance among themselves.

      2. And he said that he had once encountered another heretic, an old man, Apelles⁴ and had engaged in a discussion with him and that he, Rhodo, held Apelles up to ridicule because he said that he did not know the God whom he worshipped.⁵

      3. In the same book which he wrote to Kallistio he recalled that he was a disciple...

    • XXXVIII. CLEMENT THE PRESBYTER
      (pp. 61-63)

      Clement, a priest of the church of Alexandria,¹ a student of Pantaenus, whom we have discussed already,² after the latter’s death became director of the [catechetical] school of the church of Alexandria³ and was a master of $ \kappa\alpha\tau\eta\chi\acute\eta\sigma\epsilon\omega\nu $ , catecheses.⁴

      2. His distinguished volumes, full of erudition and eloquence, both about the divine Scriptures and the vehicle of secular literature,⁵ are well known.

      3. Among them are the following:⁶

      $ \Sigma\tau\rho\omega\mu\alpha\tau\epsilon\stackrel\frown\iota\varsigma $ , Stromateis, eight books;⁷

      $ \pi o\tau\upsilon\pi\acute\omega\sigma\epsilon\omega\nu $ , Hypotyposeis, eight books;⁸

      Against the Pagans, one book;⁹

      Paidagogos, three books;10

      On the Pasch, one book;11

      a disquisition, On Fasting,12

      and another work, called What Rich...

    • XXXIX. MILTIADES
      (pp. 64-64)

      Miltiades,¹ of whom Rhodo makes mention in the work which he composed against Montanus, Prisca, and Maximilla, wrote an excellent volume against those same people,² and other works against the pagans and the Jews,³ and he presented an Apology to the emperors of his time.⁴

      2. He lived in the reign of Marcus Antoninus and Commodus.⁵...

    • XL. APOLLONIUS
      (pp. 64-65)

      Apollonius,¹ a man of great eloquence, wrote against Montanus, Prisca, and Maximilla, a distinguished lengthy work,² in which he narrates that Montanus and his insane prophetesses died by hanging themselves,³ and many other details among which he refers to Prisca and Maximilla as follows:⁴

      2. “If they say that they have not accepted gifts, let them confess that those are not prophets who accepted gifts, and I will prove with a thousand proofs that they have. But it is necessary to test a prophet by other fruits. Tell me, does a prophet dye her hair? Does a prophet pencil her eyebrows...

    • XLI. SERAPION THE BISHOP
      (pp. 66-67)

      Serapion,¹ ordained bishop of Antioch in the eleventh year of the emperor Commodus, wrote a letter to Caricus and Pontius concerning the heresy of Montanus, to which he added the following:²

      2. “In order that you may know that the folly of this false teaching, that is, of the new prophecy, is abominated by the whole world, I send you the letter of the most blessed Apollinaris, who was bishop of Hierapolis in Asia.”³

      3. He also composed a work directed To Domnus, who had lapsed into Judaism⁴ in the time of persecution,

      and another book, On the so-called Gospel attributed to...

    • XLII. APOLLONIUS THE SENATOR, ANOTHER ONE
      (pp. 67-67)

      Apollonius,¹ a senator of the city of Rome in the reign of the emperor Commodus, denounced as a Christian by a slave, having been granted his request to render an account of his faith, composed a remarkable work which he read in the Senate.²

      2. Nevertheless, because of a decree in the senate, he was beheaded as a follower of Christ, on the basis of an old law which was in vogue among them that Christians who had once appeared before them for judgment could not be let off unless they abjured their faith.³...

    • XLIII. THEOPHILUS, ANOTHER BISHOP
      (pp. 68-68)

      Theophilus, bishop of Caesarea in Palestine,¹ formerly called the Tower of Strato,² in the reign of the emperor Severus,³ in conjunction with the other bishops wrote a very helpful synodal letter, Against Those who Celebrate the Pasch with the Jews on the Fourteenth Day of the Full Moon.⁴...

    • XLIV. BACCHYLUS THE BISHOP
      (pp. 68-69)

      Bacchylus, bishop of Corinth,¹ distinguished during the reign of the same Severus, wrote an elegant synodal treatise, On the Pasch,² in the name of all the other bishops of Achaia....

    • XLV. POLYCRATES THE BISHOP
      (pp. 69-70)

      Polycrates, bishop of Ephesus,¹ along with the other bishops of Asia Minor, who according to ancient usage celebrate the Pasch as do the Jews on the fourteenth of the moon,² wrote a synodal letter to Victor, bishop of Rome, in which he declared that he followed the authority of the apostle John and of the ancients.³ From this we have made these few excerpts:⁴

      2. “We therefore keep the precise day, neither adding nor taking away anything. For in Asia great luminaries have fallen asleep and they will rise on the day when the Lord will come in his majesty from...

    • XLVI. HERACLITUS
      (pp. 70-71)

      In the reign of Commodus and Severus,¹ Heraclitus² composed Commentaries on the Apostle [Paul].³...

    • XLVII. MAXIMUS
      (pp. 71-71)

      In the regin of the same emperors,¹ Maximus,² in a distinguished volume, aired a famous question: “What is the origin of evil and was matter made by God?”³...

    • XLVIII. CANDIDUS
      (pp. 71-72)

      In the regin of the above-mentioned emperors,¹ Candidus² published very fine treatises On the Hexaemeron.³...

    • XLIX. APION
      (pp. 72-72)

      In the regin of the emperor Severus,¹ Apion² likewise composed a treatise On the Hexaemeron.³...

    • L. SEXTUS
      (pp. 72-73)

      In the regin of the emperor Severus,¹ Sextus² wrote a volume, On the Resurrection.³...

    • LI. ARABIANUS
      (pp. 73-73)

      Under the same emperor, Arabianus¹ published certain works concerned with Christian doctrine....

    • LII. JUDAS
      (pp. 73-74)

      Judas¹ discoursed at great length On the Seventy Weeks in Daniel² and set out a $ \chi\rho o\nu o\gamma\rho\alpha\phi\acute\iota\alpha\nu $ , a Chronology,³ of past ages down to the tenth year of the reign of Severus.⁴

      2. In this he was guilty of error because he said that the coming of Anti-Christ would occur in his own time.⁵ But this was because the intensity of the persecutions⁶ made the threat of the end of the world seem imminent....

    • LIII. TERTULLIAN THE PRESBYTER
      (pp. 74-77)

      Now finally tertullian the presbyter¹ is ranked first of the Latin writers after Victor and Apollonius.² He was from the province of Africa, from the city of Carthage where his father was a proconsular centurion.³

      2. A man of impetuous temperament, he was in his prime in the reign of the emperor Severus and Antoninus Caracalla,⁴ and he wrote many works which I need not name⁵ since they are very widely known.

      3. At Concordia, a town in Italy, I saw an old man named Paul, who said that, when he was still a very young man, he had seen in Rome...

    • LIV. ORIGEN, SURNAMED ADAMANTIUS, THE PRESBYTER
      (pp. 77-81)

      Origen, surnamed adamantius,¹ as a result of a persecution raised against the Christians in the tenth year of Severus Pertinax,² in which his father Leonidas³ received the crown of martyrdom for Christ, was left at the age of about seventeen, with his six brothers and widowed mother, in poverty, for their property had been confiscated⁴ because of confessing Christ.

      2. When only eighteen years old, he undertook the work of conducting the $ \kappa\alpha\tau\eta\chi\acute\eta\sigma\epsilon\omega\nu $ , Catecheses,⁵ in the scattered church of Alexandria.⁶ Later, appointed by Demetrius, bishop of this city, as successor to the presbyter Clement,⁷ he flourished for many years.

      3. When...

    • LV. AMMONIUS
      (pp. 82-82)

      Ammonius,¹ a cultured man and very well educated in philosophy, was famous at Alexandria in the same period.²

      2. Among many illustrious products of his talent he composed a work On the Accord of Moses and Jesus³ and he also worked out Evangelical Canons⁴ which Eusebius of Caesarea⁵ later followed.

      3. Porphyry falsely accused him of turning away from Christianity to paganism,⁶ although it is well established that he remained a Christian to the end of his life....

    • LVI. AMBROSE THE DEACON
      (pp. 83-83)

      Ambrose,¹ at first a follower of Marcion, and then converted by Origen,² became a deacon of the church and attained great fame through his profession of faith in the Lord. The work of Origen, On Martyrdom, was dedicated to him, and to the priest, Protheochtistus,³ and through the zeal, financial support, and importunity of Ambrose, Origen was able to publish innumerable works.⁴

      2. And he himself was a noble man of no inconsiderable talent, as his letters to Origen indicate.⁵

      3. He died in the year prior to Origen’s death⁶ and in this regard he is faulted by many⁷ because, dying a...

    • LVII. TRYPHO, THE PUPIL OF ORIGEN
      (pp. 84-84)

      Trypho,¹ a disciple of Origen, to whom he directed some letters which are extant, was very expert in the Scriptures.² This is revealed in general in many of his works,³ but especially a work which he composed On the Red Heifer in Deuteronomy⁴ and On the animals cut in half, which in Genesis are placed by Abraham with the dove and the turtle.⁵...

    • LVIII. MINUCIUS FELIX
      (pp. 84-85)

      Minucius felix,¹ a distinguished advocate in Rome, wrote a dialogue, entitled Octavius,² in which a Christian holds a debate with a pagan.

      2. Another work that circulates under his name, On Fate, or Against the Mathematicians,³ although the work of a very learned man, does not seem to me to correspond in style with the work mentioned above.

      3. Lactantius also makes mention⁴ of this Minucius in his works....

    • LIX. GAIUS
      (pp. 85-86)

      In the time of Zephyrinus, bishop of the city of Rome, that is, in the reign of Antoninus, the son of Severus,¹ Gaius² conducted a very significant debate, Against Proclus,³ a follower of Montanus, accusing him of rashness respecting the defense of the new prophecy.⁴

      2. In the same volume he enumerates only thirteen epistles of Paul, asserting that the fourteenth, To the Hebrews, is not Paul’s.⁵ It is not regarded as belonging to the apostle Paul among the Romans down to the present day....

    • LX. BERYLLUS THE BISHOP
      (pp. 86-87)

      Beryllus, bishop of Bostra in Arabia,¹ after having ruled the church with distinction for some time, finally lapsed into a heresy which asserted that Christ did not exist before the Incarnation.² He was straightened out by Origen³ and wrote various treatises, especially a letter, in which he thanked Origen;⁴

      2. there is also a letter of Origen addressed to him.⁵ A dialogue of Origen and Beryllus survives⁶ in which the latter is accused of heresy.

      3. He was famous in the reigns both of Alexander, son of Mammaea,⁷ and of his successors as emperors, Maximinus and Gordianus.⁸...

    • LXI. HIPPOLYTUS THE BISHOP
      (pp. 87-90)

      Hippolytus,¹ bishop of a church in some city, the name of which I could not discover,² in the Date of the Pasch and the Determination of Times³ which he wrote, using the first year of the emperor, Alexander, as his terminus ad quem,⁴ established a canon of a cycle of sixteen years, which the Greeks call ἑ $ \kappa\kappa\alpha\iota\delta\epsilon\kappa\alpha\epsilon\tau\eta\rho\acute\iota\delta\alpha $ ,⁵ and gave the opportunity to Eusebius, who composed a cycle of nineteen years, that is, ἐ $ \nu\nu\epsilon\alpha\kappa\alpha\iota\delta\epsilon\kappa\alpha\epsilon\tau\eta\rho\acute\iota\delta\alpha $ ,⁶ for the same pasch.

      2. He wrote various commentaries on the Scriptures, of which I have found the following:⁷

      On the Hexaemeron,⁸

      On Exodus,

      On the...

    • LXII. ALEXANDER THE BISHOP
      (pp. 90-91)

      When alexander, bishop of Cappadocia,¹ went to Jerusalem because of a wish to visit the holy places, and when Narcissus, bishop of the same city,² already a very old man, was ruling the church, there was an apparition³ to Narcissus and to many of his clergy that on the morning of the next day a bishop would enter, who should become a coadjutor of the bishop’s chair.

      2. And so, when the facts turned out just as predicted, with all the bishops of Palestine assembled together, and with Narcissus in particular giving the fullest assent, Alexander jointly undertook with him the...

    • LXIII. JULIUS THE AFRICAN
      (pp. 91-92)

      Julius africanus,¹ whose Chronicles in five volumes² are extant, in the reign of the emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus, the successor of Macrinus,³ undertook an embassy for the restoration of the city of Emmaus, which was later called Nicopolis.⁴

      2. A letter, To Origen on the Question of Susanna⁵ is his, in which he says that this narrative is not found in the Hebrew text and that the expression ἀ $ \pi\grave o\ \tau o\stackrel\frown\upsilon\ \pi\rho\acute\iota\nu o\upsilon\ \pi\rho\acute\iota\sigma\alpha\iota\ \kappa\alpha\grave\iota $ $ a $ ⁶ does not agree with the Hebrew etymology. Origen wrote a learned letter in reply to him.⁷

      3. Another epistle of his, To Aristides, survives,⁸ in which he discusses at length...

    • LXIV. GEMINUS THE PRESBYTER
      (pp. 92-93)

      Geminus, a priest of the church of Antioch,¹ composed a few monuments to his genius, living in the reign of the emperor Alexander² with Zebennus, bishop of the city,³ at the precise time when Heraclas⁴ was ordained bishop of the church of Alexandria....

    • LXV. THEODORUS, SURNAMED GREGORY, THE BISHOP
      (pp. 93-94)

      Theodorus, later called Gregory,¹ bishop of Neocaesarea, in Pontus,² while still in his youth went along with his brother Athenodorus from Cappadocia to Berytus and from there to Caesarea in Palestine in order to study Greek and Latin literature.³

      2. When Origen saw their outstanding ability he exhorted them to study philosophy,⁴ into which, little by little, he introduced the Christian faith, and made them believers. Having pursued their studies in this way for five years,⁵ they were sent back by him to their mother.

      3. One of them, Theodore, when departing, wrote a Panegyric⁶ in thanksgiving to Origen, which he recited...

    • LXVI. CORNELIUS THE BISHOP
      (pp. 94-95)

      Cornelius, bishop of the city of rome,¹ to whom Cyprian directed eight letters still in existence,² wrote

      a letter To Fabius, bishop of the church of Antioch,

      [also] On the Synod of Rome, Italy, and Africa

      another one On Novatian and on Those Who Lapsed,

      a third, On the Acts of the synod,

      a fourth, To the same Fabius, very lengthy, and including the causes and the condemnation of the heresy of Novatian.

      2. He ruled the church for two years during the reign of Gallus and Volusianus,⁴ and he was crowned with martyrdom for Christ. He was succeeded by Lucius.⁵...

    • LXVII. CYPRIAN THE BISHOP
      (pp. 95-97)

      Cyprian,¹ a native of africa, at first taught rhetoric with distinction,² then, on the advice of Caecilius, a priest who gave him his surname,³ he became a Christian, gave over all his goods for the poor, and not long afterwards, having been attracted to the priesthood, was elected bishop of Carthage.⁴

      2. It is superfluous to compile an index of his scholarly output since his works are more illustrious than the sun.⁵

      3. He endured martyrdom during the eighth persecution in the reign of the emperors Valerian and Gallienus,⁶ on the same day, but not in the same year, as Cornelius at...

    • LXVIII. PONTIUS THE DEACON
      (pp. 98-98)

      Pontius, deacon of Cyprian, endured exile with him up to the day of his death,¹ and left an important volume, On the Life and Passion of Cyprian.²...

    • LXIX. DIONYSIUS THE BISHOP
      (pp. 98-101)

      Dionysius, bishop of the city of Alexandria,¹ as a presbyter directed the school of catechetics, $ \kappa\alpha\tau\eta\chi\acute\eta\sigma\epsilon\omega\nu $ ,² at the time of Heraclas,³ and was a most distinguished student of Origen.⁴

      2. In agreement with the teaching of Cyprian and of the synod of Africa on baptizing heretics,⁵ he sent to various recipients numerous letters, which survive down to the present day.

      3. In particular, he wrote To Fabius, bishop of the church of Antioch, On Penance;

      and To the Romans through Hippolytus another letter;⁷

      To Xystus, who had succeeded Stephen, two letters;⁸

      two letters To Philemon and To Dionysius,⁹ priests of the...

    • LXX. NOVATIAN THE HERESIARCH
      (pp. 102-103)

      Dovatian, a priest of the city of Rome,¹ having attempted to seize the episcopal see of Cornelius,² established the teachings of the Novatians, who in Greek are called Κ $ \alpha\theta\alpha\rho\stackrel\frown\omega\nu $ , or the “pure ones,”³ being unwilling to accept the apostates as penitents.⁴ His champion was Novatus, one of Cyprian’s priests.⁵

      2. He wrote On the Passover,

      On the Sabbath,

      On Circumcision,

      On the Priesthood,

      On Prayer,

      On Foods of the Jews,⁶

      On Zeal,

      On Attalus, and many other works⁷

      and a large volume, On the Trinity,⁸ making a sort of ἐ $ \pi\iota\tau o\mu\grave\eta\nu $ of the work of Tertullian, which many through ignorance...

    • LXXI. MALCHION THE PRESBYTER
      (pp. 103-104)

      Malchion, a most eloquent priest of the church of Antioch, a city in which he had taught rhetoric with great distinction,¹ held a disputation, with stenographers taking notes, against Paul of Samosata,² who as bishop of the church of Antioch had cultivated the teaching of Artemon.³ This dialog is extant to the present day.

      2. In addition, another great epistle, written by him in the name of a synod, was addressed, To Dionysius and Maximus,⁴ bishops of Rome and of the church of Alexandria.

      3. He lived in the reign of Claudius and Aurelian.⁵...

    • LXXII. ARCHELAUS THE BISHOP
      (pp. 104-104)

      Archelaus, bishop of Mesopotamia,¹ composed a work in Syriac concerning the debate which he had against Mani,² who came from Persia. This work, in a Greek translation,³ is in the possession of many.

      2. He was well known under the emperor Probus, who was the successor of Aurelian and Tacitus.⁴...

    • LXXIII. ANATOLIUS THE BISHOP
      (pp. 105-105)

      Anatolius of alexandria, bishop of Laodicea in Syria,¹ lived in the reign of the emperors Probus and Carus.² He was a man of prodigious learning in arithmetic, geometry, astronomy, grammar, rhetoric, and dialectic.³

      2. We can understand the greatness of his talent from a volume which he composed, On the Pasch,⁴

      and from ten books, An Introduction to Arithmetic.⁵...

    • LXXIV. VICTORINUS THE BISHOP
      (pp. 105-106)

      Victorinus, bishop of Poetovio,¹ did not know Latin as well as he did Greek;² as a result, his works, which are excellent in content, seem inferior in composition.³

      2. His works are:

      Commentaries On Genesis,⁴

      On Exodus,

      On Leviticus,

      On Isaiah,

      On Ezekiel,

      On Habakkuk,

      On Ecclesiastes,

      On the Canticle of Canticles,

      On the Apocalypse of John,⁵

      Against Heresies,⁶

      and numerous others.⁷

      3. At the end he received the crown of martyrdom.⁸...

    • LXXV. PAMPHILUS THE PRESBYTER
      (pp. 107-108)

      Pamphilus, a priest,¹ a close friend of Eusebius, bishop of Caesarea,² was on fire with such love for the sacred library,³ that he copied with his own hand the greatest part of the volumes of Origen⁴ which are contained to this very day in the library of Caesarea.

      2. But I have discovered, written by his own hand, twenty-five volumes of the Commentaries of Origen On the Twelve Prophets,⁵ which I embrace and hold on to with such joy that I believe I am in possession of the riches of Croesus.

      3. If it is a joy to possess one letter of...

    • LXXVI. PIERIUS THE PRESBYTER
      (pp. 108-109)

      Pierius, a priest of the church of Alexandria,¹ in the reign of the emperors Carus and Diocletian,² at the same time when Theonas³ was bishop of Alexandria, instructed the faithful with great success and reached such a pitch of eloquence in different treatises of his which survive to the present day that he was called Origen Junior.⁵

      2. It is well known that he was a practitioner of extreme asceticism and voluntary poverty and was most knowledgeable in the art of dialectic,⁵ and after the persecution spent the rest of his life in Rome.⁶

      3. There is in existence a very long...

    • LXXVII. LUCIAN THE PRESBYTER
      (pp. 109-109)

      Lucian, a very cultivated man, a priest of the church of Antioch,¹ so applied himself to the study of the Scriptures that down to this day some of the copies of the Scriptures are called after him.²

      2. Works On Faith³ are ascribed to him, and short epistles to various recipients.

      3. For confessing Christ, he was put to death in Nicomedia during the persecution of Maximinus⁴ and was buried at Helenopolis in Bithynia....

    • LXXVIII. PHILEAS THE BISHOP
      (pp. 110-110)

      Phileas, from the egyptian city called Thmuis,¹ a man of noble family and not inconsiderable means, after becoming bishop, composed a most elegant book, In Praise of Martyrs,² and, after a debate against the judge who compelled him to offer sacrifice,³ he was beheaded for Christ by the same instigator of persecution in Egypt⁴ as was Lucian in Nicomedia.⁵...

    • LXXIX. ARNOBIUS THE RHETORICIAN
      (pp. 110-111)

      Arnobius,¹ in the reign of the emperor Diocletian,² taught rhetoric with great success in Sicca, Africa, and wrote volumes Against the Pagans³ which enjoy wide circulation....

    • LXXX. FIRMIANUS THE RHETORICIAN, SURNAMED LACTANTIUS
      (pp. 111-113)

      Firmianus, also called Lactantius,¹ a disciple of Arnobius, summoned to Nicomedia under Diocletian, along with the grammarian Flavius,² whose verse compositions On Medicinal Matters are extant, taught rhetoric there; but because of the scarcity of pupils, in that it was a Greek city, he switched to writing.

      2. We have surviving his Symposium,³ which he wrote as a young man in Africa;

      an Ὁ $ \delta o\iota\pi o\rho\iota\kappa\acute o\nu $ , Travel Guide,⁴ from Africa to Nicomedia, composed in hexameters;

      another book entitled, The Grammarian;

      another fine work, On the Anger of God;

      seven books, Divine Institutes against the Pagans;

      and an Ἐ $ \pi\iota\tau o\mu\acute\eta\nu $ , Epitome,⁸ of the...

    • LXXXI. EUSEBIUS THE BISHOP
      (pp. 113-115)

      Eusebius, bishop of Caesarea in Palestine,¹ extremely industrious in the study of the Sacred Scriptures,² and, with Pamphilus the martyr a diligent researcher of the sacred library,³ published numerous works, including the following:

      2. Εὐ $ \alpha\gamma\gamma\epsilon\lambda\iota\kappa\stackrel\frown\eta\varsigma $ $ \pi o\delta\epsilon\acute\iota\xi\epsilon\omega\varsigma $ , Demonstratio evangelica,⁴ twenty books;

      Εὐ $ \alpha\gamma\gamma\epsilon\lambda\iota\kappa\stackrel\frown\eta\varsigma\ \pi\rho o\pi\alpha\rho\alpha\sigma\kappa\epsilon\upsilon\stackrel\frown\eta\varsigma $ , Praeparatio evangelica,⁵ fifteen books;

      Θ $ \epsilon o\phi\alpha\nu\epsilon\acute\iota\alpha\varsigma $ , Theophany,⁶ five books;

      Ecclesiastical History,⁷ ten books;

      Universal History of Chronological Tables,⁸ and an Ἐ $ \pi\iota\tau o\mu\acute\eta $ , Epitome⁹ of these;

      On the...

    • LXXXII. RETICIUS THE BISHOP
      (pp. 115-116)

      Reticius, bishop of the Aedui, or more precisely of Autun,¹ was held in great esteem in Gaul in the reign of Constantine.²

      2. His Commentaries on the Song of Songs are still read;³ also another fine work, Against Novatian.⁴

      Apart from these, I have found no other works of his.⁵...

    • LXXXIII. METHODIUS THE BISHOP
      (pp. 116-117)

      Methodius, bishop of Olympus in Lycia,¹ and later of Tyre, in a limpid and elegant style composed works, Against Porphyry² and

      The Symposium of the Ten Virgins;³

      an important work, On the Resurrection⁴ against Origen,

      and another against the same author, On the Pythoness;

      a work, On Freewill;

      also a Commentary on Genesis;

      one On the Song of Songs,⁸ and many other works⁹ which are read eagerly by a wide public.

      2. Toward the end of the last persecution, or, as others assert, under Decius and Valerian, he received the crown of martyrdom in Chalcis in Greece.10...

    • LXXXIV. JUVENCUS THE PRESBYTER
      (pp. 117-118)

      Juvencus, a spaniard¹ of very noble family, and a priest, translating into hexameter verse almost word for word the four Gospels,² published them in four volumes; also some other works in the same meter regarding the order of rites.

      2. He lived in the reign of the emperor Constantine....

    • LXXXV. EUSTATHIUS THE BISHOP
      (pp. 118-119)

      Eustathius, who came from Side in Pamphylia,¹ first ruled a church of Beroea in Syria,² and then that of Antioch,³ and having composed many works against the teaching of the Arians,⁴ was, in the reign of Constantine, driven into exile to Trajanopolis, in Thrace,⁵ where he remains buried down to the present day.

      2. Works of his that survive are On the Soul,⁶

      On the Witch of Endor against Origen,⁷

      and countless epistles, which it would take too long to list in detail....

    • LXXXVI. MARCELLUS THE BISHOP
      (pp. 119-120)

      Marcellus, bishop of ancyra,¹ lived in the reign of the emperors Constantine and Constantius,² and wrote many works on different subjects, and especially Against the Arians

      2. The books of Asterius⁴ and Apollinaris against him are cited, accusing him of the heresy of Sabellius,⁵ and Hilary also, in the seventh book of his Against the Arians⁶ mentions his name as that of a heretic.

      3. However, he maintained that he did not hold the doctrine of which he was accused, but belonged to the community of Julius and Athanasius, bishops of the cities of Rome and Alexandria.⁷...

    • LXXXVII. ATHANASIUS THE BISHOP
      (pp. 120-121)

      Athanasius, bishop of the city of Alexandria,¹ having endured many sufferings as a result of the intrigues of the Arians,² sought refuge with Constans, the governor of Gaul, from where he returned with a letter of commendation,³ and again, after the death of Constans, he was put to flight and stayed in hiding until the reign of Jovian, who restored him to his church;⁴ and he died under Valens.⁵

      2. Two books of his, Against the Pagans,⁶ are known;

      and one, Against Valens and Ursacius;

      a work, On Virginity;

      and many On the Persecutions of the Arians;

      On the Titles of...

    • LXXXVIII. ANTONY THE MONK
      (pp. 122-122)

      Antony, the hermit¹ of whom Athanasius, bishop of Alexandria, composed a Life² in an excellent volume, sent seven letters³ of apostolic sense and preaching in Coptic to various monasteries, which have been translated into Greek, the chief one of which is addressed, To the Monks of Arsinoe.

      2. He lived in the reign of Constantine and his sons.⁴...

    • LXXXIX. BASIL THE BISHOP
      (pp. 122-123)

      Basil, bishop of Ancyra, by profession a physician,¹ wrote

      Against Marcellus² and

      On Virginity³ and some other works.

      In the reign of Constantius he was, together with Eustathius of Sebaste, the leader of the party of the Macedonians.⁴...

    • XC. THEODORUS THE BISHOP
      (pp. 123-124)

      Theodorus, bishop of Heraclea in Thrace¹ during the reign of the emperor Constantius,² published

      Commentaries on Matthew

      On John,⁴

      On the Apostle [Paul],⁵

      and On the Psalter,⁶ in an elegant and precise style that followed mainly the literal interpretation....

    • XCI. EUSEBIUS, ANOTHER BISHOP
      (pp. 124-125)

      Eusebius of emesa,¹ who had a fine rhetorical talent, composed innumerable works suited to elicit popular approval; and his historical writings, following more a literal exegesis, are most eagerly read by those who practice public speaking.²

      2. Among these the chief are,

      Against the Jews, Gentiles, and Novatians

      On the Epistle to the Galatians,⁴ ten books;

      and brief but numerous Homilies on the Gospels.⁵

      3. He lived in the times of the emperor Constantius and died during his reign and was buried at Antioch.⁶...

    • XCII. TRIPHYLIUS THE BISHOP
      (pp. 125-125)

      Triphylius, bishop of Ledra, or Leucosia,¹ in Cyprus, was the most eloquent man of his time and enjoyed the most widespread fame during the reign of the emperor Constantius. I have read his Commentaries on the Song of Songs.² And he is said to have composed many other works which have not at all come into our hands....

    • XCIII. DONATUS THE HERESIARCH
      (pp. 125-126)

      Donatus, from whom the Donatists throughout Africa¹ got their name, during the reigns of the emperors, Constantine and Constantius,² asserting that the Scriptures were handed over to the pagans by our fellow Christians during the persecution,³ deceived almost the whole of Africa, and particularly Numidia,⁴ by his persuasiveness.⁵

      2. Many of his works pertaining to his heresy are extant, also a volume, On the Holy Spirit, which is in accord with Arian teaching....

    • XCIV. ASTERIUS THE PHILOSOPHER
      (pp. 127-127)

      Asterius, a philosopher of the Arian sect,¹ in the reign of Constantius,² wrote commentaries On the Epistle to the Romans,

      On the Gospels

      and On the Psalms,⁴

      and many other works⁵ which are studiously read by those who belong to his sect....

    • XCV. LUCIFER THE BISHOP
      (pp. 127-128)

      Lucifer, bishop of Cagliari,¹ who had been sent, with Pancratius and Hilarion, clerics of the church of Rome, as a delegation in defense of the faith, by Bishop Liberius² to the emperor Constantius,³ was exiled to Palestine⁴ because he refused to deny the Nicene faith, under the name of Athanasius;

      2. showing marvelous constancy and a spirit ready for martyrdom, he wrote a work Against Constantius the Emperor and sent it to him to read,⁵ and not much later he returned in the time of the emperor Julian, and died in Cagliari in the reign of Valentinianus.⁶...

    • XCVI. EUSEBIUS, ANOTHER BISHOP
      (pp. 128-129)

      Eusebius, whose place of origin was Sardinia, was a lector in the city of Rome. He was bishop of Vercelli.¹ He was exiled for his profession of faith to Scythopolis and from there to Cappadocia by the emperor Constantius.²

      2. In the reign of the emperor Julian he was restored³ to his church and published Commentaries on the Psalms of Eusebius of Caesarea⁴ which he had translated from Greek into Latin. He died in the reign of Valentinianus and Valens.⁵...

    • XCVII. FORTUNATIANUS THE BISHOP
      (pp. 129-130)

      Fortunatianus, an african by origin,¹ and bishop of Aquileia in the reign of the emperor Constantius,² wrote Commentaries on the Gospels,³ divided in sections⁴ in a concise and inelegant style;

      2. and for this he is held in disdain because at first he solicited Liberius, bishop of the city of Rome, to go into exile for the faith,⁵ then broke his word and induced him...

    • XCVIII. ACACIUS THE BISHOP
      (pp. 130-131)

      Acacius,¹ whom, because he was blind in one eye they nicknamed “the one-eyed,” bishop of the church of Caesarea in Palestine,² composed seventeen volumes On Ecclesiastes

      and six, $ \Sigma\upsilon\mu\mu\acute\iota\kappa\tau\omega\nu\ \zeta\eta\tau\eta\mu\acute\alpha\tau\omega\nu $ , On Miscellaneous Questions,⁴ and many treatises besides on various subjects.⁵

      2. He was so influential in the reign of the emperor Constantius⁶ that he made Felix bishop of Rome in place of Liberius.⁷...

    • XCIX. SERAPION THE BISHOP
      (pp. 131-132)

      Serapion, bishop of Thmuis,¹ who because of his great learning earned the surname Scholasticus,² was a friend of Antony³ the hermit and published an important work, Against Mani;⁴

      another, On the titles of the Psalms;⁵

      and valuable letters to various recipients.⁶

      And he became celebrated for his profession [of the faith] in the reign of the emperor Constantius.⁷...

    • C. HILARY THE BISHOP
      (pp. 132-134)

      Hilary, bishop of the city of Poitiers,¹ [in the province] of Aquitaine, was exiled to Phrygia as a result of a synod in Béziers, by a faction of Saturninus,² bishop of Arles.

      2. He composed twelve books, Against the Arians;³

      another book, On Synods,⁴ which he addressed to the bishops of Gaul;

      also Commentaries on the Psalms, Books One and Two: Book One, On Psalms 51 to 62; and [Book Two], On Psalms 118 to the end.⁵ In this work he imitated Origen and added not a few things of his own.

      3. Also belonging to him is a little work, To,...

    • CI. VICTORINUS THE RHETORICIAN
      (pp. 135-136)

      Marius victorinus, an African¹ by birth, taught rhetoric at Rome in the reign of the emperor Constantius,² and in extreme old age converted to the Christian faith³ and wrote books Against the Arians,⁴ extremely obscure and written in a dialectical style, which only experts understand,⁵ also, Commentaries on the Apostle [Paul].⁶...

    • CII. TITUS THE BISHOP
      (pp. 136-136)

      In the reign of the emperors Julian and Jovian,¹ Titus, bishop of Bostra,² wrote [two] spirited works Against the Manicheans³ and some others.⁴

      2. He died during the reign of Valens⁵...

    • CIII. DAMASUS THE BISHOP
      (pp. 137-137)

      Damasus, bishop of the city of Rome,¹ had a splendid talent for composing verses² and published many short compositions in hexameters.³

      He was close to eighty years old when he died, during the reign of the emperor Theodosius.⁴...

    • CIV. APOLLINARIS THE BISHOP
      (pp. 138-139)

      Apollinaris, bishop of Laodicea in Syria,¹ son of a priest,² in his youth devoted himself chiefly to the study of grammar, but later turned to the Sacred Scriptures,³ writing innumerable volumes.⁴

      He died in the reign of Theodosius.⁵

      2. Thirty volumes of his entitled, Against Porphyry, are extant,⁶ which are particularly appreciated among his other works....

    • CV. GREGORY THE BISHOP [OF ELVIRA]
      (pp. 139-139)

      Gregory, a native of Baetica in Spain,¹ was bishop of Elvira² and up to extreme old age composed different tracts in a middle style³

      and an elegant composition On Faith.⁴

      He is said to be still alive.⁵...

    • CVI. PACIAN THE BISHOP
      (pp. 140-140)

      Pacian, bishop of Barcelona¹ in the Pyrenean mountains, a man of sober eloquence, and distinguished both for his mode of conduct and for his speech, wrote various works, including

      Cervus² and

      Against the Novatians,³ and died in extreme old age in the reign of the emperor Theodosius.⁴...

    • CVII. PHOTINUS THE HERESIARCH
      (pp. 140-141)

      Photinus, a native of Galatia,¹ a disciple of Marcellus² and ordained bishop of Sirmium,³ endeavored to revive the Ebionite⁴ heresy and, after he was expelled from his church by the emperor Valentinianus, wrote numerous volumes, among which the most significant are his books, Against the Pagans and To Valentinianus....

    • CVIII. PHOEBADIUS THE BISHOP
      (pp. 141-141)

      Phoebadius, bishop of Agen in Gaul,¹ published a volume, Against the Arians.² Other works of his are said to exist which I have not read.

      2. He survives in extreme old age to the present day.³...

    • CIX. DIDYMUS THE BLIND
      (pp. 142-144)

      Didymus of alexandria,¹ while still quite young, became blind² and as a result never learned the alphabet. He presented to all an extraordinary proof of his talent by acquiring complete mastery of dialectic and geometry, which particularly needs³ the sense of sight.

      2. He wrote very many distinguished works:

      Commentaries on all the Psalms;

      Commentaries on the Gospels of Matthew and John;

      two books, On Dogma and Against the Arians;

      one book, On the Holy Spirit,⁷ which I have translated into Latin;

      eighteen books, On Isaiah;

      three books of Commentaries on Hosea,⁹ dedicated to me;10

      five books, On Zechariah,11 at my...

    • CX. OPTATUS THE BISHOP
      (pp. 144-145)

      Optatus, an african, bishop of Milevis,¹ on the Catholic side,² under the emperors Valentinianus and Valens,³ wrote six books against the calumny of the Donatist party,⁴ in which he asserted that the accusation against the Donatists had been falsely turned against our side.⁵...

    • CXI. ACILIUS SEVERUS THE SENATOR
      (pp. 145-145)

      Acilius severus, of spanish Origin, and from the well-known family of Severus to whom Lactantius directed two books of letters, wrote compositions in prose and verse, a sort of Ὁ $ \delta o\iota\pi o\rho\iota\kappa\acute o\nu $ , an itinerary,¹ a work containing the whole course of his life which he called Κ $ \alpha\tau\alpha\sigma\tau\rho o\phi\acute\eta\nu $ or $ \Pi\epsilon\stackrel\frown\iota\rho\alpha\nu $

      He died in the reign of the emperor Valentinianus.³...

    • CXII. CYRIL THE BISHOP
      (pp. 146-147)

      Cyril, bishop of Jerusalem,¹ many times excommunicated from his church² but finally reinstated under the emperor Theodosius,³ held the episcopacy uninterruptedly for eight years.⁴

      2. His Κ $ \alpha\tau\eta\chi\acute\eta\sigma\epsilon\iota\varsigma $ , Catecheses,⁵ which he composed in his youth, are still extant....

    • CXIII. EUZOIUS THE BISHOP
      (pp. 147-147)

      Euzoius¹ as a young man was educated at Caesarea at the school of the rhetor Thespesius,² and had Gregory of Nazianzus, a bishop,³ as a fellow student. He later became bishop of the same city of Caesarea, after great endeavors to preserve the holdings of the library of Origen and Pamphilus⁴ which had greatly deteriorated. Finally he was excommunicated from the church in the reign of the emperor Theodosius.⁵

      2. Diverse and numerous works of his⁶ are in circulation and it is very easy to get to know them....

    • CXIV. EPIPHANIUS THE BISHOP
      (pp. 148-148)

      Epiphanius, bishop of Salamis in Cyprus, wrote Against All Heresies¹ and many other works² which are eagerly read by the more learned for their content and by the less sophisticated for their literary form.³

      2. He is alive at the present day and even in extreme old age is still publishing various works.⁴...

    • CXV. EPHREM THE DEACON
      (pp. 149-149)

      Ephrem, deacon of the church of Edessa,¹ composed many works in Syriac² and came to enjoy such prestige that his works are read publicly after the Scripture readings in some churches.³

      2. I read in Greek his work, On the Holy Spirit,⁴ which he had translated from the Syriac, and even in translation⁵ I could recognize the acuteness of his sublime genius.

      3. He died in the reign of the emperor Valens.⁶...

    • CXVI. BASIL, ANOTHER BISHOP
      (pp. 150-150)

      Basil, bishop of Caesarea in Cappadocia,¹ which was formerly called Mazaca, composed excellent works: Against Eunomius;²

      a work, On the Holy Spirit;³

      nine Homilies on the Hexameron;

      an Ἀ $ \sigma\kappa\eta\tau\iota\kappa\acute o\nu $ ;⁵ and other various short works.⁶

      2. He died in the reign of the emperor Gratian.⁷...

    • CXVII. GREGORY, ANOTHER BISHOP
      (pp. 151-153)

      Gregory of Nazianzus, a bishop, a man of outstanding eloquence,¹ was my teacher, and I learned the Scriptures at his school.² He composed all his works in about thirty thousand verses³ and they include the following:

      2. On the death of his brother, Caesarius;

      $ \Pi\epsilon\rho\grave\iota\ \phi\iota\lambda o\pi\tau\omega\chi\acute\iota\alpha\varsigma $ , On the Love of Poverty;

      In Praise of the Maccabees;

      In Praise of Cyprian;

      The Praises of Athanasius;

      The Praises of Maximus the Philosopher upon his return from exile, to whom some gave the pseudonym Hero,⁹

      because there is another satirical book by the same Maximus, as if it were not permissible to praise and...

    • CXVIII. LUCIUS THE BISHOP
      (pp. 153-154)

      Lucius, a bishop of the Arian party, governed the church of Alexandria after Athanasius,¹ until Theodosius, after he became emperor, expelled him.²

      2. His annual letters, On the Pasch,³ survive, and a few treatises of ὑ $ \pi o\theta\acute\epsilon\sigma\epsilon\omega\nu $ ,⁴ various subjects....

    • CXIX. DIODORE THE BISHOP
      (pp. 154-154)

      Diodore, bishop of Tarsus,¹ while still a priest at Antioch achieved great fame. Works of his that are extant include his Commentaries on the Apostle Paul² and many others,³ which reflect the method of Eusebius of Emesa,⁴ for, while he followed his meaning, he could not imitate his style because he had no knowledge of secular literature.⁵...

    • CXX. EUNOMIUS THE HERESIARCH
      (pp. 155-155)

      Eunomius, bishop of the Arian faction in Cyzicus,¹ lapsed into such open blasphemy in his own heresy as to proclaim in public what the others were covering up. He is said to live still² in Cappadocia and to write many works³ against the Church.

      2. Responses to him have been produced by Apollinaris, Didymus, Basil of Caesarea, Gregory Nazianzus, and Gregory of Nyssa.⁴...

    • CXXI. PRISCILLIAN THE BISHOP
      (pp. 156-156)

      Priscillian, bishop of Avila,¹ who, at the instigation of the faction of Hydatius and Ithacius, was killed at Trier by Maximus² the tyrant, published many works, some of which survive to the present day.³

      2. To this day he is accused by some of being a follower of the heresy of Gnosticism, that is, of Basilides and Marcion, about whom Irenaeus wrote,⁴ although others defend him as not sharing the views that are ascribed to him.⁵...

    • CXXII. LATRONIANUS
      (pp. 157-157)

      Latronianus, who originated from the province of Spain,¹ was a man of great learning and worthy to be compared with the ancients as a composer in verse. He, too, was put to death at Trier, along with Priscillian, Felicissimus, Julian, and Euchrotia, authors of the same faction.

      2. Works of this talented man survive, published in a variety of meters.²...

    • CXXIII. TIBERIANUS
      (pp. 157-158)

      Tiberianus from baetica [in Spain],¹ to dispel a suspicion which associated him with the heresy of Priscillian,² wrote an Apology in a turgid and well-ordered style;³ but, after the murder of his followers, he got tired of his life in exile, weakened in his resolution and, to use the words of Holy Scripture, “like a dog, returned to his vomit,”⁴ and entered into a matrimonial union with his daughter, who was a virgin consecrated to Christ....

    • CXXIV. AMBROSE THE BISHOP
      (pp. 158-159)

      Ambrose, bishop of Milan,¹ continues writing down to the present day.² Concerning him I postpone judgment in that he is still alive³ lest I get blamed for flattery, on the one hand, or, on the other, for telling the truth.⁴...

    • CXXV. EVAGRIUS THE BISHOP
      (pp. 159-160)

      Evagrius, bishop of Antioch,¹ a man of keen and extraordinary intelligence, while still a priest read to me tractates on diverse ὑ $ \pi o\theta\acute\epsilon\sigma\epsilon\omega\nu $ , subjects, which he had not yet published,² and he translated, from Greek to Latin, Athanasius’s Life of Blessed Antony.³...

    • CXXVI. AMBROSE, THE DISCIPLE OF DIDYMUS
      (pp. 160-160)

      Ambrose of alexandria,¹ a disciple of Didymus,² wrote a long, drawn-out work against Apollinaris, On Dogmas, and also Commentaries on Job, as someone told me lately. He is still alive....

    • CXXVII. MAXIMUS, AT FIRST PHILOSOPHER, THEN BISHOP
      (pp. 160-161)

      Maximus the philosopher, born in Alexandria,¹ was ordained bishop of Constantinople,² and then exiled.³ He wrote a distinguished volume against the Arians, entitled De fide,⁴ which he presented to the emperor Gratian in Milan.⁵...

    • CXXVIII. Another Gregory, also a bishop
      (pp. 161-162)

      Gregory, bishop of Nyssa,¹ brother of Basil of Caesarea,² a few years ago read to me and to Gregory of Nazianzus³ his books, Against Eunomius,⁴ and he is said to have written and to continue writing many other works.⁵...

    • CXXIX. JOHN THE PRESBYTER
      (pp. 162-163)

      John, a priest of the church of Antioch,¹ a disciple of Eusebius of Emesa² and of Diodore,³ is said to have composed many works; the only one of which I have read is $ \Pi\epsilon\rho\grave\iota $ $ \iota\epsilon\rho\omega\sigma\acute\upsilon\nu\eta\varsigma $ , On the Priesthood.⁴...

    • CXXX. GELASIUS THE BISHOP
      (pp. 163-164)

      Gelasius,¹ who succeeded Euzoius as bishop of Caesarea in Palestine,² is said to have composed certain works in an accurate and precise style,³ but refrained from publishing them.⁴...

    • CXXXI. THEOTIMUS THE BISHOP
      (pp. 164-165)

      Theotimus, bishop of Tomi in Scythia, has published short treatises in the form of dialogues¹ and in the old style of incisi

      I hear that he has composed other works besides....

    • CXXXII. DEXTER, SON OF PACIAN, NOW PRAETORIAN PREFECT
      (pp. 165-165)

      Dexter, son of pacian,¹ of whom we have already spoken, a man of social distinction and a devotee of the Christian faith,² is said to have composed a Universal History³ dedicated to me, which I have not yet read....

    • CXXXIII. AMPHILOCHIUS THE BISHOP
      (pp. 165-166)

      Amphilochius, bishop of Iconium, lately read to me a book, On the Holy Spirit,¹ arguing that He is God and that He is to be worshipped, and that He is omnipotent.²...

    • CXXXIV. SOPHRONIUS
      (pp. 166-166)

      Sophronius, an extremely learned man while still a youth, composed Praises of Bethlehem¹ and, more recently, a distinguished volume, On the Destruction of Serapis.

      2. Besides, he has translated into most elegant Greek a work of my own, To Eustochium, On Virginity

      and the Life of Hilarion, the monk,³

      also, the Psalter and the Prophets, which have been translated by me from the Hebrew into Latin....

    • CXXXV. JEROME THE PRESBYTER
      (pp. 167-172)

      Jerome, son of eusebius,¹ born in the town of Stridon which, overrun by the Goths, was once a border town between Dalmatia and Pannonia,² up to the present year, that is, the fourteenth year of the reign of Theodosius,³ has written the following works:⁴

      2. The Life of Paul the Monk;

      Letters to Various Recipients, one book;⁶

      A Letter of consolation to Heliodorus;

      The Disputation between a follower of Lucifer and an Orthodox;

      The Chronicle of Universal History;

      twenty-eight Homilies of Origen on Jeremiah and Ezekiel,10 which I have translated from Greek into Latin;

      On the Seraphim;11

      On the Hosanna;12

      On...

  8. APPENDICES
    • APPENDIX 1. JEROME’S BIBLIOGRAPHY OF ORIGEN
      (pp. 175-177)
    • APPENDIX 2. WRITINGS OF TERTULLIAN “Scripsit multa volumina” (DVI 53)
      (pp. 178-184)
    • APPENDIX 3. WRITINGS OF CYPRIAN “Huius ingenii superfluum est indicem texere” (DVI 67)
      (pp. 185-186)
    • APPENDIX 4. WORKS OF AMBROSE OF MILAN “De quo, quia superest, meum iudicium subtraham” (DVI 124)
      (pp. 187-189)
    • APPENDIX 5. THE CHRONOLOGICAL FRAMEWORK
      (pp. 190-192)
    • APPENDIX 6. VIRI ILLUSTRES (alphabetically arranged)
      (pp. 193-196)
  9. INDICES
    • INDEX OF PROPER NAMES (in Introduction and Jerome’s Text)
      (pp. 197-201)
    • INDEX OF GREEK TERMS (Chapter and paragraph numbers refer to text of DVI.)
      (pp. 202-203)
    • INDICES TO THE FATHERS OF THE CHURCH SERIES, VOLUMES 1–100, AND TO THE MEDIAEVAL CONTINUATION, VOLUMES 1–5 Listed Alphabetically by Author
      (pp. 204-211)
  10. Back Matter
    (pp. 212-212)