The Mangrove Ecosystem of Deep Bay and the Mai Po Marshes, Hong Kong

The Mangrove Ecosystem of Deep Bay and the Mai Po Marshes, Hong Kong

Edited by Shing-Yip Lee
Copyright Date: 1999
Pages: 200
https://www.jstor.org/stable/j.ctt2jbxv0
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  • Book Info
    The Mangrove Ecosystem of Deep Bay and the Mai Po Marshes, Hong Kong
    Book Description:

    This volume comprises original research papers reporting findings collected by participants of the International Workshop on the Mangrove Ecosystem of Deep Bay and the Mai Po Marshes, jointly organized by the University of Hong Kong and World Wide Fund for Nature Hong Kong and held at the Mai Po Marshes in September 1993. The papers cover a wide range of topics relevant to the future conservation and management of the threatened ecosystem, ranging from the flora and fauna of the mangrove forests and inner Deep Bay to pollution levels in the biota.

    eISBN: 978-988-220-214-6
    Subjects: Biological Sciences

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. I-IV)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. V-VI)
  3. PREFACE
    (pp. VII-X)
    Shing-Yip Lee
  4. Section I: Flora and Fauna
    • THE SPECIES COMPOSITION OF PENAEID PRAWNS IN THE NORTH-WESTERN WATERS OF HONG KONG
      (pp. 3-12)
      S.F. Leung

      Penaeid prawns are economically important species. Many areas in Hong Kong’s inshore waters were important prawn fishing grounds in the 1950s and 1960s. A territory-wide survey on the distribution and species composition of penaeid prawns in Hong Kong waters conducted between 1957–1959 found that there was a rich penaeid community comprising a total of 26 species in Hong Kong waters (Cheung 1959). Since then, the increasing pressure of urbanization and conurbation has increased dramatically the levels of domestic sewage and industrial waste that are discharged into the coastal waters of Hong Kong. Recent extensive reclamation, marine dredging and spoil...

    • COMPOSITION, STRUCTURE AND DISTRIBUTION OF POLYCHAETE ASSEMBLAGES IN DEEP BAY, HONG KONG
      (pp. 13-22)
      Jian-Wen Qiu

      Deep Bay is a mangrove-fringed, semi-enclosed embayment situated at the border between northwestern Hong Kong and China (Fig. 1). Although a number of landward mangrove species have been displaced by reclamation and fish-pond conversion, the large area, which is still occupied by six main mangrove plant species plus a diversity of mudflat animals and over 340 species of birds, makes it a very important wildlife habitat in this region (WWF Hong Kong 1998). Recognizing the conservation value of this mangrove ecosystem, the Hong Kong and China governments have established the Mai Po Marshes Wildlife Education Centre and Nature Reserve and...

    • DISTRIBUTION OF SHRIMP AND FISH ASSOCIATED WITH THE MANGROVE FOREST OF MAI PO MARSHES NATURE RESERVE, HONG KONG
      (pp. 23-32)
      D.J. Vance

      Mangrove forests are regarded as being important nursery areas for many species of fish and shrimp. Robertson and Blaber (1992) listed studies which have shown that juveniles of many penaeid shrimp species are caught in mangrove habitats. However, although the broad association between juvenile shrimp and mangroves is well known, most sampling has been carried out in rivers and creeks adjacent to mangroves and little is known about the use of the mangrove forests by juvenile shrimp. For example, in Australia, sampling with trap nets set in gutters draining mangrove forests (Robertson 1988) and with trawls adjacent to the mangrove...

    • A SURVEY OF MUDFLAT GASTROPODS IN DEEP BAY, HONG KONG
      (pp. 33-44)
      M.W. Cha

      The intertidal mudflat of Deep Bay is an important feeding habitat for migratory waterfowl passing through Hong Kong along the East Asian / Australasian flyway and for wintering birds (Young & Melville 1993). More than 68,000 individuals of waterfowl have been recorded utilising different parts of Deep Bay in a census conducted in January 1996 (Hong Kong Bird Watching Society 1997). With the rapid development of the northwest New Territories in Hong Kong and Shenzhen Special Economic Zone in China, pollution is now, however, considered a serious threat to Deep Bay. The biochemical oxygen demand (BOD₅) loadings entering Deep Bay...

    • COMPOSITION AND ZONATION OF BENTHIC MACROFAUNA IN THE MAI PO MARSHES MANGROVE FOREST
      (pp. 45-56)
      C. Anderson and S. McChesney

      The marginal, ‘open-system’ character of mangrove forests is reflected in their faunal assemblage, which typically contains pre-adapted, intertidal species, as well as species with characteristics more representative of marine or terrestrial systems (Macnae 1968, Odum et al. 1982). Tidal inundation, which allows flux of species and matter between the mangrove forest and surrounding systems, restricts utilisation of the forest by marine and terrestrial species, both temporally (e.g. fish are only able to utilise mangrove resources for food or shelter at high tide; Morton 1990) and spatially (e.g. mangrove folivorous caterpillars do not occur on leaves below the high water mark;...

    • THE BRACHYURAN FAUNA OF THE MAI PO MARSHES NATURE RESERVE AND DEEP BAY, HONG KONG
      (pp. 57-82)
      S.Y. Lee and V. Leung

      Situated at about 300 km south of the Tropic of Cancer, Hong Kong (22°N 114°E) has a generally diverse fauna with species of both tropical and temperate origins present in the territory. This high diversity is well exemplified by Brachyura, as a rough estimate suggests an overall species richness of > 300, with Portunidae, Grapsidae and Ocypodidae being important families each contributing > 20 species (Lee, unpubl. data; Lee at al., in press). Dai et al. (1991) described a total of > 800 species of marine bracyhurans from the Chinese seas. With a land area of just ~ 1078 km² ...

    • STRUCTURE AND COMPOSITION OF THE SEA WARD MANGROVE FOREST AT THE MAI PO MARSHES NATURE RESERVE, HONG KONG
      (pp. 83-104)
      Norman C. Duke and M. Ajmal Khan

      Although the gei wai in Hong Kong’s Mai Po Marshes Nature Reserve principally provide a wetland habitat and sanctuary for birds and other animals, they also enclose and protect a large area of mangrove forest (Melville and Morton 1983). This is maintained apparently by some regulated flushing with sea water from the traditional operation of the gei wai for mariculture of prawns and fish. Within these wetlands, there are around six species of mangroves although they are dominated by one, Kandelia candel (L.) Druce. This species was relatively poorly known until Lee (1989a; 1989b; 1990; 1991) described its structure, growth,...

    • MANGROVE DISTRIBUTION IN THE GEI WAIS AT THE MAI PO MARSHES NATURE RESERVE
      (pp. 105-116)
      L. Young

      The Mai Po Marshes Nature Reserve is situated in the northwestern New Territories of Hong Kong, bordering the mudflats and mangrove forests of Inner Deep Bay.

      In the mid-1940s, before the area was protected, a series of intertidal prawn ponds (gei wais) were constructed in the coastal mangroves. These ponds are characterized by having a sluice gate which allows water exchange and the entry of prawn larvae (principally Metapenaeus ensis) from Deep Bay.

      During construction, an embankment was formed using mud dug from the mangal, resulting in a channel (1–1.5 m deep) around the edge of the gei wai....

    • DISTRIBUTION OF MANGROVE SPECIES IN THE INTERTIDAL ZONE AT THE MAI PO MARSHES NATURE RESERVE
      (pp. 117-130)
      L. Young

      The World Wide Fund for Nature Hong Kong (WWFHK) managed Mai Po Marshes Nature Reserve is situated in the northwestern New Territories of Hong Kong, and borders the Deep Bay estuary which separates Hong Kong with the Shenzhen Special Economic Zone, China (Melville and Morton 1983; Irving and Morton 1989; Young and Melville 1993).

      Deep Bay is fringed by intertidal mangrove forests dominated by Kandelia candel (L.) Druce, with Acanthus ilicifolius L., Aegiceras corniculum Blanco, Avicennia marina Blume and Bruguiera gymnorrhiza (L.) Lamk. as associates. This community falls under the Kandelia formation as defined by Wu (1980), who identified seven...

    • PRELIMINARY OBSERVATIONS OF ANTS IN HONG KONG MANGROVES
      (pp. 131-134)
      John R. Fellowes

      Ant communities (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of the Oriental region are little studied. There is a similar dearth of published material on ants associated with mangroves worldwide. This paper results from a brief survey of ants living in mangroves at Mai Po Marshes Nature Reserve, North-west New Territories in September 1993 and at Three Fathoms Cove, Sai Kung in October 1993 and October 1994. Taxa reported in this note were identified by experts of the respective groups, and are marked in the following manner in the species list below: * S.O. Shattuck at CSIRO in Canberra; #M. Terayama at the University of...

  5. Section II: Ecology and Pollution
    • TIME ACTIVITY BUDGET OF PERISESARMA BIDENS AND PARASESARMA AFFINIS (BRACHYURA: SESARMINAE) AT THE MAI PO MARSHES MANGROVE, HONG KONG
      (pp. 137-152)
      P.W. Kwok

      The rates of various physiological functions of intertidal decapod crustaceans are correlated to the tidal cycle (Palmer 1967). The rhythms continue to oscillate in approximate synchrony with the tide even when the organisms are removed to non-tidal, constant conditions in the laboratory. By the use of autographs, the endogenous circatidal locomotor activity rhythm of Hemigrapsus edwardsi was demonstrated in a constant laboratory environment by Williams (1969). The phase-responsiveness to simulated high tide of the rhythm was later also demonstrated by Naylor and Williams (1984). Such tide-associated rhythms are controlled by internal physiological pacemakers, which are entrained by repeated exposure to...

    • METAL CONCENTRATIONS IN SHRIMP AND MANTIS SHRIMPS FROM DEEP BAY, HONG KONG AND THE EASTERN WATERS OF THE PEARL RIVER ESTUARY
      (pp. 153-164)
      Y.B. Ho

      In the study of metal concentrations in marine organisms in Hong Kong, while many studies have been made on algae (e.g. Ho 1990), mussels (Phillips 1985), oysters (Phillips 1979) and barnacles (Phillips and Rainbow 1988), the same does not apply to the mantis shrimps and shrimps. The only published account was by Phillips et al. (1982) who reported on the metal levels in the mantis shrimp Oratosquilla oratoria taken from the eastern waters of the Island of Hong Kong, and numerous other seafood species.

      The mantis shrimps, in particular Oratosquilla oratoria, occur in abundance throughout the coastal waters of China...

    • LITTER PRODUCTION AND RETURN OF NUTRIENT ELEMENTS IN FUTIAN MANGROVE SWAMP, SHENZHEN, CHINA
      (pp. 165-178)
      M.S. Li, C.Y. Lan, G.Z. Chen, S.H. Li, Y.S. Wong, N.F.Y. Tam and X.R. Chen

      Mangrove swamps are recognised as ecotone between terrestrial and marine habitats on tropical and sub-tropical sheltered coastlines. Mangrove species evolved from a variety of families and vary in their dependence on the littoral habitat. The world total of mangroves is estimated to be at > 170,000 km², in which some sixty species of trees and shrubs exclusive to the habitat are found (Field 1995). Mangrove communities are generally characterized by high productivity and litter production compared to terrestrial plant communities (Lugo and Snedaker 1974; Woodroffe and Moss 1984; Woodroffe 1985; Lin et al. 1985; Lu et al 1988; Lee 1989;...

    • OBSERVATIONS ON THE MANGROVE COMMUNITY AT THE MAI PO MARSHES, HONG KONG: IMPLICATIONS FOR CONSERVATION
      (pp. 179-189)
      K. Kathiresan

      Mangrove ecosystems in Hong Kong are threatened by rapid urban growth, placing an urgent need on developing strategies for their conservation. There is, however, little information on the local mangroves directly relevant to their conservation (Irving and Morton 1988, Lee 1988). In the present study, observations were made on aspects of the mangroves at the Mai Po Marshes, with a view of generating a conservation strategy for the mangroves in this nature reserve.

      A map of Mai Po Marshes shows ‘finger-like’ projections extending from the mangrove fringe, notably associated with drainage water channels (Fig. 1). This prompted an investigation to...