Land-use Change

Land-use Change: Proceedings of the Asahikawa-Sapporo International Symposium

Edited by R.D. Hill
Copyright Date: 1989
Pages: 260
https://www.jstor.org/stable/j.ctt2jbzcp
  • Cite this Item
  • Book Info
    Land-use Change
    Book Description:

    Land-use change is ubiquitous. This volume, in bringing together a range of studies presented at a Symposium held in Hokkaido, Japan, in August 1987, illustrates this. Urbanization has brought in its train vast changes in peri-urban zones and in distant mountain villages. Political change and population growth have brought with them pressing needs for agricultural land and resettlement. Fiscal policies have led to change in land ownership leading subsequently o change in land use. Changes in food policy lead to the partial withdrawal of support from farmers who then are faced with the task of recasting the land-use basis of their life. Changes in perceptions of the urban environment lead to a new awareness of it as a home for plants and animals as well as people, and to the setting up of nature areas in the city.

    eISBN: 978-988-220-193-4
    Subjects: Business

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-iv)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. v-vi)
  3. FOREWORD
    (pp. vii-viii)
    R.D. Hill

    Land-use change is ubiquitous. This volume, in bringing together a range of studies presented at a Symposium held in Hokkaido, Japan, in August 1987, illustrates this truth. Urbanization has brought in its train vast changes in periurban zones and in distant mountain villages. Political change and population growth have brought with them pressing needs for agricultural land and resettlement. Fiscal policies have led to change in land ownership leading subsequently to change in land use. Changes in food policy lead to the partial withdrawal of support from farmers who then are faced with the task of recasting the land-use basis...

  4. 1 SMITH, RICARDO, STALIN AND THE ‘IRRATIONALITY’ OF PRESENT-DAY GLOBAL LAND USE
    (pp. 1-6)
    R.D. Hill

    The time was, in one’s school-days, when global land-use patterns seemed as fixed and immutable as the laws of the Medes and Persians, when the ‘rational’ zonation was one which accorded with climatic and topographical parameters, when corn was grown in the Corn Belt, when rubber was grown in Malaya, when dairy catt1e and sheep were raised in New Zealand because the land ‘was suitable’. In such days of innocence the inherent tautology of the phrase ‘was suitable’ never occurred, not to students certainly, and often not to their teachers. Of course the land must ‘be suitable’. How else could...

  5. 2 PUBLIC INTERVENTION IN LAND-USE CONVERSION: WESTERN EUROPE AND JAPAN
    (pp. 7-14)
    Ren Azuma

    In Japanese urban planning there is no exception to the generalization in the quotation from Masser. Urban planning originated and evolved in Europe and the Japanese imported it and legislated in the Meiji and Taisho periods. There are two different European views on Japanese urban planning. According to one view, Japan’s urban sprawl is the result of planning failure. Another view highlights the positive aspects of the urban-rural mix and points out that, ‘Japanese planning rests upon different assumptions to those commonly held in Europe and North America’ (Masser, 1985: 4). In the latter view, Japanese urban planning is supposed...

  6. 3 THE RECENT TREND OF LAND TRANSACTIONS IN JAPAN
    (pp. 15-36)
    Yukio Himiyama

    Every prefecture in Japan is obligated to carry out an annual survey called the ‘Survey of Land-use Trend’. The Survey started in 1980 with the aim of providing prefectures with the most up-to-date and comprehensive land-related information for the management of the prefectural Land-use Master Plans. As the Survey is carried out in all prefectures based on the same instruction (National Land Agency of Japan, 1981), all the prefectural reports are supposed to be directly comparable. Although they do not show land-use change itself, they nevertheless provide a variety of information associated with it. So far, however, they have not...

  7. 4 DEVELOPMENT OF LAND-USE MAP SERIES IN JAPAN
    (pp. 37-54)
    Takekazu Akagiri

    In Japan, land-use information has been prepared for the whole country since 1946. It now consists of a land-use map series and a digital land information series. This paper describes general historical trends along with fundamental conceptions, contents and actual conditions of preparation of these sets of information.

    Many things are shown on land-use maps. The aim of land-use map series is to supply fundamental information on actual conditions of land use which consists of the areal extent of actual land use, the intensity of land use, the object of land use and the relationship between land use and land...

  8. 5 LAND-USE PLANNING IN JAPAN
    (pp. 55-62)
    Minoru Kikuchi

    Japan is a small, mountainous country with a high population density. Its land area is about 380 000 km², which makes up only 0.3 per cent of the world’s land area, while its population of about 120 million forms two per cent of the world’s population. Furthermore, it is estimated that only 80 000 km² of its land is topographically habitable. The need for an orderly and rational use of this limited land is paramount. The basic task of the Japanese land policy has thus been to achieve a well-balanced man-land relationship on this rather congested land. The National Land...

  9. 6 LAND-USE CHANGE IN THE TARAI REGION OF UTTAR PRADESH, INDIA
    (pp. 63-76)
    V.R. Singh

    In developing countries the increasing pressure of population and consequent rising demand for food and shelter are putting great strain on land as well as on traditional ways of life. They have been exerting a great pressure over forested areas, fallows and other vacant lands towards a change in land use. The influx of population in areas hitherto sparsely populated further aggravates the position and increases pressure on land. In this paper an atternpt has been made to evaluate the role of human, environmental, technological and institutional factors which, individually as well as collectively, have inf1uenced land-use change in the...

  10. 7 THE DYNAMICS OF CHANGE IN RURAL LAND OWNERSHIP AND LAND USE IN SCOTLAND
    (pp. 77-84)
    Alexander S. Mather

    Much of the literature on land-use change is concerned with aggregate transfers of land between different types of land use. While the scale and direction of such transfers are obviously of primary importance, there are other aspects of land-use change which have, by comparison, been neglected by research workers. In particular there is the question of how land-use change is carried out.

    Changes in land use can take place without changes in land ownership or managerial control. Examples might include changing the selection of crops or enterprises by farmers, in response to changing market conditions or varying levels of government...

  11. 8 LAND-USE CHANGE IN THE MOUNTAINS OF JAPAN SINCE THE PERIOD OF HIGHER ECONOMIC GROWTH
    (pp. 85-100)
    Yoshihisa Fujita

    The aim of this paper is to make clear the dynamics of land use of mountain areas in relation to the change of their social and economic activities, since the age of higher economic growth in Japan.

    About 70 per cent of Japanese land is mountainous. Figure 8.1 shows land use in Japan. The plains are mostly in urban and agricultural uses with very high densities, averaging 1 850 persons per square kilometer. Most mountain areas have been used for forest and these extend from north to south. The most prominent mountains are found in central Japan, where the highest...

  12. 9 LAND-USE CHANGE AND FARM-LAND CONSERVATION AT THE FOOT OF MOUNT TOKACHI AND IN THE UPPER TAMA VALLEY, JAPAN
    (pp. 101-114)
    Genpo Hayafune

    In recent years, changes in agricultural methods and in agricultural management on hillside fields throughout Japan have caused a decrease in soil fertility resulting in soil erosion. This report sets forth the relationship between changes in land use on hillside farms and the conservation of agricultural land using Hokkaido, where modern large-scale agricultural methods are being used, and the Kanto mountainside, where traditional agricultural methods are being used, as examples (Figure 9.1).

    The hillside fields of both areas, located on uplands formed by gentle undulations of Tokachi welded tuff(Figure 9.2), suffered damage by soil erosion in 1952 due to localized...

  13. 10 AGRICULTURAL LAND-USE SURVEY BY LANDSAT MSS DATA
    (pp. 115-124)
    Tetsuo Satoh

    Traditional intensive agricultural surveys in Japan have put stress on the understanding of the evolution of farming systems under the circumstances of rapid economic growth. Therefore, agricultural land-use surveys have been designed in close relation to the evaluation of potential productivity as well as to the improvement of farm management.

    Remote sensing itself never replaces that kind of intensive survey, nor can it show the full capability by itself alone. Its large scope of observation with constant accuracy contributes to the location of intensive spot surveys in a regional framework, and its short period of observation is also important to...

  14. 11 URBAN LAND USE AND URBAN RENEWAL IN JAPAN
    (pp. 125-132)
    Yoshiaki Takatsu

    The present paper shows the present condition of urban land use and the processes of urban land-use change in Japan. It is necessary for full understanding of the major features of urban land use to grasp a few indices pertaining to Japanese urbanization and urban land use. These are the population and the area of densely inhabited districts, urbanization promotion zones in city planning areas and urban land use sub-zones. And we should investigate the actual condition and the significance of land readjustment and urban renewal, because the features of urbanization and urban land use are strongly affected by them....

  15. 12 DETAILED DIGITAL LAND-USE SURVEY IN THE METROPOLITAN REGIONS OF JAPAN
    (pp. 133-140)
    Nobuo Nagai, Tadao Hoya, Takekazu Akagiri and Akira Yaguchi

    A detailed Digital Land-use Survey is being conducted by the Geographical Survey Institute in the three metropolitan regions of Japan at about five-year intervals. The digital data collected are used in working out an appropriate policy to supply land for housing, offices, urban industries, public facilities and other uses. These data are also quite useful for other regional planning purposes and for geographical research. This paper describes the survey in outline and shows some examples of the data output.

    For the Tokyo Metropolitan Region, the surveyed area is approximately 7 500 square kilometers compared with the Osaka Region of approximately...

  16. 13 LAND-USE CONTROL IN THE PERI-URBAN AREAS OF JAPAN
    (pp. 141-154)
    Haruhiro Doi

    Built-up areas in Japan are expanding rapidly into the surrounding rural areas. According to the White Paper on National Land Use, the rate of increase of the built-up area was about three per cent per year between 1972 and 1983 (National Land Agency, 1985). This rate was about three times that of Japan’s population increase during the same period. The government of Japan allows a certain rate of expansion of built-up areas in order to provide housing. This land-use target was set in the 1978 National Land-use Plan (National Land Agency, 1983) (Figure 13.1). However, actual built-up areas are expanding...

  17. 14 ENVIRONMENTAL PLANNING FOR LAND-USE CHANGE IN JAPAN: THE TOKYO BAY AREA COASTAL CITIES STUDY
    (pp. 155-174)
    Harvey A. Shapiro

    The methodology used in the research presented in this paper is shown in Figure 14.1. In brief, after the study area is defined from the viewpoint of the Bay, a basic ecological inventory of the Bay area as a whole, in this case the Tokyo Bay area, is done. To the extent permitted by existing data, both natural and socio-cultural factors are included. This information is mapped at a common scale. Once mapping is completed, this data bank serves as the basis for developing safety, health and welfare-related criteria considered to be important for Bay area environmental management and planning,...

  18. 15 THE USE AND PROVISION OF URBAN LAND FOR ECOLOGY FIELD TEACHING: RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN NORTH LONDON
    (pp. 175-192)
    Monica Hale

    The concept of town nature reserves, particularly for the use of schools, is not new. Local educational nature reserves were proposed in 1947 by the government’s wildlife conservation committee chaired by Sir Julian Huxley. They recommended that such reserves should be made available at least to all the large centres of population so that they can be used by schools. It has taken nearly 40 years for this message to find effect.

    In a Government paper (Cmd 7122, 1947), the arguments for nature conservation were set out and suggested a category of educational nature reserve which it recommended for every...

  19. 16 THE DEVELOPMENT OF HOUSING ESTATES (DANCHI) IN HILLY AREAS IN KOBE, JAPAN
    (pp. 193-200)
    Mitsunori Saito

    A frame of reference for research in land-use change is sketched in Figure 16.1 which will serve as background. Usually social geography concentrates its attention on the behaviour of persons and households, and, in this context, to the policies of the planning authority. But in order to explain land use and its change in Kobe it is necessary to broaden the scope further to the behaviour of the developer. Here the behaviour of the developer is defined as an activity to develop with a certain purpose and principle a particular kind of housing estate (Danchi) at a certain site and...

  20. 17 LAND CONDITIONS AND LAND USE IN THE TAMA HILL AREA, TOKYO — AN APPLICATION OF THE DIGITAL NATIONAL LAND INFORMATION SYSTEM
    (pp. 201-212)
    Akio Bitoh

    The Digital National Land Information System was set up in 1974 by the Geographical Survey Institute, Ministry of Construction. The Digital National Land Information System consists of regional information, such as land conditions, land use, basic infrastructures, statutory regulations and land value. These data are stored in figures and in symbols on magnetic tapes for computer calculations. In the present study, information on land conditions and land use in the Digital National Land Information System are mainly used. Quantitative analyses were made using the Digital National Land Information data to investigate the regional characteristics of land use in the Tama...

  21. 18 URBAN LAND-USE CHANGES WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO VISAKHAPATNAM, INDIA
    (pp. 213-222)
    S. Sachi Devi

    Visakhapatnam, one of the major ports of India, is a rapidly-growing city situated on the East Coast of India. Geographical nodality seems to be a powerful factor in the growth of the town. It is bounded by two hill ranges of the Eastern Ghats — the Kailasa range on the north and Yarada range on the south (Figure 18.1). The Bay of Bengal forms the eastern boundary of the town with a coastline of about nine kilometres in length running northeast to southwest. The western side is an extensive tidal basin, a major portion of which is being slowly reclaimed....

  22. 19 THE URBAN GROWTH OF SAPPORO — VIEWED FROM THE PERSPECTIVES OF LAND USE AND LAND PRICE
    (pp. 223-232)
    Kiyotaka Jitsu

    The origin of Sapporo dates back to 1869 when the Hokkaido Kaitakushi or the Colonization Agency of Hokkaido was founded. Since then Sapporo has been serving as a major centre for the colonization of Hokkaido. Before the World War II, however, the city of Otaru was more flourishing with its commerce and trade than Sapporo. The establishment of the Hokkaido Development Agency in 1950 changed the situation. Sapporo has experienced a tremendous urban growth. It had a population of only 384 000 in 1950. Its population exceeded 1 000 000 in 1970, 1 350 000 in 1980 and 1 600...

  23. 20 PLANNING AND LAND-USE CHANGE IN BRITAIN
    (pp. 233-251)
    Alice Coleman

    In 1947 the British Parliament passed a Town and Country Planning Act which decreed that henceforth no land use might change without planning permission and that a vast new planning machine should be created to exercise comprehensive control. The changes of the following 40 years have received the attentions of an army of up to 27 000 planners, led by national planners in the Department of the Environment and supported by planning departments in all local authorities. Consequently, any assessment of the nature and quality of land-use change is also an assessment of the value of planning.

    The planning profession...