The Bivalvia

The Bivalvia: Proceedings of a Memorial Symposium in Honour of Sir Charles Maurice Yonge

Edited by Brian Morton
Copyright Date: 1990
Pages: 364
https://www.jstor.org/stable/j.ctt2jc007
  • Cite this Item
  • Book Info
    The Bivalvia
    Book Description:

    Sir Charles Maurice Yonge who died in 1986 was the foremost authority on the Bivalvia and one of the greatest marine biologists of this century. The volume is a memorial to his achievements and comprises 22 papers presented at a symposium in his honour during the IX International Malacological Congress, Edinburgh, Scotland, 1986. It contains 4 sections: Evolution, Feeding and Digestion, Functional Morphology, and Ecology, and will be of interest to all students of the Mollusca.

    eISBN: 978-988-220-041-8
    Subjects: Aquatic Sciences

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-iv)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. v-vi)
  3. LIST OF PARTICIPANTS
    (pp. vii-viii)
  4. INTRODUCTION
    (pp. 1-2)

    The idea for a Symposium on the Bivalvia was discussed by the few students of this group present at the Eighth International Malacological Congress of Unitas Malacologica in Budapest in 1983. Following the decision to convene the next Congress in Edinburgh in 1986 I, as a retiring member of the UNITAS Council, formally proposed that this meeting organize a Symposium on the Bivalvia in honour of Sir Maurice Yonge in the city of his residence. This suggestion was unanimously agreed to and I was rewarded with the task of organizing the Symposium in co-operation with David Heppell, President of Unitas...

  5. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
    (pp. 3-3)
    Brian Morton
  6. Photograph of Sir Charles Maurice Yonge
    (pp. 4-4)
  7. SIR MAURICE YONGE C.B.E., D.Sc., F.R.S., P.P.R.S.E. 1899–1986 AN APPRECIATION
    (pp. 5-8)
    J.A. Allen

    It is entirely proper that the Ninth International Malacological Congress remembers Maurice Yonge and honours his name. Particularly so, because Edinburgh was his home. Few if any malacologists will not have heard of him and most of us will have read at least some part of his life’s work. Very many will have had the pleasure of talking to or corresponding with him, for his knowledge was encyclopaedic in all aspects of the vast and infinitely varied phylum Mollusca. He liked nothing more than to debate and discuss the animals that dominated his life. In this he was ever kind...

  8. Plenary Session
    • CORALS AND THEIR BIVALVE BORERS — THE EVOLUTION OF A SYMBIOSIS
      (pp. 11-46)
      Brian Morton

      The theme of this paper derives from the two most important areas of research sustained by C.M. Yonge during his 62 years of publishing and for which he acknowledged greatest enthusiasm — corals and the Bivalvia. Maurice had a special fascination with boring bivalves and with the mechanisms by which they effected such an unusual life style. It is further opportune that the association between scleractinians and certain important groups of bivalves be highlighted here in Edinburgh, because this is precisely what he undertook (Yonge, 1974) in his Presidential address to the Royal Society of Edinburgh in 1973.

      In the...

  9. Session A: Evolution
    • THE EVOLUTION OF LIGAMENT SYSTEMS IN THE BIVALVIA
      (pp. 49-72)
      Thomas R. Waller

      One of the joys in science is to create theory that integrates and explains facts that otherwise would have no obvious relationship, and one of the frustrations is to discover facts that do not fit theory. Frustration is born from theory, but new theory emerges from frustration.

      This symposium was convened to commemorate the work of C. M. Yonge, who throughout his long career was a master theorist who sought to integrate many originally disjunct observations on morphology and morphological functions in the Bivalvia. The present contribution is concerned with the theoretical model of the primary (i.e. primitive) ligament in...

    • STOMACH STRUCTURE, CLASSIFICATION AND EVOLUTION OF THE BIVALVIA
      (pp. 73-82)
      R. D. Purchon

      The text of this paper synthesizes the contents of two papers (Purchon, 1987a, b) and the reader is directed to these for further detailed information which is not replicated here.

      I undertook my undergraduate training in Zoology under Prof. C.M. Yonge in the University of Bristol, just before the Second World War, and at that time I followed Pelseneer (1906) who divided the Bivalvia according to gill structure. It seemed to me that progress in functional morphology of the gills could be used to subdivide the Class Bivalvia in the same way as the Phylum Vertebrata is divided into Classes....

    • FORM, FUNCTION AND PHYLOGENY OF BIVALVE MUCINS
      (pp. 83-96)
      Robert S. Prezant

      According to Yonge (1953), bivalves abandoned the initial epifaunal habits of the earliest molluscs in conjunction with lateral compression of the still-uncalcified shell. By means of pedal muscularization and shell calcification, they soon developed the ability to move efficiently through soft substrata. The neotenous retention of a larval byssal gland ‘allowed’ many bivalve groups to resume an epifaunal habit (Yonge, 1962). We can assume that the ability to move through soft substrata was aided by mucoid lubricants in those early Mollusca. Additionally, we know that mucins are intimately involved with biomineralization of shell and with production of byssal attachment threads...

    • TAXONOMIC AND EVOLUTIONARY RELATIONSHIPS WITHIN THE GENUS MYTILUS
      (pp. 97-110)
      Raymond Seed

      Marine mussels belonging to the genus Mytilus are widely distributed throughout the cooler waters of both hemispheres attached by means of byssus threads to rock and other consolidated surfaces. Species within the genus, particularly M. edulis L., have proved important as model organisms for physiological, biochemical and genetic investigations; they are also important economically as food and is fouling organisms and as dominant space occupiers on many rocky coasts. Despite this intense scientific and commercial interest in Mytilus (see Suchanek, 1985, for references) the genus surprisingly has not recently been the focus of detailed taxonomic study.

      This paper examines our...

    • EVOLUTION OF CHEMICALLY-BORING MYTILIDAE (BIVALVIA)
      (pp. 111-124)
      Karl Kleemann

      Rock boring in bivalves has often been regarded as a (predominantly) mechanical process which, within the Mytilacea, may be assisted chemically (Yonge, 1951, 1963; Cox, 1969; Kauffman, 1969); all others, including representatives of seven additional superfamilies, bore exclusively by mechanical means (Ansell and Nair, 1969; Pojeta and Palmer, 1976). An alternative view with regard to this matter has found little support in the literature, despite two early papers dealing with boring bivalves in general by Kühnelt (1930, 1933) and Carter (1978), dealing with gastrochaenids.

      According to Yonge (1955), the boring habit in the Mytilidae was made possible by the elongate...

  10. Session B: Feeding and Digestion
    • EVOLUTIONARY IMPLICATIONS OF SULPHIDE-OXIDIZING SYMBIOSES IN BIVALVES
      (pp. 127-140)
      Robert G.B. Reid

      The most striking symbiosis found among marine organisms involves the Cnidaria, the tridacnid bivalves and their photosynthetic dinoflagellate symbionts. The foundations of research into the coral reef ecosystem created by this symbiosis were laid by C.M. Yonge and his associates during the Great Barrier Reef Expedition of 1928–1929, and the study of the evolutionary impact of the symbiosis on the Tridacnidae continued to interest Sir Maurice until the end of his career. The review of sulphide-oxidizing symbioses in bivalves that follows is presented as a study in the Yonge tradition, taking a comprehensive account of the effects of the...

    • GILL AND PALP MORPHOLOGY OF TELLINA TENUIS AND T. FABULA IN RELATION TO FEEDING
      (pp. 141-150)
      James G. Wilson

      As in so much of the study of bivalves, it was C.M. Yonge who, in 1949, published the definitive work ‘On the structure and adaptations of the Tellinacea, deposit feeding Eulamellibranchia’. Since then, almost the only note of dissent raised concerns the classification of the Tellinacea as deposit feeders (Pohlo, 1969). Tellina tenuis received particular attention from Yonge (1949) who described its mode of feeding thus: ‘The inhalant siphon... extends along the surface of the sand with the tip lying on or a little above the surface. In this position it draws in material lying on or just above the...

    • PARTICLE SELECTION IN FILTER-FEEDING BIVALVE MOLLUSCS: A NEW TECHNIQUE ON AN OLD THEME
      (pp. 151-166)
      Sandra E. Shumway, Richard C. Newell, Dennis J. Crisp and Terry L. Cucci

      The possibility that bivalve molluscs may be able to select nutritive components of their diet from the relatively large quantities of inert material suspended in the water column has attracted attention for many years. Research into bivalve filter feeding, and especially the hitherto unresolved question of the extent to which bivalves select the more nutritious components of suspended particulates, has been profoundly influenced by the technologies available to investigators. Four distinct periods may be recognized as we now enter the fifth with the advent of flow cytometry.

      Early in the era of descriptive morphology, Lotsy (1895) and Grave (1916) presented...

    • FINE STRUCTURE OF THE DIGESTIVE TUBULES OF MERETRIX
      (pp. 167-176)
      S.G. Pal, B. Ghosh and S. Modak

      In a series of papers, C.M. Yonge (1923, 1925, 1926a, b, 1928, 1930, 1935, 1949) laid the foundations of the now classical theory of bivalve digestion. From the general principles of Yonge on the structure and function of the digestive diverticula of bivalve molluscs, some complicated issues have arisen (Purchon, 1971; Owen, 1974). These mainly relate to (a) the digestive rhythm of the tubule epithelium (Morton, J.E., 1956; Morton, B., 1969, 1970, 1973, 1983; Langton, 1975; Mathers, 1976; Mathers et al., 1979) with respect to the various functional phases of the digestive process (Robinson and Langton, 1970; Robinson et al.,...

    • FEEDING AND DIGESTION IN BIVALVE LARVAE
      (pp. 177-194)
      A. Lucas

      Yonge (1926) gave the first overview of the anatomy and physiology of the feeding organs of a bivalve larva. It is noteworthy that by using simple techniques such as observing larvae under the microscope, histology and the discerning use of specific stains (bromothymol blue, carmine indian ink, iron saccharate) major advances were made.

      Since 1950, empirical methods have been established for larval rearing and spat production in laboratories and in commercial hatcheries. Many biologists, especially Loosanoff and his staff at Milford laboratory (Connecticut, U.S.A.) and Walne at the Conway laboratory (Gwynedd, G.B.) worked on larval biology of the more commonly...

    • NUTRITION IN GIANT CLAMS (TRIDACNIDAE)
      (pp. 195-210)
      Peter V. Fankboner and Robert G.B. Reid

      Tridacnid clams inhabiting Indo-Pacific coral reefs represent the largest bivalve molluscs to have evolved (Stasek, 1962; Rosewater, 1965; Yonge, 1981). The Tridacnidae, however, has a mixed size-assemblage of species. Tridacna crocea Lamarck and Tridacna maxima Roding are byssally-attached rock borers of normal bivalve size (generally less than 15–20 cm in length). The more delicate, fluted giant clam Tridacna squamosa Lamarck may attain a length of over 40 cm and usually lives anchored between colonies of branched hermatypic corals by a weak, copious byssus. The four remaining tridacnids are free living and, in the absence of an adult byssus for...

  11. Session C: Functional Morphology
    • THE FUNCTIONAL MORPHOLOGY OF THE ALIMENTARY CANAL OF DONAX VENUSTUS POLI AND D. SEMISTRIATUS POLI
      (pp. 213-222)
      C. Salas-Casanova and E. Hergueta

      Although there have been accounts of bivalve anatomy since Deshayes (1844) (in Moueza and Frenkiel, 1976), there were few papers on functional morphology until Yonge (1926, 1928, 1946) published his studies on the structure and function of the organs of several species of Lamellibranchia. One of the pioneering comparative morphological studies of the protobranchiate Mollusca was by Yonge (1939).

      In studies of the molluscan stomach, Graham (1948) made an important contribution. This author did not, however, study the stomach of Donacidae. The stomach and the alimentary canal of this family was described by Yonge (1949) in his paper on the...

    • ULTRASTRUCTURAL STUDIES ON THE HEART-KIDNEY COMPLEX OF THREE SPECIES OF PROTOBRANCH BIVALVE MOLLUSCS
      (pp. 223-236)
      M. Patricia Morse and Edgar Meyhöfer

      Sir Maurice Yonge’s (1939) pioneering studies on the functional morphology of protobranch molluscs formed an important basis for the subsequent recognition of this group as a subclass (Cox, 1959; Yonge, 1959). Subsequently, numerous deep-sea protobranchs have been described (Allen, 1978; Allen and Sanders, 1973, 1982; Sanders and Allen, 1973, 1977) and further studies on some species have added to our knowledge, for example species of Solemya — the description of a gutless form (Reid and Bernard, 1980) and the discovery of symbiotic chemoautotrophic bacteria in the gills (Cavanaugh, 1983). Recently, Allen (1985) summarized these neontological studies, as well as palaeontological...

    • OSMOTIC EFFECTS ON THE FINE STRUCTURE OF THE KIDNEYS AND HEARTS OF SOME BIVALVES: THE SITE OF URINE FORMATION
      (pp. 237-248)
      H.R. Khan and A.S.M. Saleuddin

      Sir Maurice Yonge described the bivalves as ‘. . . most sluggish animals and have withdrawn from contact with their surroundings to the extreme extent of losing the head and substituting sense-organs in the mantle margin for those originally possessed on the head...oyster has taken matters still further by its permanent attachment...’ (Yonge, 1960). Osmoregulation in these filter-feeding, sluggish and attached species like oyster and Mytilus could be intricate, since they cannot readily avoid adverse water conditions. Freshwater molluscs are osmoregulators and the brackish water and marine species are osmoconformers. However, when brackish water and marine molluscs are exposed to...

    • THE ADAPTIVE SIGNIFICANCE OF FOOT REVERSAL IN THE LIMOIDA
      (pp. 249-264)
      T.H.J. Gilmour

      In his monumental review on the evolution of the monomyarian condition in the Lamellibranchia, C.M. Yonge (1953) concluded that the loss of the anterior adductor muscle could have come about in either of two ways: firstly, through changes involving the development of bilateral asymmetry (in the Anisomyaria excluding the Limoida); or secondly, without loss of bilateral symmetry (in the Limoida and Tridacnidae). He showed later (Yonge, 1962a) that loss of the anterior adductor in the Etheriidae is also accompanied by the development of bilateral asymmetry. Waller (1978) has more recently suggested that the monomyarian condition probably developed independently in several...

  12. Session D: Evolution 2 / Ecology
    • FUNCTIONAL SIGNIFICANCE OF THE PEDIVELIGER IN BIVALVE DEVELOPMENT
      (pp. 267-282)
      Melbourne R. Carriker

      The molluscan veliger larval stage is a link between the trochophore and the pediveliger stage, and is represented in all modern molluscan classes except the Cephalopoda (Garstang, 1929; Stasek, 1972). The pediveliger stage is a pivotal, little-studied, swimming-crawling, transitional stage bridging planktonic and benthic existences; it makes possible dispersal in the water mass and search for a suitable substratum for adult life on the bottom — and is probably likewise widely distributed among the Mollusca.

      In the Bivalvia the bivalve-shelled pediveliger is limited to most marine species and the fresh-to brackish-water species Dreissena polymorpha that possesses free-swimming planktonic larvae. In...

    • AN INTRODUCTION TO THE RAZOR SHELLS (BIVALVIA: SOLENACEA)
      (pp. 283-312)
      R. von Cosel

      The Solenacea are a soft bottom infaunal marine bivalve group with a more or less narrow and long shell, gaping at both ends. In comparison to other infaunal bivalve families such as the Cardiidae, Psammobiidae, Tellinidae, Veneridae, the Solenacea are not species rich, but commercially quite important. The peculiar shell form and the mode of life of this group have attracted the attention of naturalists and malacologists resulting in an early literature: Deshayes (1839), Forbes and Hanley (1848), Jeffreys (1865), P. Fischer (1887). In many of these Aristotle is referred to as the first who noticed the life habits of...

    • SOLECURTUS STRIGILATUS: A JET-PROPELLED BURROWING BIVALVE
      (pp. 313-320)
      Richard Granville Bromley and Ulla Asgaard

      The Solecurtidae comprises a group of bivalves having anatomical characteristics that place them within the Tellinacea (Graham, 1934). However, whereas the tellinaceans are in general burrowing deposit feeders, having separated siphons, at least some species of Solecurtus have adopted a suspension-feeding mode of life and have a strongly modified anatomy.

      Yonge (1949) examined the functional morphology and anatomy of two contrasting species, Solecurtus chamasolen and S. scopula. On the basis of the performance of the mudburrowing S. chamasolen in the laboratory, Yonge concluded that species of Solecurtus burrow neither deeply nor rapidly. (Yonge’s material of S. scopula, a sand burrower,...

    • SPATIAL GRADIENTS IN PREDATION PRESSURE AND THEIR INFLUENCE ON THE DYNAMICS OF TWO LITTORAL BIVALVE POPULATIONS
      (pp. 321-332)
      C.L. Griffiths

      In many coastal marine habitats the dominant invertebrates, at least in terms of standing crop, are bivalve molluscs. Wherever dense bivalve assemblages occur they are exploited by arrays of predators, the most important of which are usually crabs or lobsters, drilling gastropods, starfish, fish and seashore birds.

      The feeding behaviour, prey selection and consumption rates of many of these predators have been investigated in considerable details (Hughes, 1980a, b, 1986; Feare and Summers, 1986). Such studies frequently report that the predators are selective in terms of the size of prey taken, the mean size of prey eaten frequently increasing with...

    • HABITS AND MORPHOLOGICAL ADAPTATIONS OF MYTILIDS (MOLLUSCA: BIVALVIA) FROM COASTAL AND REEFAL ENVIRONMENTS IN SOUTH-WEST MALAGASIA (INDIAN OCEAN)
      (pp. 333-344)
      Patrick M. Arnaud and Bernard A. Thomassin

      It was shown by Yonge (1962) that byssate, adult bivalves arose from burrowers by neoteny and the evolution of the byssal apparatus can explain the evolution ‘from an isomyarian to a heteromyarian and then to a monomyarian condition’. This subject was reviewed by Stanley (1972) who pointed out the evolutionary trend from semi-infaunal (endobyssate) to epifaunal (epibyssate) attachment, a hypothesis later discussed by Yonge (1976).

      Special interest in the Mytilidae in this context relates to the coexistence of semi-infaunal and epifaunal habits by boring, burrowing and nestling species. The variety of living habits makes the Mytilidae excellent material for the...

  13. APPENDIX
    • A CHRONOLOGICAL LIST OF PUBLICATIONS ON THE BIVALVIA BY C.M. YONGE
      (pp. 347-356)
      Brian Morton