Basic and Applied Aspects of Vestibular Function

Basic and Applied Aspects of Vestibular Function

J. C. HWANG
N. G. DAUNTON
V. J. WILSON
Y.S. CHAN
N.Y.S. TAN
Copyright Date: 1988
Pages: 246
https://www.jstor.org/stable/j.ctt2jc4mq
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  • Book Info
    Basic and Applied Aspects of Vestibular Function
    Book Description:

    This volume is the compilation of the series of original articles presentes at the International Symposium on Basic and Applied Aspects of Vestibular Function held in Hong Kong, September 13-16, 1987, in conjunction with the centenary celebration of the Faculty of Medicine, University of Hong Kong. The Symposium was jointly sponsored by the University of Hong Kong and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, U.S.A.

    eISBN: 978-988-220-034-0
    Subjects: Biological Sciences

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-iv)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. v-viii)
  3. FOREWORD
    (pp. ix-x)
    G. Melvill Jones

    It is a singular honour to have been invited to write a foreword to the proceedings of this fine symposium on Basic and Applied Aspects of Vestibular Function. In view of my personal commitment to the field it was particularly unfortunate that personal constraints prevented my joining the close knit family of friends and colleagues gathered together for the Hong Kong meeting.

    In overview, it is gratifying indeed to find such a wide variety of individuals and experimental approaches represented in the scientific content of the program. Not long ago, the Vestibular System was at risk of being relegated to...

  4. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
    (pp. xi-xii)
    J.C.H.
  5. SYMPOSIUM ORGANIZATION (International Symposium on Basic and Applied Aspects of Vestibular Function)
    (pp. xiii-xiv)
  6. CONTRIBUTORS
    (pp. xv-xxvi)
  7. Symposium Participants and Group Photograph
    (pp. xxvii-xxix)
  8. Basic Aspects

    • 1. THE FUNCTIONAL ORGANIZATION OF THE VESTIBULAR LABYRINTH AND OF SOME OF ITS CENTRAL PATHWAYS
      (pp. 3-12)
      J.M. Goldberg, L.B. Minor and C. Fernández

      This paper will consider two topics: (1) the morphological and functional organization of the labyrinthine end organs; and (2) the contributions of various classes of vestibular-nerve afferents to different central pathways. The topics are interrelated. One cannot understand the functional organization of the end organs without understanding how the information provided by them is used by the brain. Similarly, the organization of the central pathways must reflect the organization of their labyrinthine inputs. Attention will be confined to the semicircular canals.

      Extracellular horseradish peroxidase (HRP) techniques have been used in the chinchilla to study the peripheral innervation patterns of vestibular...

    • 2. MORPHOLOGICAL AND FUNCTIONAL CHARACTERISTICS OF SEMICIRCULAR CANAL AFFERENTS SENSITIVE TO HEAD TILT
      (pp. 13-26)
      A.A. Perachio, J.D. Dickman and M.J. Correia

      Evidence that the sensory structures of the semicircular canals are affected by linear force has derived from a number of studies that have demonstrated systematic changes in the discharge rate of canal-related primary afferents as a function of changes in head position with respect to the gravity vector. This work includes experiments involving recordings from ampullary nerves in a variety of invertebrate (octopus, Budelmann and Wolff, 1973) and vertebrate species (ray and dogfish, Lowenstein and Compton, 1978; frog, Ledoux, 1949; pigeon, Anastasio et al., 1985; gerbil, Perachio and Correia, 1983a; cat, Estes et al., 1975; and squirrel monkey, Goldberg and...

    • 3. SPECTRAL ANALYSIS OF THE SPONTANEOUS ACTIVITY OF TILT-SENSITIVE UNITS IN THE VESTIBULAR SYSTEM OF THE DECEREBRATE CAT
      (pp. 27-34)
      P.W.F. Poon, J.C. Hwang, N.G. Daunton, Y.S. Chan and Y.M. Cheung

      Analysis of spontaneous activity of neurons could provide important insights into the physiological properties of individual cells, their connective properties and the processing of information. A number of analyses of spontaneous activity have been carried out focusing on the mean and variance of interspike intervals, the shape of the interval histogram, the expectation density function, Markovian properties, as well as on stereotype in spike patterns (Glaser and Ruchkin, 1976 for review). However, there have been no studies on tilt-sensitive units in the vestibular system using spectral analysis.

      Spontaneous spike activity of tilt-sensitive units in the vestibular system represents both a...

    • 4. FUNCTIONAL ORGANIZATION OF THE HORIZONTAL VESTIBULO-OCULOMOTOR SYSTEM IN THE CAT BRAIN STEM
      (pp. 35-44)
      Y. Ohki, H. Shimazu and I. Suzuki

      The vestibulo-oculomotor response to head rotation consists of slow and fast eye movements, i.e. vestibular nystagmus. Abundant evidence has accumulated indicating that the vestibular nuclei (Duensing and Schaefer, 1958; Luschei and Fuchs, 1972; Miles, 1974; Fuchs and Kimm, 1975; Keller and Daniels, 1975; Keller and Kamath, 1975; Waespe and Henn, 1977; McCrea et al., 1980), the reticular formation (Duensing and Schaefer, 1957; Sparks and Travis, 1971; Cohen and Henn, 1972; Luschei and Fuchs, 1972; Keller, 1974), the prepositus hypoglossi nucleus (Baker et al., 1976), and pontine mid-line structures (Keller, 1974) are involved in generation of these movements. We have been...

    • 5. PHYSIOLOGICAL AND MORPHOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF BRAIN STEM NEURONS RELATED TO VESTIBULAR AND SACCADIC EYE MOVEMENTS IN THE CAT
      (pp. 45-54)
      T. Kitama, Y. Ohki, H. Shimazu and K. Yoshida

      In recent years, anatomical and electrophysiological studies have demonstrated that the prepositus hypoglossi nucleus is significantly involved in the vestibulooculomotor system (Baker and Berthoz, 1975; Baker et al., 1975; Fukushima et al., 1977; Hikosaka et al., 1978; Lopez-Barneo et al.,1982; McCrea and Baker,1985). It receives powerful disynaptic vestibular connections which are primarily reciprocal in nature; i.e. contralateral excitation and ipsilateral inhibition (Baker and Berthoz, 1975). Single unit recordings in the prepositus nucleus have revealed neuronal activity closely related to eye movements in both the horizontal and vertical directions (Baker et al., 1975; Lopez-Barneo et al., 1982). In particular, it has...

    • 6. MULTIDIMENSIONAL ANALYSIS OF VESTIBULOOCULAR AND VESTIBULOCOLLIC REFLEXES
      (pp. 55-62)
      B.W. Peterson and J.F. Baker

      The neuronal processes employed to control movement of a biomechanical system such as the eye or neck must necessarily depend on the physical structure of the system. A simple hinge joint moved by one pair of flexor and extensor muscles could be controlled by the simple equilibrium point scheme elaborated by Asatryan and Feldman (1965). The arrangement of the six extraocular muscles into three nearly orthogonal pairs suggests that a relatively simple control scheme where each eye position is uniquely determined by the pattern of muscle activity required to maintain it, may be sufficient to control eye movements. In contrast,...

    • 7. RESPONSES OF VESTIBULAR NUCLEAR NEURONS TO BIDIRECTIONAL OFF-VERTICAL AXIS ROTATIONS IN NORMAL AND HEMILABYRINTHECTOMIZED CATS
      (pp. 63-72)
      Y.S. Chan, Y.M. Cheung and J.C. Hwang

      Acute unilateral labyrinthectomy causes characteristic postural and oculomotor asymmetries in vertebrates (Schaeffer and Meyer, 1974). In cats, such lesion results in asymmetry in the spontaneous discharge rate and response sensitivity of bilateral vestibular nuclear neurons that were sensitive to either pitch tilt (Chan et al., 1983) or roll tilt (Lacour et al., 1985). Since some vestibular nuclear neurons give rise to vestibulo-ocular (Hwang and Poon, 1975) or vestibulospinal pathways (Wilson and Peterson, 1981), these asymmetric activities of vestibular nuclear neurons on the two sides of the brainstem may function to mediate an imbalance in the extraocular and spinal motor outputs...

    • 8. VESTIBULAR CONTROL OF THE CAT FORELIMB
      (pp. 73-80)
      V.J. Wilson and R.H. Schor

      For some time we have been studying the vestibulospinal reflex acting on the forelimb of the decerebrate cat. This important postural reflex is a useful model for sensorimotor transformation because the relevant signals can be studied at many levels, from periphery to muscle. Although in normal function vestibulospinal reflexes interact with other inputs of exteroceptive or proprioceptive origin, in this brief review we will look at the vestibulo-forelimb reflex in isolation and address its spatial and dynamic properties and its neural substrate, emphasizing work in our own laboratory on the reflex evoked by tilt in vertical planes.

      From the time...

    • 9. PROPERTIES OF VESTIBULOSPINAL NEURONS RECEIVING INHIBITORY INPUTS FROM THE LINGULA OF THE CEREBELLUM
      (pp. 81-86)
      N. Hirai

      In terms of the somatotopic arrangement of the cerebellar anterior lobe, the lingula, lobule I of Larsell (1953), has been regarded as the tail area (cf. Dow, 1970). However, anatomical and physiological studies have revealed that lobule I receives projections from spinocerebellar tract neurons that originate in the central cervical nucleus and relay neck afferent inputs (Wiksten, 1979; Matsushita and Okado, 1981a; Hirai et al., 1984a; Hirai et al., 1984b). In addition, lobule I receives the projections of primary vestibular afferents (Ingvar, 1918; Brodal and Høivik, 1964; Carpenter et al., 1972; Hirai, 1983) and of vestibular nuclear neurons (Matsushita and...

  9. Adaptation and Motion Sickness

    • 10. NEUROCHEMICAL AND NEUROPHARMACOLOGICAL STUDIES ON VESTIBULAR COMPENSATION/ADAPTATION
      (pp. 89-98)
      M. Igarashi, G.C. Thompson, A.M. Thompson and S. Usami

      When exposed to the microgravity environment, all gravity sensors deliver unnatural afferent inputs which have not been experienced by the central nervous system, whereas other sensory modalities deliver afferent inputs within the normal physiological range. Thus, sensory signals may mismatch at the level of the central comparator, and require appropriate modulations at various sensory convergence points. Also, the perception of both the external and internal milieu may not agree with the previously memorized information. Accordingly, hierarchical sensory-motor reorganization must take place, so that man can function efficiently even within such a novel environment. Space motion sickness could be a consequence...

    • 11. QUANTITATIVE ASSESSMENT OF SENSORIMOTOR PERFORMANCE AFFECTED BY MOTION SICKNESS INDUCING STIMULATION
      (pp. 99-106)
      J.C. Hwang, P.W.F. Poon and N.Y.S. Tan

      Motion sickness is commonly defined in terms of autonomic signs and symptoms such as pallor, cold sweating and vomiting. The act of vomiting is often considered as the most direct and reliable indicator of motion sickness in both human subjects and experimental animals (Borison, 1983).

      On the other hand, drowsiness and mental depression have also been regarded as cardinal symptoms. Graybiel and Knepton (1976) described a symptom-complex centering around drowsiness, the ‘sopite complex’, based primarily on sensations and reports of the experimental subject. Thus, motion sickness signs and symptoms have been divided largely into ‘gut syndrome’ and ‘head syndrome’ (Graybiel...

    • 12. SEROTONERGIC MECHANISMS IN EMESIS
      (pp. 107-112)
      J.B. Lucot and G.H. Crampton

      Analysis of the constituents of cerebrospinal fluid from the fourth ventricle of cats determined that cats which became motion sick had lower baseline levels of serotonin metabolites, dopamine metabolites, uric acid and vasopressin (Fox et al., 1987; Lucot and Crampton, in revision). Studies to determine which, if any, of these neurotransmitter systems are involved in the emetic process were started by manipulation of serotonin receptors.

      Buspirone was selected as a test drug because it is a partial agonist at serotonin-1A receptors (Andrade and Nicoll, 1985; Peroutka, 1985). However, at higher doses, buspirone also stimulates presynaptic dopamine receptors (McMillen et al.,...

    • 13. IMMUNOCYTOCHEMICAL LOCALIZATION OF GLUTAMIC ACID DECARBOXYLASE (GAD) AND SUBSTANCE P IN NEURAL AREAS MEDIATING MOTION-INDUCED EMESIS. EFFECTS OF VAGAL STIMULATION ON GAD IMMUNOREACTIVITY
      (pp. 113-124)
      F. D’Amelio, M.A. Gibbs, W.R. Mehler, N.G. Daunton and R.A. Fox

      The present report is part of a study designed to investigate the interaction between neuropeptides and conventional neurotransmitters under conditions producing motion sickness and in the process of sensory-motor adaptation.

      A vast amount of literature has dealt with the cytoarchitectural organization and ultrastructural analysis of the area postrema (AP), area subpostrema (ASP), nucleus of the tractus solitarius (NTS) and gelatinous nucleus (GEL), all structures localized in the dorsal part of the medulla oblongata (e.g., Olszewski and Baxter, 1954; Taber, 1961; Gwyn and Wolstencroft, 1968; Klara and Brizzee, 1975, 1977; Chernicky et al., 1980; D’Amelio et al., 1986). Anatomical studies have...

    • 14. RECOVERY FROM UNILATERAL LABYRINTHECTOMY IN PRIMATE: EFFECTS OF VISUAL INPUTS AND CONSIDERATIONS UPON EWALDS SECOND LAW
      (pp. 125-132)
      D.S. Zee, M. Fetter and L. Proctor

      The mechanisms by which the central nervous system assures accurate, dynamic vestibular responses when the head is moving and static vestibular balance when the head is still are of considerable interest both to clinicians and to basic scientists. Relatively little attention, however, has been paid to the mechanisms of recovery of the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) after unilateral labyrinthectomy. This is a complicated problem for the adaptive mechanisms to solve because unilateral labyrinthectomy creates not only a decrease in the gain of the VOR, but also a tonic imbalance that causes both spontaneous nystagmus and directional asymmetry in dynamic vestibular responses....

    • 15. EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES OF GASTRIC DYSFUNCTION IN MOTION SICKNESS: THE EFFECT OF GASTRIC AND VESTIBULAR STIMULATION ON THE VAGAL AND SPLANCHNIC GASTRIC EFFERENTS
      (pp. 133-142)
      A. Niijima, Z.Y. Jiang, N.G. Daunton and R.A. Fox

      It has been generally recognized that nausea and emesis with gastric dysfunction are the main symptoms of space and motion sickness. It is assumed that vestibular as well as gastric stimulation can be the major sources of these symptoms. It is also well known that caloric stimulation of the vestibular apparatus can cause emesis and nystagmic responses. Wang and Borrison (1951) reported that the intragastric administration of copper sulfate induced emetic responses, and that the surgical interruption of the vagi had a more profound effect on the threshold and latency of vomiting than did sympathectomy, which caused no remarkable changes...

    • 16. THE EFFECTS OF AREA POSTREMA LESIONS AND SELECTIVE VAGOTOMY ON MOTION-INDUCED CONDITIONED TASTE AVERSION
      (pp. 143-150)
      R.A. Fox, R.L. Sutton and S. McKenna

      Animals commonly avoid the ingestion of foods treated with non-lethal doses of poison. The laboratory study of this phenomenon has led to the development of specialized procedures for investigating the role learning plays in this behavioral aversion to poisoned food. These procedures commonly are referred to as the ‘conditioned taste aversion paradigm’. In typical applications of this paradigm a previously novel food is ingested just prior to poisoning. This ‘pairing’ of food with the effects of poisoning results in a strong, long-lasting avoidance of the food in future feeding opportunities. These procedures are typically described using classical conditioning notation wherein...

  10. Clinical Assessment

    • 17. OBSERVATIONS OF VESTIBULAR FUNCTIONS IN FOUR PATIENTS WITH INNER EAR ANOMALY
      (pp. 153-164)
      J.-I. Suzuki, K. Kaga and K. Yabuki

      The clinical approach to inner ear anomalies has become more practical with the advent of the CT scan, which is now sophisticated enough to show in detail each part of the osseous labyrinth of the temporal bone (Valvassori et al., 1969; Akai, et al., 1983).

      This is a report on four selected cases which are different from each other in many aspects of morphological findings with CT scan and functional findings with auditory and equalibrium examinations.

      Among varied inner ear anomalies, the first three patients have none of the three semicircular canals identified by CT scan, while the last patient...

    • 18. THE OTOLITH-OCULAR REFLEX IN MAN
      (pp. 165-172)
      R.W. Baloh, K. Beykirch, V. Honrubia and R.D. Yee

      Jongkees and Phillipszoon (1962) recorded compensatory eye movements with EOG as human subjects received linear acceleration in the head-to-foot axis (vertical eye movements) or interaural axis (horizontal eye movements) while lying on a parallel swing. The induced eye movements were sinusoidal, but if the subject was asked to look to the side, behind closed eyelids, nystagmus was produced. No quantitative measurements of gain or phase of the otolith-ocular reflex were reported, but the authors suggested that the eye movements were easily induced in normal human subjects and absent in patients without labyrinthine function.

      Niven et al. (1965) used a linear...

  11. Ventures in Space

    • 19. VESTIBULAR FACTORS INFLUENCING THE BIOMEDICAL SUPPORT OF HUMANS IN SPACE
      (pp. 175-182)
      B.K. Lichtenberg

      The topic of biomedical support of humans is very broad and encompasses such areas as environmental control systems, radiation protection, cardio-vascular stimulation, musculoskeletal maintenance, immunological system responses, human factors, behavior and psychology, and the vestibular system. This paper will address only the vestibular system and will divide the effects of weightlessness on the system into short-term (several weeks to several months) and long-term (over about six months) effects. These dividing lines are not firm, but rather stem from our current knowledge that there are short-term vestibular adaptation effects that take on the order of 3-4 days, after which the system...

    • 20. MIT/CANADIAN SPACELAB EXPERIMENTS ON VESTIBULAR ADAPTATION AND SPACE MOTION SICKNESS
      (pp. 183-192)
      C.M. Oman, L.R. Young, D.G.D. Watt, K.E. Money, B.K. Lichtenberg, R.V. Kenyon and A.P. Arrott

      The microgravity environment of spaceflight provides challenging opportunities for research on sensory-motor adaptation. This paper summarizes results obtained in a series of interrelated experiments performed on Spacelab Missions 1 (November, 1983) and D-1 (October, 1985) by a team of investigators from MIT and Canada. Methods and results are presented in more detail in a series of papers (Money et al., 1984; Oman et al., 1984, 1986; Young et al., 1984, 1986a; Arrott and Young, 1986; Kenyon and Young, 1986; Oman, 1986a, b; Watt et al., 1986). The experiments were designed to assess human sensory-motor adaptation to weightlessness and re-adaptation to...

    • 21. SOMATOSENSORY-VESTIBULAR-SYMPATHETIC INTERACTIONS IN MAN UNDER WEIGHTLESSNESS SIMULATED BY HEAD-OUT WATER IMMERSION
      (pp. 193-204)
      T. Mano, S. Iwase, M. Saito, K. Koga, H. Abe, K. Inamura, Y. Matsukawa and M. Hashiba

      Under weightlessness, somatosensory-vestibular and also vestibular-sympathetic interactions may be modified to induce the postural dysequilibrium with autonomic disorders, such as seen in space motion sickness. We reported in previous papers that the nystagmic responses induced by caloric vestibular stimulation in man were significantly enhanced under simulated weightlessness induced by head-out water immersion (Mano et al., 1977, 1985a; Mitarai et al., 1979, 1981). This enhancement of caloric nystagmus was presumed to be due to the vestibular sensitization related to somatosensory deafferentation, because it was accompanied by remarkable reduction of electromyographic and microneurographically recorded muscle afferent discharges of the anti-gravity gastrocnemius-soleus (GS)...

    • 22. MICROGRAVITY VESTIBULAR INVESTIGATIONS: EXPERIMENTS ON VESTIBULAR AND SENSORY-MOTOR ADAPTATION TO SPACE FLIGHT
      (pp. 205-218)
      M.F. Reschke

      The occurrence of space motion sickness during the Skylab missions was considerably greater than had been anticipated on the basis of previous flight programs, and to date the incidence of sickness related to Shuttle operations may run as high as 65% to 75% (Homick et al., 1984). Currently, we are unable to explain the etiological basis of the space motion sickness syndrome, or to predict adequately with ground based tests the ongoing physiological status associated with space motion sickness. Until we obtain a better understanding, the design and implementation of effective counter-measures available to our astronaut population will continue to...

    • 23. MACULAR BIOACCELEROMETERS ON EARTH AND IN SPACE
      (pp. 219-230)
      M.D. Ross, L. Cutler, G. Meyer, P. Vaziri and T. Lam

      Before humans actually flew in space, there was great fear that space would prove too hostile an environment to withstand. Among the predicted effects of weightlessness were those related to the balance end organs of the inner ear, which are finely tuned to earth’s gravitational field. Some medical scientists believed that humans would become severely disoriented and unable to function in space (see Deitlein, 1977). The vestibular system was, therefore, looked upon as a prime candidate for study in space and high priority was given to it. These fears, however, did not materialize and interest waned. During the first suborbital...

  12. Appendix (Abstracts)
    (pp. 231-242)
  13. INDEX
    (pp. 243-246)