Coping in Crisis

Coping in Crisis

Copyright Date: 1983
Pages: 160
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  • Book Info
    Coping in Crisis
    Book Description:

    COPING IN CRISIS attempts to examine 'crisis resolution' processes in the light of the time honoured Chinese perspective that crisis 危機 is a time of danger and a time of opportunity. It presents a specific approach to crisis intervention - designed to turn the dangers, demands and deprivations inherent in crisis situations along positive lines - and provides an impetus for" growth. The Hong Kong crisis study, reported in this book, examines the nature of personal, and family, crises; over which people in Hong Kong seek help from the family service centres of the Social Welfare Department and Caritas. It also seeks to discover whether opportunities for growth and learning are present, despite the risks to which the person-in-crisis is exposed.

    eISBN: 978-988-220-089-0
    Subjects: Sociology

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-iv)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. v-viii)
  3. Foreword
    (pp. ix-x)
    Phyllida Parsloe

    Many of those who have written about crisis theory have suggested that people in crisis go through a number of specific stages and that each stage makes demands for different kinds of psychological work, if the crisis is to be resolved. Kathy Young and her team of social workers in a voluntary and a government welfare agency in Hong Kong had a suspicion that, from the point of view of the social worker involved with a person in crisis, these stages could be reduced to two: the impact phase and the integrative phase. This suspicion became a certainty when they...

  4. Preface
    (pp. xi-xii)
  5. Acknowledgements
    (pp. xiii-xiv)
  6. Chapter 1 Crisis Concepts
    (pp. 1-16)

    In the 1940s, the consequences of war and the problems of postwar rehabilitation led to the emergence of a number of studies reporting on the nature and implications of acute stress. These studies included Grinker and Spiegel’s work with men in combat following exposure to severe stress (1945), Schmideberg’s observations of civilians who broke down during air raids in England (1942), Lindemann’s work with war widows, and Bettelheim’s very personal account of survival in German prison camps (1958). They reported on the ways people endeavoured to maintain personal integrity and self-esteem when confronted by overwhelming threats. Interest in their work...

  7. Chapter 2 ‘Chinese Learning for Essential Principles’
    (pp. 17-26)

    To an appreciable extent, effective interventive work relies on the crisis worker’s understanding of the social and cultural outlook of the person-in-crisis. In this regard, the environmental and social conditions in Hong Kong present a particular challenge to the social worker.

    Hong Kong emerged as a settlement from a collision between East and West, being ceded to Britain following the first Opium War of 1841. Its first hundred years of history records many crisis incidents. However, the reorganization in the mid-1940s after World War II can perhaps be considered the turning point towards an accelerated phase of development resulting in...

  8. Chapter 3 ‘Western Learning for Practical Application’
    (pp. 27-38)

    The behavioural sciences offer an extensive body of knowledge on human behaviour under stress. Three concepts on adaptive response in particular seem relevant to the person in a crisis situation. In his acutely stressful state, he is required to:

    increase his capacity to cope in the face of the extra demands posed by the crisis;

    search for and utilize resources in his support system;

    recognize the dangers and opportunities inherent in crises, and manipulate these to his benefit.

    Crisis coping calls for the building up of adaptive capacities to meet demands posed by the crisis, and requires shifts in the...

  9. Chapter 4 Phase Specific Crisis Intervention
    (pp. 39-50)

    The social worker’s concern is to find out how people resolve crises, and how he can intervene to promote adaptive resolution. The last chapter considered some of the coping and defensive means the person-in-crisis resorts to in his struggle to cope with disrupting aspects of his life, and how in crisis intervention the social worker takes account of these dynamics in crisis response to add his efforts to the struggle. Practice experience reinforced by research findings indicate that crises tend to follow identifiable phases. This chapter presents an interventive frame of reference which proposes that activities to influence the course...

  10. Chapter 5 The Hong Kong Crisis Case Study
    (pp. 51-64)

    A crisis case study was conducted in Hong Kong with the participation of a team of six professionally qualified social workers from two family service agencies. The two agencies were the Social Welfare Department, a statutory organization, and Caritas, one of the largest voluntary multi-purpose organizations in Hong Kong. They were selected for the study because they were the obvious places to which citizens experiencing personal and family crises might turn.

    The study plan was, firstly, to report on the process of phase specific crisis intervention, which is presented in chapters 4, 6, 7, 8, 9, and secondly, to evaluate...

  11. Chapter 6 Crisis Cases
    (pp. 65-74)

    While factual and statistical data provide the necessary information in reporting on the Hong Kong crisis study, case reports enable the reader to appreciate more meaningfully the human exchange between the person-in-crisis and the social worker. From case reports one can get a sensitive awareness of the conditions and moods of the client and the problems which are troubling him. More important is that the case report reflects the unfolding relationship between the client and the worker, and through this it is possible to identify the interventive activities of the worker and the responses of the client in resolving the...

  12. Chapter 7 Grief Work in Situations of Loss
    (pp. 75-84)

    Within weeks of the beginning of our study, from the variety of crises we were collecting we came to realize that the general guideline in phase specific crisis intervention needed further differentiation. A more specific crisis counselling approach, appropriate within defined categories of crisis which shared some common elements, was required. A pattern was emerging which indicated that crises experienced by people as loss called forth similar emotions, required similar sorts of responses and demanded similar task accomplishments towards recovery and reorganization. Patterns of what would be required in coping with threat and challenge were also emerging.

    We therefore evolved...

  13. Chapter 8 Worry Work in Threat Situations
    (pp. 85-98)

    A person may start to worry as soon as he feels threatened by warning signals of imminent dangers. He may also worry after the occurrence of a significant event, decision or misfortune which presents the possibility of failure, loss, injury, pain or punishment. In either case the intention of worrying is to prevent, deflect or reduce the risk and to prepare oneself for any contingency which may arise as far as possible. In a threat situation a person experiences a heightened sense of anxiety from the uncertainties confronting him, that is, uncertainties whether feared dangers may materialize and uncertainties regarding...

  14. Chapter 9 Challenge Work
    (pp. 99-108)

    A situation poses a challenge when a person has to make transitions in life which require him to take on different roles, responsibilities and relationships and accompanying these, a different set of values, attitudes, expectations and goals. The transitions undertaken can be from choice, as in marriage or in promotion at work. These are the progressive transitions in life. Or, they can be forced by circumstances, as in disabi1ity and migration. These are the forced transitions in life. In either case, people taking on a challenge experiencė novel demands with varying degree of risks.

    While crisis work in threat situations...

  15. Chapter 10 Interventions and Implications
    (pp. 109-122)

    We have described how two approaches, Phase Specific Crisis Intervention and the Casework Practice Approach, have been utilized as interventive means in crisis situations. The Hong Kong experience in crisis work seems to indicate one as more effective than the other. This calls for an examination of the characteristics which differentiate the two that may have contributed to the differences in outcome.

    Many factors have been identified in various studies as contributing to effectiveness in intervention. Straker (1968) in reorganizing the work of a psychiatric out-patient clinic in a university hospital from reconstructive to brief psychotherapy found the lowest drop...

  16. Appendix 1 Schedule for Measuring Correlation between Dangers and Opportunities
    (pp. 123-124)
  17. Appendix 2 Schedules for Measuring the Results of Crisis Intervention
    (pp. 125-129)
  18. Appendix 3 A Review of Relevant Studies on Intervention
    (pp. 130-134)
  19. Bibliography
    (pp. 135-140)
  20. Subject Index
    (pp. 141-144)
  21. Authors Index
    (pp. 145-146)