Cyber-Crime: The Challenge in Asia

Roderic Broadhurst
Peter Grabosky
Copyright Date: 2005
Pages: 460
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  • Book Info
    Book Description:

    This collection is innovative and original. It introduces new knowledge and is very timely because of the current high profile of the international public discourse over security, the internet and its impact upon the growth of the information economy. The book will be very useful to a wide range of readers because it will both inform and provide the basis for instruction. This book significantly advances the scholarly literature available on the global problem of cyber-crime. It also makes a unique contribution to the literature in this area. Much of what has been written focuses on cyber-crime in the United States and in Europe. This much-needed volume focuses on how cyber-crime is being dealt with in Asian countries. It explains how law enforcement is responding to the complex issues cyber-crime raises and analyzes the difficult policy issues this new type of transnational crime generates. This book is an invaluable addition to the library of anyone who is concerned about online crime, computer security or the emerging culture of the Internet.

    eISBN: 978-988-220-097-5
    Subjects: Sociology

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-iv)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. v-vii)
  3. Lists of Tables and Figures
    (pp. viii-x)
  4. Foreword
    (pp. xi-xii)
    Justice K Bokhary

    For two principal reasons, this very useful book is highly representative of the valuable work done by the University of Hong Kong’s Centre for Criminology. So much so that the book is almost emblematic of the centre. First, the subject-matter of the book, cyber-crime, is one to which the centre has devoted much attention as one of the great problems of today Secondly, the book, like the centre itself, draws on and co-ordinates the learning and experience of persons from academia, industry and law enforcement throughout Asia and the Pacific Rim.

    As a matter of form, this book can be...

  5. Acknowledgements
    (pp. xiii-xiv)
    Roderic Broadhurst and Peter Grabosky
  6. Contributors
    (pp. xv-xxii)
  7. Abbreviations
    (pp. xxiii-xxvi)
  8. 1 Computer-Related Crime in Asia: Emergent Issues
    (pp. 1-28)
    Roderic Broadhurst and Peter Grabosky

    The rapid development of computer connectivity and the role of the Internet in the emergence of new e-commerce markets have increasingly attracted the attention of national governments and international agencies. Hyperbole aside, the astonishing reach of these tools has changed the way a large part of the world communicates and does business. It may be too early to evaluate claims that this medium ushers in an irresistible phase of a global ‘information revolution’ and, with it, a ‘new economy’. However, we can be certain that with the erosion of traditional barriers to communication, our concepts of time and place have...

  9. 2 The Global Cyber-Crime Problem: The Socio-Economic Impact
    (pp. 29-56)
    Peter Grabosky

    This chapter discusses current and emerging forms of computer-related illegality. It reviews 11 generic forms of illegality involving information systems as instruments or as targets of crime, and discusses in general terms the costs imposed by computer-related crime, and attempts to control it within and across nations.

    It will suggest that much computer-related illegality lies beyond the capacity of contemporary law enforcement and regulatory agencies alone to control, and that security in cyberspace will depend on the efforts of a wide range of institutions, as well as on a degree of self-help by potential victims of cyber-crime. The ideal configuration...

  10. 3 Cyberspace Governance and Internet Regulation in China
    (pp. 57-78)
    Kam C Wong and Georgiana Wong

    Computer-mediated communication (CMC) in the new information age has brought people closer together in a virtual world, transcending geographical distance, time zones, social gaps and cultural barriers. The introduction of CMC, however, raises new concerns about criminality as it accentuates aspects of traditional criminality. Computers and the Internet facilitate traditional criminality as they bring about new deviance. As currently used, the term ‘computer crime’¹ generally refers to three kinds of criminal activity involving the computer: crimes committed with computers, attacks on networks or computer systems, and crimes where information technology is incidental to the offence.

    The study of cyberspace governance...

  11. 4 Cyber-Crime and E-Business in China: A Risk Perception Perspective
    (pp. 79-88)
    Ivan S K Chiu

    With the rise of the information and network society, computers have become a vitally important tool in every aspect of society throughout the world. The influence of computers in our lives ranges from simple tasks such as creating documents and graphics and printing reports to complicated functions such as transferring money and equipment control information.¹ In countries all over the world, more and more computers are being used, and China is no exception.²

    The Internet, in turn, has come to assume an important role in computing. Its influence is so widespread that it is an almost indispensable part of daily...

  12. 5 Governance in the Digital Age: Policing the Internet in Hong Kong
    (pp. 89-108)
    Laurie Yiu Chung Lau

    The early predictions of anarchy on the Internet have not come to pass, at least not in Hong Kong or in many other parts of the world. In Western countries such as the United Kingdom, the discourse over policing the Internet has shifted from legal regulation to the broader issues of governance and victimisation. In Hong Kong, however, much of the discourse concerning the Internet still focuses on issues of law enforcement and the investigation of crimes, what Wall (2001a) has called ‘the maintenance of order’. This chapter explores the roles of public and privately funded bodies involved in ‘policing’...

  13. 6 Third Party ‘Responsibilisation’ Through Telecoms Policing
    (pp. 109-124)
    Keiji Uchimura

    Cyberspace is not only the scene of cyber-crime but also a vehicle for ‘traditional’ crime.¹ The capabilities of ‘telecoms policing’, typified by interception and data seizure, have become increasingly vulnerable with the advance of technology and the expansion of telecommunication services. The international roaming function of prepaid mobile telephones, for example, offers ordinary criminals a better tool than fixed landlines. The threat of the ‘anonymous remailer’ (discussed later) to crime control is aggravated by the existence by the cross-jurisdictional nature of some crime. Technologies and telecommunication services are no longer mainly defined domestically in the global age. Rather, the technical...

  14. 7 Cyber-Security: Country Report on Singapore, 2003
    (pp. 125-140)
    Clement Leong and Chan Keen Wai

    The boons and banes of cyberspace are well documented.¹ Singapore, like many modern societies, faces many challenges while manoeuvring to obtain optimal utility from the advent of cyberspace. Issues related to the security of cyberspace are multifaceted and novel, and resolving them requires much interaction and cooperation between organisations, both domestically and internationally.

    Singapore, being a small nation with limited resources, has particular constraints that may not be of concern elsewhere. Human resources are deemed precious and the resolve to groom each individual’s talent to its fullest has proved to be pivotal to the way of life that Singaporeans now...

  15. 8 Cyber-Crime in the 21st Century: Windows on Australian Law
    (pp. 141-168)
    Simon Bronitt and Miriam Gani

    In the Second Reading speech of the Cyber-crime Bill 2001 (Cth), the Federal Attorney-General claimed that the legislation ‘aims to place Australia at the forefront of international efforts to address the issue of cyber-crime’.¹ In the wake of the terrorist attacks in the United States on 11 September 2001, the Bill has been represented as a measure to combat the growing threat of cyber-terrorism.² In truth, the legislation was the product of a national law reform process commenced a decade earlier, and which has produced a Model Criminal Code. The code, drafted by an inter-governmental committee called the Model Criminal...

  16. 9 Cyber-Crime: Current Status and Countermeasures in Japan
    (pp. 169-182)
    Massao Tatsuzaki

    The development of the information and telecommunications industries is affecting the growth of many aspects of Japan’s society and economy. It is driving research and development, as well as new business strategies and is increasing employment in information and telecommunications-related businesses. Conversely, developments in the industries have been accompanied by an increase in cyber-crime. Both government and private sectors understand that enhancing information security is essential, and police departments have been devising measures against cyber-crime.

    This chapter outlines the situation on the IT revolution and cyber-crime in Japan, it introduces information security measures taken by the Japanese government and police,...

  17. 10 Cyber-Crime in India: The Legal Approach
    (pp. 183-196)
    Pavan Duggal

    India is a land of ancient heritage, a country that signifies unity and diversity. It has been declared a ‘sovereign, socialist, secular, democratic, republic’ by the Preamble to the Constitution of India. India achieved independence from the British on 15 August 1947 and thereafter, through a series of consecutive Five Year Plans, aimed to progress in economic development with a focus in specific areas. More recently the Indian economy began to operate in the context of a more open and market-driven approach, stimulated in part by developments in information technology.

    The state-owned Videsh Sanchar Nigam Ltd first introduced the Internet...

  18. 11 Computer Crimes: What Everyone Should Know About Them
    (pp. 197-206)
    K H Pun, Venus L S Cheung, Lucas C K Hui, K P Chow, W W Tsang, H W Chan and C F Chong

    With advances in computer and network technology, especially the Internet, and an increase in electronic commerce, society has become more aware of the dangers of white-collar crimes committed via computers and networks. Computer scientists have deployed various security technologies to protect computer systems from being hacked into or used for illegal purposes, or to guard against information being stolen (Stallings 2000). But to date, most security technologies have focused only on the protection of computer resources from hacking or from other forms of misuse, and have ignored the issue of evidence collection. In this chapter, we briefly introduce what hacking...

  19. 12 Cyber-Crime Legislation in the Asia-Pacific Region
    (pp. 207-242)
    Gregor Urbas

    Increasingly, ‘cyber-crime’ is becoming recognised as a serious problem requiring the attention of governments, law enforcement agencies and the justice systems of countries in the Asia-Pacific region. Jurisdictions that already have highly developed computing and digital communications infrastructures have, over the last decade or so, been forced to confront the expansion of criminality into the cyberworld and to evaluate the adequacy of existing legal systems to deal with this phenomenon. Other countries developing their information technology systems from a less advanced base are similarly forced to evaluate the adequacy of their legal systems to ensure the transnational investment and cooperation...

  20. 13 Law Enforcement in Cyberspace: The Hong Kong Approach
    (pp. 243-268)
    Michael Jackson

    On 1 April 2003, at the height of the SARS crisis in Hong Kong, a 14-year-old Form III schoolboy prepared a bogus news report stating that Hong Kong had been declared an infected port, that its stock market index (the Hang Seng Index) had collapsed, and that the Chief Executive, Tung Chee-hwa, had resigned. He placed this ‘news report’ on his website and, significantly, added the logo of a popular Chinese-language Hong Kong newspaper, copied from the latter’s website. Whatever his intent — note the date was 1 April — this ‘news report’ was picked up and distributed widely in...

  21. 14 International Cooperation in Combating Cyber-Crime in Asia: Existing Mechanisms and New Approaches
    (pp. 269-302)
    Jeffrey G Bullwinkel

    The explosive growth in information technology during the last decade has precipitated unprecedented economic and social changes. Our virtually unlimited electronic access to information and telecommunication services has profoundly and irrevocably changed the way we live and the way we think. So too have technological advances dramatically altered the manner in which criminals carry out their activities. Information technologies not only have created an additional platform for launching traditional crimes but also have paved the way for new and pernicious forms of criminality, including cyberterrorism — a threat made all the more real by the tragic events of 11 September...

  22. 15 The Council of Europe Convention on Cyber-Crime: A Response to the Challenge of the New Age
    (pp. 303-326)
    Peter Csonka

    The Council of Europe’s Convention on Cyber-crime is a collective response by members of the Council of Europe (45 states) and some non-member states to the challenge of cyber-crime. It is the result of four years of intensive work by an expert committee set up in 1997, the Committee of Experts on Crime in Cyberspace (Committee ‘PC-CY’), which was entrusted by the Committee of Ministers to follow up on previous Council of Europe (COE) recommendation policy documents without a binding nature — on computer crime and criminal procedure problems linked to information technology. The committee was particularly tasked to prepare...

  23. 16 Human Security and Cyber-Security: Operationalising a Policy Framework
    (pp. 327-346)
    Julie Shannon and Nick Thomas

    The Internet is now truly a worldwide web. In almost every country, evidence of Internet penetration can be found. In mid-1981, there were just 231 Internet hosts, mostly located within the United States and Europe with a high proportion tied to government or academic institutions. By mid-2002, the number of hosts had exceeded 162 million, and could be found in every country.³ Similarly in 1993, there were just 50 websites, again primarily in the United States. By 2000, over 350 million sites were registered.⁴ This increase is particularly significant for the Asia-Pacific region: by 2004, nearly 236 million people in...

  24. 17 The Future of Cyber-Crime in Asia
    (pp. 347-360)
    Peter Grabosky and Roderic Broadhurst

    Asia is an interesting and important region, indeed a crucial region, in which to observe the trajectory of digital technology and the criminal risks that accompany it. In some places, such as Singapore and Hong Kong, levels of connectivity are among the highest in the world. In the People’s Republic of China, the rate of uptake of digital technology has been nothing short of stunning, as the Wong and Wong chapter in this volume illustrates. Information technology industries in places like Japan, Korea and Taiwan are world leaders; Malaysia and Thailand are committed to joining their ranks.

    At the same...

  25. Notes
    (pp. 361-402)
  26. References
    (pp. 403-418)
  27. Index
    (pp. 419-434)