Cosmopolitanism in the Age of Globalization

Cosmopolitanism in the Age of Globalization: Citizens without States

Lee Trepanier
Khalil M. Habib
Copyright Date: 2011
Pages: 376
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  • Book Info
    Cosmopolitanism in the Age of Globalization
    Book Description:

    Thanks to advances in international communication and travel, it has never been easier to connect with the rest of the world. As philosophers debate the consequences of globalization, cosmopolitanism promises to create a stronger global community. Cosmopolitanism in the Age of Globalization examines this philosophy from numerous perspectives to offer a comprehensive evaluation of its theory and practice. Bringing together the works of political scientists, philosophers, historians, and economists, the work applies an interdisciplinary approach to the study of cosmopolitanism that illuminates its long and varied history. This diverse framework provides a thoughtful analysis of the claims of cosmopolitanism and introduces many overlooked theorists and ideas. This volume is a timely addition to sociopolitical theory, exploring the philosophical consequences of cosmopolitanism in today's global interactions.

    eISBN: 978-0-8131-3466-6
    Subjects: Political Science

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-iv)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. v-vi)
  3. Introduction
    (pp. 1-10)
    Lee Trepanier and Khalil M. Habib

    Since the end of the cold war and the advent of globalization, interest in cosmopolitanism, with its ideas of global justice and citizenship and the like, has been on the rise. Although cosmopolitanism is not new, it is easy to see why it has gripped the post-cold-war imagination. Cosmopolitan is a term often used to describe a citizen of the world: an enlightened individual who believes he or she belongs to a common humanity or world order rather than to a set of particular customs or traditions. Cosmopolitans consequently believe that peace among nation-states is possible only if they transcend...

  4. Part 1. Classical Cosmopolitanism
    • Socratic Self-Examination: Cosmopolitanism, Imperialism, or Citizenship?
      (pp. 13-39)
      Mary P. Nichols

      In contrast to traditional readings of classical political thought that focus on virtuous political communities and inegalitarian social orders, recent scholars have found in ancient thought philosophic resources for more open societies, liberal polities, democratic self-government, and even global perspectives. In a recent review essay, Patrick Deneen identifies a new democratic school of Platonic interpretation that holds that Plato “favored the open more dialogic possibilities of democracy” over any “closed systemization of either philosophy or politics.”¹ Socrates, the ceaseless questioner or skeptic, takes a central place in this view. J. Peter Euben, for example, argues that Socrates appropriates for his...

    • Roman Cosmopolitanism: The Stoics and Cicero
      (pp. 40-69)
      Thomas L. Pangle

      The Roman Platonist Marcus Tullius Cicero (106–43 B.C.), the last great republican statesman of antiquity, has left us in his philosophical writings the fullest doctrinal elaboration of Socratic political theory in its implications for international affairs. Through his modification of Stoicism, Cicero erected the basic conceptual framework of the “law of nations,” within which, or against which, all subsequent international law and normative international relations theory has defined itself.

      By Cicero’s time, the need for a universal natural theology and an international code of political and military ethics had become pressing. The Roman conquest had largely extinguished independent civic...

    • Aquinas’s Mediated Cosmopolitanism and the Impasse of Ancient Political Philosophy
      (pp. 70-96)
      John von Heyking

      While Saint Thomas Aquinas roots his political thinking in the natural law whose community is cosmopolis, with God as its ruler, he provides the basis for affirming the justice of, and citizen attachment to, particular regimes. All human relationships, with one another and with God, are mediated through a dense network of civic, social, and ecclesial ties. Aquinas would agree with the slogan that we should “think global, act local,” though he would further qualify this that in thinking globally we are also thinking locally.

      Aquinas’s cosmopolitanism arises out of an impasse he saw in Aristotle’s reflections on the best...

    • Ibn Tufayl’s Critique of Cosmopolitanism in Hayy Ibn Yaqzan
      (pp. 97-116)
      Khalil M. Habib

      Since the end of the cold war and the rise of globalization, many have begun to look hopefully to a cosmopolitan era governed by universal tolerance that transcends local ethnic or national boundaries. Ibn Tufayl, speaking to us from nine centuries ago, explores the possibility of cosmopolitanism and offers a thoughtful response to its hopes in his bookHayy Ibn Yaqzan.Although Ibn Tufayl’s work has been unjustly neglected in our times,¹ the importance and necessity of the study of this work is more evident today than it has been for many decades. While Ibn Tufayl is engaged in a...

  5. Part 2. Modern and Contemporary Cosmopolitanism
    • Kant’s Teaching of Historical Progress and Its Cosmopolitan Goal
      (pp. 119-138)
      Mary P. Nichols

      Immanuel Kant provides a philosophical justification for cosmopolitanism in education and for internationalism in foreign policy. Like today’s internationalists, Kant asks teachers to promote universal perspectives in their students, educating them in “love toward others” and “feelings of cosmopolitanism.” Children should be made acquainted with their interest in “the progress of the world,” Kant concludes his workOn Education,“so that it may give warmth to their hearts.” And so they will “learn to rejoice at the world’s progress, although it may not be to [their own] advantage or that of their country.”¹ So too does Kant’s political teaching provide...

    • Infinite Personality and Finite Custom: Hegel, Socrates’ Daimon, and the Modern State
      (pp. 139-160)
      Richard Velkley

      Recent scholarship on Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel’s political philosophy has stressed its place in the modern tradition of reflection on autonomy and rights, thus rejecting negative assessments of Hegel as an authoritarian, post-Napoleonic “Prussian” opponent of liberalism (Karl Popper and others) as well as revising sympathetic readings of him as a “communitarian” critic of “atomistic” individualism (Charles Taylor and others). A group of eminent writers (one that includes Paul Franco, Frederick Neuhouser, Terry Pinkard, Robert Pippin, Steven B. Smith, and Allen Wood) argues that Hegel, deeply indebted to Rousseau and Kant as turning away from early modern “negative freedom,” rethinks...

    • An Introduction to Martin Heidegger: “Radical-Committed” Anticosmopolitanism
      (pp. 161-183)
      Michael Palmer

      The death of Martin Heidegger was front-page news in theNew York Timeson May 27, 1976: “Martin Heidegger, a Philosopher Who Affected Many Fields, Dies.” An obituary of some two and a half thousand words followed. I note this not because theNew York Timeswas the most noteworthy place where Heidegger’s death was remarked, and his life’s work remarked upon, but because these two and a half thousand words were probably the first that the overwhelming majority of the readership of theTimeshad ever read about Heidegger; fewer still, no doubt, had ever read many words by...

    • Alexandre Kojève: Cosmopolitanism at the End of History
      (pp. 184-210)
      Gaelan Murphy

      The tension between the aspirations of rational cosmopolitanism and the inability to make that abstraction fit with concrete life on the ground is at the core of the German Idealist understanding of politics. Kant’s conception of politics substitutes the authority of the rational justice of theRechtstaatfor the mediated self-interest of the contractual State. The result is a constitutional State in which the autonomous human being could live according to the rational a priori morality of the categorical imperative. Kantian freedom is the freedom to obey the law out of respect for its reasonableness. If we are autonomous but...

    • The Postmodern Condition of Cosmopolitanism
      (pp. 211-228)
      Lee Trepanier

      The advent of globalization has prompted both democratic and cosmopolitan theorists to reconceptualize democracy, citizenship, and political community, as “the ideals of citizenship clash with the sovereign nation-state in which they were first developed.”¹ No longer able to meet the pressures of globalization, notions like democracy must be transformed in order to continue to be relevant in this globalized age. Challenged by cosmopolitan thinkers, democratic theorists have been forced to reconceive what constitutes democracy and citizenship as the national community loses importance. However, cosmopolitan theorists also have a set of their own problems with globalization. They have yet to explain...

  6. Part 3. Cosmopolitanism in the United States
    • Madison and Republican Cosmopolitanism
      (pp. 231-248)
      Luigi Bradizza

      Measured by diplomatic, cultural, military, economic, and political influence, America stands alone in the history of the world. Domestically, its people are generally wealthy and free. American nationality and sovereignty have helped Americans to define and defend an understanding of the common good that has contributed to these blessings. One might therefore imagine that there would be a consensus, at least among Americans, that American nationality and sovereignty are very good and desirable. But in fact, scholars question the extent to which Americans should see themselves as citizens of a sovereign nation. These scholars range from more moderate to more...

    • Lincoln’s Reflective Patriotism: An Alternative to Nationalism and Cosmopolitanism
      (pp. 249-276)
      Joseph R. Fornieri

      Alexis de Tocqueville memorably described America’s love of country in these unflattering terms: “One cannot imagine a more disagreeable and talkative patriotism. It fatigues even those who honor it.”¹ While critical of an inflated and thoughtless national pride, the French foreign observer nonetheless appreciated the contribution of patriotism to democracy and human flourishing. Public-spiritedness may also constitute a bulwark against the inherent tendency of democratic individuals toward materialism and their like propensity to “withdraw into a narrow and unenlightened selfishness.”² Love of country may elevate civic life by calling people to loftier aspirations beyond their own comfortable self-preservation. Counterpoised to...

    • Tocqueville, Cicero, Augustine, and the Limits of the Polis
      (pp. 277-302)
      L. Joseph Hebert Jr.

      The wordcosmopolitanimplies that the world itself can be regarded as a polis or political community and that it is possible for the human being to live as a citizen (politēs) of the world. For its proponents, this ideal of universal citizenship is associated with enlightenment and sophistication, the liberation of the heart and mind from parochial prejudice and attachments, which liberation is thought to clear the way for a politics of universal benevolence and the brotherhood of man. Yet this ideal is fraught with tension. If cosmopolitanism requires the transcendence of local ways or their rejection as comprehensive...

  7. Part 4. Practical Cosmopolitanism
    • European Dreamin’: Democratic Astigmatism and Its Sources
      (pp. 305-337)
      Paul Seaton

      It is a truism to note that there are multiple cosmopolitanisms. In my view, cosmopolitanism It is a genus containing species of rather different sorts. Cosmopolitanism has marked moral attitudes, political life, philosophical thinking, and religious aspiration for millennia. Perhaps each epoch, though, hosts its distinctive versions. This essay takes aim at a widespread contemporary type, one characteristic of advanced democracy. It looks at this cosmopolitanism’s European incarnation, but America harbors this form of dreamy antipolitical thinking as well. It may be easier to assess critically when looked at from afar.

      While present today, this cosmopolitanism is not simply a...

    • Cosmopolitanism for Thee but Not for Me: Big and Small Countries in the Modern Era of Monetary Nationalism
      (pp. 338-352)
      Brian Domitrovic

      At a monetary conference in 1973 at the Siena, Italy, villa of Robert Mundell, who went on to win the Nobel Prize in economics in 1999, the host welcomed his guests with these words:

      In the Palazzo Publico [of Siena] there are two murals, commissioned . . . in the year 1337, . . . portraying good government (il buon govierno) and bad government (il cattivo govierno). . . .

      They were described very eloquently 100 years later by San Bernardino of Siena. He said: “When I turn to the picture of peace I see merchants buying and selling, I...

  8. List of Contributors
    (pp. 353-356)
  9. Index
    (pp. 357-370)