Cyberspace and National Security

Cyberspace and National Security: Threats, Opportunities, and Power in a Virtual World

Copyright Date: 2012
Pages: 256
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  • Book Info
    Cyberspace and National Security
    Book Description:

    In a very short time, individuals and companies have harnessed cyberspace to create new industries, a vibrant social space, and a new economic sphere that are intertwined with our everyday lives. At the same time, individuals, subnational groups, and governments are using cyberspace to advance interests through malicious activity. Terrorists recruit, train, and target through the Internet, hackers steal data, and intelligence services conduct espionage. Still, the vast majority of cyberspace is civilian space used by individuals, businesses, and governments for legitimate purposes. Cyberspace and National Security brings together scholars, policy analysts, and information technology executives to examine current and future threats to cyberspace. They discuss various approaches to advance and defend national interests, contrast the US approach with European, Russian, and Chinese approaches, and offer new ways and means to defend interests in cyberspace and develop offensive capabilities to compete there. Policymakers and strategists will find this book to be an invaluable resource in their efforts to ensure national security and answer concerns about future cyberwarfare.

    eISBN: 978-1-58901-919-5
    Subjects: Political Science

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-iv)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. v-vi)
  3. List of Illustrations
    (pp. vii-viii)
    (pp. ix-x)
    • CHAPTER 1 An Introduction to National Security and Cyberspace
      (pp. 3-20)
      Derek S. Reveron

      In its short history, individuals and companies have harnessed cyberspace to create new industries, a vibrant social space, and a new economic sphere that are intertwined with our everyday lives. At the same time, individuals, subnational groups, and governments are using cyberspace to advance interests through malicious activity. Terrorist groups recruit, train, and target through the Internet, organized criminal enterprises exploit financial data with profits that exceed drug trafficking, and intelligence services steal secrets.

      Today individuals tend to pose the greatest danger in cyberspace, but nonstate actors, intelligence services, and militaries increasingly penetrate information technology networks for espionage and influence....

    • CHAPTER 2 Speculative Security
      (pp. 21-36)
      Patrick Jagoda

      On may 22, 2010, the Pentagon launched a new core operation: the US Cyber Command (USCYBERCOM). This command is responsible for protecting American military computer networks from a host of digital threats, including “foreign actors, terrorists, criminal groups and individual hackers.”¹ The operation, which achieved full readiness later that year, has announced that it seeks to “direct the operations and defense of specified Department of Defense information networks,” to “conduct full-spectrum military cyberspace operations in order to enable actions in all domains,” and to “ensure US/Allied freedom of action in cyberspace and deny the same to our adversaries.”² Overall, the...

    • CHAPTER 3 Operational Considerations in Cyber Attack and Cyber Exploitation
      (pp. 37-56)
      Herbert Lin

      In the previous chapter, Dr. Jagoda reminds us that much of our thinking and vocabulary to describe cyberspace has its roots in fiction. Yet it is science that governs what is possible. This chapter focuses on the technical and operational dimensions of cyber attack and cyber exploitation. This includes various operational considerations associated with “weaponizing” the basic technologies of cyber attack, and these considerations are relevant both to the attacker, who uses various cyber attack methodologies of one’s own choosing, and to the defender, who must cope with and respond to incoming cyber attacks launched by an attacker. In some...

    • CHAPTER 4 Joining Cybercrime and Cyberterrorism: A Likely Scenario
      (pp. 57-68)
      Steven Bucci

      In the previous chapter, Herb Lin explained the technical dimensions of conducting cyber attacks and cyber exploitation. In this chapter I describe how these tools can be used by cybercriminals and cyberterrorists. As discussed in chapter 1, the world faces a wide array of cyber threats. The majority of these threats are aimed at the Western democracies and advanced economies of other regions. The reason for this is simple–they are ripe targets. These countries are either highly dependent or almost completely dependent on cyber means for nearly every significant societal interaction, or are racing toward that goal. They seek...

    • CHAPTER 5 Inter arma silent leges Redux? The Law of Armed Conflict and Cyber Conflict
      (pp. 71-88)
      David P. Fidler

      For years, experts have predicted that states will become increasingly interested in and adept at using computers and the Internet as weapons of war. Recent developments indicate that countries and their capabilities in cyberspace have entered a more serious dimension concerning competition and conflict in and through cyberspace. The 2010 establishment of US Cyber Command (USCYBERCOM) with the mission to “conduct full-spectrum military cyberspace operations” illustrates the shifts taking place.¹ These changes have stimulated concern about how the law of armed conflict (LOAC) applies to cyber operations.² This chapter explores the relationship between LOAC and the use of cyber technologies...

    • CHAPTER 6 The Emerging Structure of Strategic Cyber Offense, Cyber Defense, and Cyber Deterrence
      (pp. 89-104)
      Richard B. Andres

      At the height of the cold war in june of 1982, an American satellite detected a three-kiloton blast emanating from Siberia. Upon examination, analysts discovered that the explosion was the result of a logic bomb implanted by the United States in the cyber physical control system that governed a Soviet natural gas pipeline. The malware was designed to reset the pump speeds and valve settings in order to increase the pressure in the pipe. The result, according to former air force secretary Thomas Reed, “was the most monumental non-nuclear explosion and fire ever seen from space.”¹

      The 1982 incident represented...

    • CHAPTER 7 A New Framework for Cyber Deterrence
      (pp. 105-120)
      Jeffrey R. Cooper

      Information has always been a key element of national power and influence. Enabled by modern digital technologies, worldwide communications and information networks have fundamentally reshaped patterns of international trade, finance, and global intercourse in general. These patterns affect not only economic relationships but also political and social relationships. Due to interdependencies created by these new patterns, even authoritarian regimes cannot maintain the closed autarchic economies of the past. New actors, many of them entities other than states, now interact in novel ways and play important roles in the international system. As a consequence, with the collapse of the Cold War’s...

    • CHAPTER 8 Cybered Conflict, Cyber Power, and Security Resilience as Strategy
      (pp. 121-136)
      Chris Demchak

      The ubiquity, connectivity, and criticality of cyberspace changes national security balances throughout the globe. Cyber power transcends geography’s natural barriers and can cause harm to others on varying scales while the cyber actors remain safely a long distance away.¹ Among the concepts requiring adjustment for this emergent age are cyber war, cyber power, and the appropriate reach of effective national security strategy. This chapter makes two arguments. First, “cybered conflict” is a better term than “cyberwar” for the kinds of national-level struggles endemic to the interdependent complexity and scale of the world rising up around us.² The term helps frame...

    • CHAPTER 9 Persistent Enemies and Cyberwar: Rivalry Relations in an Age of Information Warfare
      (pp. 139-158)
      Brandon Valeriano and Ryan Maness

      In october 2010 the us cyber command was constituted as an active military four-star command. The 2010 National Intelligence Annual Threat Assessment states that the United States is “severely threatened” by cyber attacks.¹ With the increased importance of wars involving nonstate actors, the increase in the number of internal conflicts, and the scope of globalization, some scholars conclude that war and foreign policy have changed since 9/11.² The belief that war has changed is bolstered by the conjecture that cyberspace is now an important military battlefield. The field of security studies might be considered to be at a crossroads due...

    • CHAPTER 10 Competing Transatlantic Visions of Cybersecurity
      (pp. 159-172)
      James Joyner

      The united states, united kingdom, and continental europe have very different approaches to cybersecurity. The United States and United Kingdom conceive of cyber primarily as a national security problem to be handled by the military—which in turn sees the Internet as a fifth domain of war to be dominated. The remainder of the European Union, by contrast, sees cyber threats mostly as a nuisance for commerce and individual privacy that should be dealt with by civilian authorities in conjunction with private enterprise.

      Further, while the United States can have a single policy, albeit one implemented by many different federal...

    • CHAPTER 11 The Bear Goes Digital: Russia and Its Cyber Capabilities
      (pp. 173-190)
      Nikolas K. Gvosdev

      In spite of its soviet past, contemporary Russia does not have the reputation of being in the vanguard of the most technologically advanced countries in the world. In 2009 President Dmitry Medvedev lamented the fact that Russia was “significantly behind other countries in developing advanced technologies, particularly in the field of supercomputers.”¹ In the area of cyberwarfare, however, Russia is proving to be a trailblazer. Russian “hacktivists” convincingly demonstrated their skill in attacking and disabling the computer and communications infrastructure of Estonia in 2007 in a series of incidents that have been described as the world’s first cyberwar.² The cyber...

    • CHAPTER 12 China in Cyberspace
      (pp. 191-206)
      Nigel Inkster

      As with much else about china, the speed and intensity with which the country has developed Internet usage has taken the world by surprise. The Internet first came to China in 1994 in a project linking some three hundred physicists. By 1998, two years after Internet accessibility became available to the general population, China had just over two million users. By the end of 2010 this number had risen to 420 million, 346 million of whom had broadband connectivity.¹

      With such high Internet penetration, there are an estimated 50 million bloggers and an estimated 800 million microbloggers via cell phones,...

    • CHAPTER 13 Toward a Theory of Cyber Power: Strategic Purpose in Peace and War
      (pp. 207-224)
      John B. Sheldon

      Previous chapters focused on the technical, tactical, and operational aspects of operating in the cyber domain. These are undoubtedly important topics, but this chapter focuses on the strategic purpose of cyber power for the ends of policy. Understanding the strategic purpose for cyber power is important if we are to make informed judgments about its operational and tactical use. This chapter seeks to address a conceptual gap and advance an argument that cyber power does indeed have strategic purpose relevant to achieving policy objectives. This purpose centers on the ability to manipulate the strategic environment through and from cyberspace in...

    • CHAPTER 14 Conclusion
      (pp. 225-230)
      Derek S. Reveron

      In just a few short years, inexpensive computing and easy network access have broadened the scope of national security actors from states to groups and individuals. To appreciate the challenges associated with the new security landscape, this book has addressed various operational considerations associated with “weaponizing” the basic technology available in cyberspace. Further, the chapters place cyberspace in an international security context and have sought to understand national security and cyberspace, which is characterized by three components: the physical (servers, networks, and other hardware), the information (messages that can be coercive and noncoercive), and the cognitive (how audiences perceive the...

    (pp. 231-236)
  9. INDEX
    (pp. 237-246)