Dialogues on Political Parties and Civil Society in Federal Countries

Dialogues on Political Parties and Civil Society in Federal Countries

RUPAK CHATTOPADHYAY
KARL NERENBERG
Copyright Date: 2010
Pages: 60
https://www.jstor.org/stable/j.ctt2tt7xt
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  • Book Info
    Dialogues on Political Parties and Civil Society in Federal Countries
    Book Description:

    Booklet 9 explores the patterns of mutual interaction between political parties and federal institutions in the following twelve federal countries: Australia, Belgium, Canada, Germany, India, Malaysia, Mexico, Nigeria, Spain, South Africa, Switzerland, and the United States. Contributors examine the multi-level structures of electoral competition and the vertical linkages of state-wide party organizations in their country, as well as processes of government formation and the coordination of public policies across territorial levels via party channels.

    eISBN: 978-0-7735-9086-1
    Subjects: Political Science

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-iv)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. v-vi)
  3. Preface
    (pp. vii-2)
  4. Cooperative Mechanisms and Intergovernmental Relations in Federal Regimes
    (pp. 3-8)
    JOHANNE POIRIER and CHERYL SAUNDERS

    Intergovernmental relations (IGR) are a feature of every federal regime. While federations differ in many respects, substantial interaction between orders of government is unavoidable and techniques for managing interdependence are varied and widespread. At the heart of the phenomenon are the many institutions and processes through which federal partners enter into relations with each other. These are the primary subject of this booklet.

    The Global Dialogue theme on Intergovernmental Relations is based around 13 case studies: twelve federations and the emerging quasi federal entity that is the EU. The case studies illustrate the wide variety of objectives pursued by central...

  5. Intergovernmental Relations in Argentina
    (pp. 9-11)
    WALTER F. CARNOTA

    There is an extensive Argentinean literature on intergovernmental relations although in Argentine political and legal circles writers do not often use the term, “intergovernmental relations”. Over the years, a great many Argentine experts – betraying a legalistic approach – have preferred the expression “interjurisdictional relations”. Others have opted to write about a particular type of cooperative federalism, “federalismo de concertación”, which they describe as an ideal, if unrealized, model for intergovernmental relations.

    The term intergovernmental relations has only recently gained widespread currency in Argentina, as federal studies in the country have absorbed the influences of contemporary sociology, economics and political science.

    With...

  6. Intergovernmental Relations in Australia: Increasing Engagement
    (pp. 12-15)
    JOHN PHILLIMORE

    Australian federalism was not designed with intergovernmental relations uppermost in mind. Despite this, Australia has developed a comprehensive set of intergovernmental institutions and policy communities, and fostering cooperative relations between orders of government is high on the political agenda.

    The expectation at “federation” in 1901 was that the two levels of government – the Commonwealth (the national or federal government of Australia) and the six State governments – could operate largely independent of each other. Following the US model, Australia’s Constitution assigned to the Commonwealth government a limited number of (mostly concurrent) responsibilities, with the residual power being left to the States....

  7. Cooperation and Coordination in Austrian Federalism
    (pp. 16-18)
    PETER BUßJĀGER

    One of the main characteristics of Austrian federalism, is the high level of integration between the Institutions of the constituent units, the “Länder”, and the federal government (the Federation), with the latter playing the dominant role. There are a variety of different kinds of relationships between the institutions of the Federation and the Länder and a high level of coordination is indispensable. As a result, “cooperation” and “coordination” are the two main keywords to describe Austrian federalism.

    Beginning with the birth of the Austrian Federal Constitution in the 1920, during the First Republic (1918–1938), there was a strong tendency...

  8. Addressing Social and Regional Inequalities in Brazil: Achievements and Ongoing Challenges
    (pp. 19-21)
    MARTA ARRETCHE

    In Brazil, no policy output can be understood without taking intergovernmental relations into account.

    Subnational governments. particularly local ones, have become the main providers of most services whereas the federal government is in charge of policies related 10 incomes. Primary education, primary health care, enrollment of welfare recipients, housing, urban development, trash collection, and public transportation are increasingly the responsibility of local governments, while state governments provide secondary education and complex health services as well as water and sewage collection. Social security, unemployment compensation, and welfare payments remain in the hands of the federal government.

    It might seem that this...

  9. Canada: Evolution at the Margins of the Constitution
    (pp. 22-25)
    MARC-ANTOINE ADAM, JOSÉE BERGERON and MARIANNE BONNARD

    Founded in 1867, Canada was one of the first modern-era federations. The constitutional division of powers between the federal government and the ten provinces – and by extension Canada’s three territories - follows the classic dualist model in which each order of government has essentially exclusive responsibility over different sectors, covering both legislative and executive functions.

    Following a formula that was established in the first judicial decisions on Canadian federalism, each order of government is sovereign in the domains granted to it by the Constitution. In addition, the federal order of government, like the provincial, is structured according to the British...

  10. EU: Intergovernmental Relations in a Supranational Federation
    (pp. 26-30)
    NICOLAS LEVRAT

    The European Union (EU) could be described as a supranational organi-zation, with features both of an international organization, and. increasingly, of a federal system. This dynamic is important: the EU is in permanent evolution, both in terms of size and institutional regime.

    The EU1 was born in the 1950s with six Member States (which we can consider to be the EU’s constituent units) and with a population of less than 200 million. It then evolved, to nine “constituent units” in 1972, 10 in 1980, 12 in 1986, 15 in 1995, 25 in 2004.

    As of 2007, the EU is made...

  11. Federal Governance in Germany Between Party Politics and Administrative Networks
    (pp. 31-33)
    ROLAND LHOTTA and JULIA VON BLUMENTHAL

    German federalism is usually described as “intrastate federalism” featuring highly developed “executive federalism” with far-reaching cooperating between leves of government.

    The need for intense collaboration between levels of government is fuelled by Germany’s system of power sharing based on a functional distribution of competences. While most legislative powers are bestowed on the national government, the administrative power – including the implementation of federal laws – is concentrated at the subnational level of the Länder (the states).

    The Germain second chamber of the national parliament, the Bundesrat (the “senate” or upper house), plays the role of defending the administrative interests of the Länder...

  12. Intergovernmental Relations in India
    (pp. 34-37)
    M.P SINGH and REKHA SAXENA

    India was the first country in the Afro-Asian world Lo adopt a parliamentary Federal constitution, in 1949-50. Federalization was a product of the combined processes of devolution from the centre to the British Indian provinces, and the integration of five hundred-odd princely Indian states through diplomatic negotiation and military action.

    British colonial rule in India, since at least the mid-nineteenth century, had established a fairly institutionalized process of interaction between the “center” (the national or federal government, first in Calcutta and subsequently in New Delhi), on the one hand, and the Governors and the Chief Commissioner’s provinces on the other....

  13. Nigeria: Intergovernmental Relations in a Highly Centralized Federation
    (pp. 38-40)
    EGHOSA E. OSACHAE

    Nigeria belongs to the genre of federations which began as unitary or quasi-unitary systems, but later disaggregated into an ever-increasing number of constituent units. The country’s complex ethnic and religious diversity was a major factor in this process. From three regions in 1954, when the country first adopted a federal constitution, the number increased to four in 1963. Under military rule, the regions were abrogated and replaced first with 12 states in I967, 19 states in1976, 21 states in 1987, 30 States in 1991 and, finally, 36 states in 1996 (to these should be added the Federal Capital Territory (FCT)...

  14. Intergovernmental Relations in South Africa – Growing Pains of a New System or Multi-level Government at the Crossroads?
    (pp. 41-43)
    DEREK POWELL

    Since the adoption of the Constitution in 1996, intergovernmental relations in South Africa have exhibited three contrasting tendencies: the national government's dominance, strong devolution to local government, and growing use of statutory structures to manage intergovernmental relations. So far the process of intergovernmental relations has helped contain the pressures of a new democracy trying to build a more equal society, However, persistent and extreme poverty anti inequality have led many to question the effectiveness of South Africa’s multi-level government.

    The Constitution established elected national, provincial and local spheres of government, allocated powers and responsibilities to each and set the framework...

  15. Intergovernmental Relations in Spain
    (pp. 44-47)
    MARÍA JESÚS GARCÍA MORALES and XAVIER ARBÓS MARÍN

    Spain has been a politically decentralized State for a little over 30 years. The Constitution of 1978 brought democracy and political decentralization at the same time, after a very centralist State was dismantled. The new Spanish State, commonly referred to as “State of the Autonomies”, comprising a central government and 17 territorial bodies known as Autonomous Communities, constitutes the longest experience in democracy in Spanish history.

    Intergovernmental relations are not accounted for in the Constitution, but they are a decisive element in the political decentralization process. In Spain, cooperation mechanisms have taught something as important as the need to share...

  16. The Latest Developments in Intergovernmental Relations in Switzerland
    (pp. 48-51)
    THOMAS PFISTERER

    The issue of intergovernmental relations is not a question commonly raised in Switzerland. However, it is still a question worth Considering, as it addresses all format and informal aspects of life among the Cantons and with the Confederation. Swiss federal law has long used a “holistic” approach: beyond the specific provisions, the machinery of legal institutions has relied on civic common sense to hold the Confederation together.

    Switzerland and its federation are characterized by:

    diversity (languages, religions, regions, etc.);

    smallness and small territorial entities (26 cantons and more than 2700 communes);

    scarcity of resources;

    the need for cooperation;

    a paucity...

  17. Intergovernmental Relations in the United States of America: Pervasive, Personal and Opportunistic
    (pp. 52-56)
    TROY E. SMITH

    Unlike many new federal unions, the United States of America lacks formal structures or institutions to insure constituent units’ powers and interests are represented and protected in the creation and administration of intergovernmental policies. America’s founders diet not perceive a need for such institutions, as federal and state governments were each given different responsibilities.

    Today, intergovernmental relations pervade America’s federal system. The federal government has involved itself in almost all aspects of domestic policy and, given the United States’ large geographic size and population, the federal government requires constituent units’ assistance to administer national policies.

    While the national legislature, Congress,...

  18. Glossary
    (pp. 57-60)
  19. Contributers
    (pp. 61-62)
  20. Participating Experts
    (pp. 63-70)
  21. Back Matter
    (pp. 71-79)