On Love and Charity

On Love and Charity: Readings from the Commentary on the Sentences of Peter Lombard (Thomas Aquinas in Translation)

ST. THOMAS AQUINAS
Peter A. Kwasniewski
Thomas Bolin
Joseph Bolin
With introduction and notes by Peter A. Kwasniewski
Copyright Date: 2008
Pages: 437
https://www.jstor.org/stable/j.ctt32b1fk
  • Cite this Item
  • Book Info
    On Love and Charity
    Book Description:

    No description available

    eISBN: 978-0-8132-2026-0
    Subjects: Religion

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-v)
  2. NOTICE TO THE READER
    (pp. vi-vi)
  3. Table of Contents
    (pp. vii-xii)
  4. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
    (pp. xiii-xiv)
    Peter A. Kwasniewski
  5. BRIEF INTRODUCTION
    (pp. xv-xxx)

    This volume makes available a translation of a sizable portion of St. Thomas’s first overview of the whole of sacred theology, the Commentary on the Sentences of Peter Lombard (in its Latin title, Scriptum super libros Sententiarum Petri Lombardi or Scriptum super Sententiis, hereafter Scriptum), most of which has never appeared in English before. The translators hope that the availability of the text will encourage the use of the Scriptum in the classroom as a supplement to more commonly read texts from the Summa theologiae.¹ However much St. Thomas improved in pedagogical focus and the articulation of certain concepts, his...

  6. ABBREVIATIONS
    (pp. xxxi-xxxii)
  7. IN I SENTENTIARUM

    • Distinction 1 [in part]
      (pp. 3-6)

      Proceeding to the first. [A variety of arguments can be put forward, concerning both the power and the habit to which the act of enjoying belongs.]

      1. It seems that to enjoy is an act of intellect. For the noblest act belongs to the noblest power. But the highest power in man is intellect. Therefore, since to enjoy is the most perfect of man’s acts, because it places man in his last end, it seems that it is an act of intellect.

      2. Further, as Augustine says, “vision is the whole reward.”c But the reward of all merit consists in...

    • Distinction 17 (Paris version, 1252–1256)
      (pp. 7-57)

      After he [the Master] has determined⁵ about the visible mission of the Holy Spirit, he determines here about his invisible mission.

      And this inquiry is divided into two parts. In the first, he determines the truth, according to his own opinion; in the second, he responds to objections made against it, where he says: “Here the following is sought: if charity is the Holy Spirit, then, since charity may be increased and diminished in man, should it be conceded that the Holy Spirit can be increased or diminished in man?”⁶

      Concerning the first, he does three things. First, he announces...

    • Distinction 17 (Lectura romana, 1265–1266)
      (pp. 58-78)

      “Now let us approach [to the indicated mission of the Holy Spirit, by which he is invisibly sent into the hearts of the faithful].”b Here four things are sought. First, whether a supernatural lightc, ¹²¹ is required in order to love God. Second, given that it is, whether it is created or uncreated. Third, supposing that it is something created, whether it is an accident. Fourth, if it is an accident, whether someone can know for certain that he has it.

      Proceeding to the first, it seems that something supernatural is not necessary in order to love God.

      1. For...

  8. IN II SENTENTIARUM

    • Distinction 3 [in part]
      (pp. 81-86)

      Regarding the third principal issue,d we now inquire about love—namely, whether angels, if they had not been created in grace,¹³⁴ would in that state of innocence have loved God above themselves and more than everything.

      1. And it seems that they would not have done so. For to love God in this way is an act of charity, which cannot exist in one who does not have charity. But angels in that state would not have had charity, since charity does not exist without grace, for it is never unformed by grace. Therefore it seems that they would not...

    • Distinction 38 [in part]
      (pp. 87-96)

      Proceeding to the first, it seems that there is not only a single end of right wills.

      1. For the charity by which we love God is not God, as was shown in Book I.d But the end of right wills is God, and charity too, as is shown in the text of Lombard. [This means right will is directed to both of these as ends.] Therefore, right wills do not tend to a single end.

      2. Further, where there is found gradatione in referring a thing to an end, there is not a single end.f But in the three...

  9. IN III SENTENTIARUM

    • Distinction 23 [in part]
      (pp. 99-116)

      Further, it seems that the theological virtues ought not to be distinguished from both kinds of virtue.

      1. For a power does not need a habit added over and above its nature for those things to which it is naturally determined. But the knowledge of God is naturally implanted in all, as Damascene says,d and similarly the desire of the highest good, as Boethius says in On the Consolation of Philosophy III.e Therefore we do not need any virtues with God as their object, which is said to be a characteristic of theological virtues.

      2. Further, as we [believers] posit...

    • DISTINCTION 27: LOVE AND CHARITY IN THEMSELVES
      (pp. 117-182)

      “Since, however, Christ did not have the virtues of faith and hope but did have the virtue of charity. . .” After the Master has determined about faith and hope, here, in the third place, he determines about charity.

      This consideration is divided into two parts. In the first, he considers the charity by which we love God; in the second, the charity by which God loves us (Distinction 32), where he says: “To the aforesaid should be added that which concerns the love of God by which he loves us.”b

      The former is divided into two parts. In the...

    • DISTINCTION 28: OBJECTS OF CHARITY
      (pp. 183-201)

      “Here it may be sought whether by that commandment [of the love of neighbor we are commanded to love the whole neighbor, that is, soul and body,” etc.]. Here, the Master determines the truth about charity in point of its comparison to the object of love.b

      This consideration is divided into two parts. In the first, he asks what should be loved from charity; in the second, in what order [they should be loved], where he says (Distinction 29): “After the aforesaid, the order of charity [should be treated].”c

      The first is divided into three parts. In the first, he...

    • DISTINCTION 29: THE ORDER OF CHARITY
      (pp. 202-241)

      “After the aforesaid matters, the next topic of treatment is the order of charity, [for the Bride says: ‘The King has brought me into his winecellar, and has made charity well-ordered within me’ (Song 2:4).]” After the Master has determined what is to be loved from charity, here he determines about the order of charity.

      This consideration is divided into two parts. In the first, he determines the order of charity with respect to its objects, so far as the amount of love is concerned (Distinction 29); in the second, he determines the same, so far as the amount of...

    • DISTINCTION 30: LOVE OF ENEMIES; MERIT
      (pp. 242-261)

      “Here, it is customary to inquire which is preferable [and more meritorious, to love one’s friends or to love one’s enemies”]. After the Master has determined the order of charity with respect to diverse objects of love as regards the quantity of love, he here determines this order as regards the efficacy of meriting.

      This consideration is divided into two parts. In the first, he pursues his intention; in the second, he raises a doubt on the basis of what was said, at the words: “The statement that follows moves us more.”

      The former is divided into two parts. In...

    • DISTINCTION 31: CHARITY’S DURATION
      (pp. 262-306)

      “Nor should we omit to discuss the view [of certain ones who assert that charity once had cannot be cut off].” After the Master has determined about charity, here he determines about its duration.

      This consideration is divided into two parts. In the first, he determines about the duration of charity in regard to its essence; in the second, about its duration in regard to its order, showing how it was in Christ and how it will be in the blessed, where he says: “Now, however, it remains to investigate [if Christ, as man, fulfilled the commanded order of love].”...

    • DISTINCTION 32: GOD’S LOVE FOR CREATURES
      (pp. 307-326)

      “To the foregoing discussion, something should be added [concerning the love of God by which he himself loves us].” After the Master has determined about the love of charity by which we love God, here he determines about the love by which God loves us.b

      And this consideration is divided into two parts. In the first, he shows how God loves every creature; in the second, he raises a question about the reprobate whom God does not seem to love, at the place where the text says: “Concerning the reprobate, however, [who are prepared not for life but for death,...

    • Distinction 36 [in part]
      (pp. 327-332)

      It seems that any commandment contains the requirement that it be fulfilled out of charity.c

      1. For just as virtues are connected to each other in charity, so too are all commandments reduced to charity. But the virtues are thus connected to each other in charity because they are formed through charity.d Therefore the commandments, too, are reduced to charity because a charitable way of acting falls within a commandment.e

      2. Further, in Deuteronomy 6:5 it is said: “You shall love the Lord your God with all your heart, and with all your soul, and with all your strength.” And...

  10. IN IV SENTENTIARUM

    • Distinction 49 [in part]
      (pp. 335-388)

      Proceeding to the first, it seems that beatitude consists in goods of the body.

      1. For it is impossible that that which is asserted by most people is totally false, as the Commentator says in the book On the Soul; and the Philosopher says in Ethics VII, “a saying generally expressed among the people never dies completely.”a But the greater number of people are inclined to seek bodily pleasures and bodily goods as their end. Therefore the end of human life consists in bodily goods. But we call the end of human life beatitude. Therefore beatitude is to be sought...

  11. APPENDIX I: SCRIPTUM AND ST PARALLELS ON LOVE AND CHARITY IN GENERAL
    (pp. 389-394)
  12. APPENDIX II: ENGLISH TRANSLATIONS OF THE SCRIPTUM
    (pp. 395-398)
  13. INDEX OF NAMES
    (pp. 399-402)
  14. INDEX OF SCRIPTURAL CITATIONS
    (pp. 403-404)
  15. Back Matter
    (pp. 405-406)