Kos in the Neolithic and Early Bronze Age

Kos in the Neolithic and Early Bronze Age: The Halasarna Finds and the Aegean Settlement Pattern

Mercourios Georgiadis
Volume: 38
Copyright Date: 2012
Published by: INSTAP Academic Press
Pages: 288
https://www.jstor.org/stable/j.ctt3fgw48
  • Cite this Item
  • Book Info
    Kos in the Neolithic and Early Bronze Age
    Book Description:

    This volume is based on material from an intensive and systematic field survey of Halasarna (modern Kardamaina), located on a coastal plain in the southern part of the Dodecanesian island of Kos, and a study of settlement patterns across the Aegean. It provides a new corpus of data on the Neolithic and Early Bronze Age periods, presents a material sequence based on stylistic analysis, and develops a diachronic understanding of settlement dynamics within a wider regional context.

    eISBN: 978-1-62303-114-5
    Subjects: Archaeology, Art & Art History, History

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-vi)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. vii-viii)
  3. List of Tables and Maps
    (pp. ix-x)
  4. List of Figures
    (pp. xi-xiv)
  5. List of Plates
    (pp. xv-xviii)
  6. Acknowledgments
    (pp. xix-xx)
  7. List of Abbreviations
    (pp. xxi-xxii)
  8. 1 Introduction
    (pp. 1-14)

    Research on the eastern Aegean and the Dodecanese in particular is scarce and not always coherent. Studies of the periods before the Late Bronze Age are rare and have afforded rather limited information regarding wider issues in this part of the world. A regional compartmentalization is commonly applied in discussions of Aegean settlement patterns of the Neolithic and Early Bronze Age. These are the main reasons why I decided to undertake the writing of this monograph, which is based partly on survey material and partly on a study of settlement patterns across the Aegean. My goal is not only to...

  9. PART I. THE FINDS FROM THE HALASARNA SURVEY PROJECT, 2003–2006

    • 2 Topography of Neolithic and Early Bronze Age Sites
      (pp. 17-20)

      In this chapter I provide a short description of the topographic characteristics of the Neolithic and EBA sites recovered during the HSP so as to give a clearer picture of their setting in the landscape. This discussion supplements earlier accounts of the prehistoric sites with further details on those that produced the most material. The presentation of the sites will start from the eastern edge of the Halasarna area and move westward (Map 3).¹

      Eleona is located on a low flat hill at the northeastern edge of the Halasarna plain (Map 3, no. 32; Pl. 7A). It is the lowest...

    • 3 Pottery Fabrics
      (pp. 21-34)

      The HSP recovered 2,975 prehistoric sherds from 26 locations across the survey region (Table 3; Maps 2, 3). At most sites, as many sherds as possible were collected in order to reconstruct the extent of their dispersal in space. At Nerantzia and Koukos, however, only diagnostic sherds were collected because of time constraints, and this variation in the collection method should be taken into account in the interpretation of the finds. The largest quantity of sherds was collected at Koutlousi Upper Hill. The total from this site exceeds the numbers of sherds from all other site assemblages and causes some...

    • 4 Pottery Shapes
      (pp. 35-84)

      In this chapter I present a discussion of open and closed vessels, cheese pots, and diagnostic body parts (handles and lugs, bases and feet, and decoration) found in the Halasarna survey assemblage. The description of the shapes is accompanied by a discussion of parallels from elsewhere in the Aegean and Anatolia and their chronological significance.

      Deep and medium bowls with straight walls and straight or slightly flaring rims have been recovered in considerable numbers from the Halasarna survey (Kt.9–Kt.11, Kt.20, Fig. 1). The majority have a simple rounded rim. At least 22 examples can be assigned to this category...

    • 5 The Pottery of Halasarna in Chronological and Regional Perspective
      (pp. 85-94)

      The Halasarna pottery assemblage is important for two main reasons: typology and technique. The typology is comprised of forms that date from the MN late period until EB III, a chronological framework that is only partly represented elsewhere in the Dodecanese. Thus, the Halasarna finds constitute the first body of material covering a period of more than three millennia from a single area. The techniques evinced in this pottery attest to the continuity of local manufacturing practices and the cultural relationships between the Halasarna region and other parts of the Aegean.

      Very few diagnostic sherds can be definitely assigned to...

    • 6 Chipped Stone
      (pp. 95-102)

      Altogether 411 pieces of chipped stone were recovered from 18 sites during the course of the HSP (Map 5). Most were found in association with sherds, but at a few locations, such as K.14.03, K.16.42–51, K.25.22, and K.08.88, a very few pieces of chipped stone were collected on their own. It is interesting to note that in surveys undertaken in Melos and Laconia the sites at which only chipped stone (obsidian) was recovered have been dated to the LN/FN period.¹

      Three varieties of material were used for making chipped stone tools: quartz, with six examples (1.5% of the assemblage;...

    • 7 Ground Stone
      (pp. 103-114)

      More than 40 prehistoric ground stone tools were collected from different sites during the HSP (Map 5). They were recovered at Neranztia (11 examples), its satellite K.10.35 (1), Koutlousi Upper Hill (22), Tsangaris (6, plus one left in situ), Koukos (1), and K.15.51 (1). They are made from different materials, with andesite (11) and marble (11) being the most numerous, followed by sandstone (8), granite (7), limestone (3, including one large grinder left in situ), volcanic rock (1), greenstone (1), and a pebble of unidentified material (1).

      This variety of ground stone raw materials is inconsistent with the more limited...

    • 8 Small Finds
      (pp. 115-118)

      Piece Kt.SF.1 is part of an open clay mold for the production of bronze implements (Fig. 25; Pl. 18). In general, molds tend to be made out of stone, but clay ones were also used, particularly in the northeastern Aegean.¹ In this example only the upper part functioned as a mold, from which at least two different types of object could be made. Its ring base is unique for this rectangular shape. Parallels examples of clay molds and crucibles can be found at the mainland site of Petri at Nemea,² Koropi,³ and Askitario.⁴ Cycladic examples in both stone and clay...

    • 9 The Halasarna Chronology
      (pp. 119-122)

      The character and chronology of the sites discovered by the HSP are most readily interpreted in the case of those that produced the most finds. Here I present first the larger sites, which were evidently settlements of various sizes, and then I consider the smaller sites.

      The earliest occupation at Nerantzia appears to fall within the LN I–FN I period. The FN I is a definite terminus post quem, but a few sherds suggest an earlier date of use. From the FN period onward there are diagnostic sherds representing all subsequent phases until EB II late–EB III. Nerantzia...

    • 10 Catalog of Diagnostic Finds
      (pp. 123-150)

      In this section all finds, i.e., sherds, chipped stone, ground stone, and other finds, are presented by category and site. Catalog numbers are given in bold and are followed in parentheses by the serial number given to them during the survey and references to any figures and plates in this volume in which the items are depicted. The catalog numbers are prefixed by the site abbreviation, and finds other than pottery have an abbreviation preceding their numbers indicating whether they are chipped stone (C.), ground stone (St.), or small finds (SF.). Measurements of each find are given in centimeters. The...

  10. PART II. NEOLITHIC AND EARLY BRONZE AGE SETTLEMENT PATTERNS IN THE AEGEAN ISLANDS

    • 11 Settlement Patterns in the Pre-Neolithic and Neolithic Aegean
      (pp. 153-180)

      In the remaining chapters of this work I will place the prehistoric settlements identified by the HSP within their spatial and temporal Aegean framework. In the present chapter I begin with a short history of archaeological research in the regions adjacent to Kos, after which I consider the evidence and theories that have informed current concepts about pre-Neolithic and Neolithic use of the Aegean islands. Neolithic socioeconomic developments throughout the Aegean islands and mainland areas are discussed and compared with those seen in the Halasarna area. In Chapter 12 I examine EBA survey results, settlement patterns, and issues of island...

    • 12 Early Bronze Age Settlement Patterns
      (pp. 181-204)

      In this chapter I present an overview of the archaeological evidence for EBA settlement patterns in the Aegean using the same regional groupings described in the previous chapter. I begin with a consideration of developments in southern mainland Greece and then move on to Crete, western Anatolia, the Aegean island groups north and west of the Dodecanese, and the Dodecanesian islands other than Kos. Finally, I consider settlement developments on Kos and within the Halasarna survey area, and I conclude with a discussion of the socioeconomic implications of changing settlement patterns throughout the Aegean in the EBA.

      The onset of...

    • 13 Diachronic Developments in the Halasarna Region in Their Broader Aegean Context
      (pp. 205-208)

      As more evidence becomes available, it is clear that hunter-gatherer groups exploited insular environments. The Paleolithic finds from the Ionian islands, the Northern Sporades, Melos, Gavdos, and Crete, along with the Melian obsidian found on the Greek mainland, attest to the use of the Aegean islands in this early period. The evidence for insular occupation, whatever character it may have had, in the Mesolithic period is even more extensive, coming from the Cave of the Cyclops on Youra, Ikaria, Maroulas and other sites on Kythnos, and Crete.

      Early Neolithic and MN sites have also been found occasionally in the Aegean...

  11. References
    (pp. 209-226)
  12. Index
    (pp. 227-238)
  13. Tables
    (pp. None)
  14. Maps
    (pp. None)
  15. Figures
    (pp. None)
  16. Plates
    (pp. None)